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Meningitis is caused by the inflammation of the meninges, the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. There are an estimated 1.2 million cases and 135,000 resulting deaths worldwide caused by bacterial meningitis. Meningitis infection is produced if the bacteria are able to cross the blood-brain barrier. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends screening for bacterial meningitis during the third trimester of pregnancy (at around 35 to 37 weeks). If behavioral changes are not disappearing, it may be helpful for the survivor to talk to a counselor.
The meningococcal vaccine is recommended for college and high school students prior to entering a dorm. If you have been exposed to someone with meningococcal meningitis, your doctor may recommend antibiotics in order to decrease the risk of getting and spreading infection. The site is maintained by students from the University of California, Santa Barbara who have studied advanced topics in human sexuality. Around 2,350 people get bacterial meningitis and associated septicaemia each year in the UK.Around 50% of meningitis cases in the UK are among under 5s, babies and toddlers.
University students are also at a higher risk of meningitis with 15-19 year olds two and a half times more like to carry a meningitis causing bacteria than adults.What causes meningitis?Meningitis is almost always caused by a bacterial or viral infection that began elsewhere in the body, such as in the ears, sinuses or upper respiratory tract. Protection against meningitis B and C is part of routine childhood vaccinations, and protection against meningitis ACWY is offered to teenagers and new university students. If the bacteria have also entered the blood, they can release toxins that damage healthy tissue. If the symptoms of viral meningitis are severe enough to warrant admission to hospital, it will be treated in the same way as bacterial meningitis until a diagnosis has been confirmed.
Most people with viral meningitis will not require hospital treatment and will recover within 14 days without the need for treatment.
If you have fungal meningitis, you will receive anti-fungal drugs to fight the particular type of fungal infection.
Our brain, the spinal cord, and its surrounding structures can become infected by a large spectrum of germs. Organisms may cause bacterial, viral, parasitic, fungal, or prion infections of the central nervous system. Various types of brain infections lead to many different symptoms, which can depend on the age of the person, the type of bacteria, the type of infection, and the acuteness of the disease.
In bacterial infections antibiotics given through a vein, as well as medications for fever and headache, are used in the treatment of brain infections. Copyright © 2012 Rayur, All trademarks are the property of the respective trademark owners. Though only a small number of people exposed actually get ill, any person carrying the bacteria can still be contagious until his or her body develops an immune response (a few days to a few months after infection).
This barrier normally prevents large molecules from entering the cerebrospinal fluid, allowing the brain to continue functioning optimally. Infants younger than one month old are at a higher risk of contracting bacterial meningitis since their immune systems have not fully developed.

An antibiotic is chosen based on the specific type of bacteria that is causing the infection. If any bacteria are found, the woman is given antibiotics to prevent infection of newborns. It is effective for three to five years but does not protect against all strains of the bacteria. Fungal meningitis is a rare form and usually only affects people with weakened immune systems. Less common causes of meningitis include fungal infection, immune system disorders and medications.Bacterial meningitisThe bacterial form of meningitis is an extremely serious illness that requires immediate medical attention.
Neisseria meningitidis, or “meningococcus”, is common in young adults, and Streptococcus pneumoniae or “pneumococcus” is the most common form in adults.
If you are around someone who has bacterial meningitis, seek medical advice to ask if you need to take steps so you don’t become infected. Intravenous antibiotics are used to treat the underlying infection, while life-support equipment and intravenous fluids are used to help support the body as it recovers.
Usually, viral meningitis causes milder symptoms, requires no specific treatment, and goes away completely without complications. In general, people older than 2 years of age with acute bacterial infection develop high fever, severe headache, stiff neck, nausea, vomiting, and discomfort when looking into a bright light, sleepiness, and confusion. Signs of disease in infants may include a bulging of the soft spot on their head or a lack of alertness.  If you think you or your infant has bacterial meningitis, contact your doctor immediately.
About one in five cases of meningococcal septicaemia are fatal, making it more likely to result in death than meningitis. Antibiotics are used for one to three weeks and can help prevent and reduce the spread of infection. If the meningitis is able to damage nerve cells, the person can be left with epilepsy, learning difficulties, problems with coordination or speech, or a change in behavior.
The vaccines are noninfectious, meaning that they can be taken during pregnancy or breastfeeding without harming the infant. Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) was a common form in infants until the Hib vaccine was introduced for infants. In many instances, bacterial meningitis develops when bacteria get into the bloodstream from the sinuses, ears or other part of the upper respiratory tract.
Parasites, fungi, and other organisms can infect the central nervous system, although more rarely. IV fluids and electrolyte replacement are given to those with continuing nausea and vomiting.
However, if the bacteria are able to break through the immune system and travel through the bloodstream, they can infect the brain and create harmful swelling. Due to this, secretions are mainly contagious as large droplets (such as sneezing in someone’s face or French kissing), rather than from simply having a conversation with an infected person. Following immediate hospitalization, the patient will be given oxygen and resuscitation fluids. Meningococcus and pneumococcus account for most of the bacterial meningitis cases in the UK.

The bacteria then travel through the bloodstream to the brain.Viral meningitisViral meningitis is more common than the bacterial form and generally, but not always, less serious. Most people, if treated early enough, will make a partial recovery within 10 to 14 days, though it may be several weeks or months before they recover fully.
Bacterial meningitis is a very serious disease and may result in a learning disability, speech defects, hearing loss, seizures, and loss of extremity function, permanent brain damage, and even death. Severe forms of bacterial meningitis, particularly meningococcal, can cause shock with complete loss of consciousness and coma and bring about a spreading purplish rash. Bacterial meningitis is most commonly spread in close-contact groups, such as those in grade schools, college campuses, military camps, and corrections facilities. The bacteria can also be transferred through stool, so it is important for you and your child to wash your hands regularly to avoid infection. If the patient has septicaemia, these fluids will allow their blood volume to return to a normal level. Therefore, it is important to make sure the patient receives a hearing test within four weeks of treatment. Meningitis is the inflammation of the meninges, the surrounding three-layered membranes of the brain and spinal cord, and the fluid it is bathed in, called cerebrospinal fluid.
Three types of bacteria are the most common causes of meningitis in all age groups except newborn. People with viral meningitis are much less likely to have permanent brain damage after the infection resolves. Meningococcal meningitis is less likely to produce long-term effects than the other types of bacterial meningitis. Most will recover completely.Fungal meningitisFungal meningitis is much less common than the other two infectious forms. Abscess is an accumulation of infectious material and offending microorganisms, and this can occur anywhere within the CNS. An area of the back is injected with an anaesthetic, and a needle is slipped between two bones in the spine to obtain a small sample of spinal fluid. Because the disease can progress very rapidly, treatment will begin immediately, even before the results of the tests are known.What is the treatment for meningitis?The bacterial form of meningitis is especially dangerous and must be treated quickly. Go to the nearest accident and emergency department right away if you suspect you have meningitis. Acupuncture , heat , electrical stimulation channels of energy , body's internal organs, correct imbalances digestion, absorption, and energy production activities, circulation of their energy .
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