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Dog spaying (bitch spaying procedure) - otherwise known as female neutering, dog sterilisation, "fixing", desexing, ovary and uterine ablation, uterus removal or by the medical term: ovariohysterectomy - is the surgical removal of a female dog's ovaries and uterus for the purposes of canine population control, medical health benefit, genetic-disease control and behavioral modification. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.
Yellow vaginal discharge can serve as an indicator of some kind of infection, especially if it is accompanied by itching, swelling, foul odor, and lower abdominal pain.
It is not abnormal to have a small amount of vaginal discharge during the reproductive years. So, vaginal discharge is nothing, but the fluid produced by the cervix, uterus, and the vagina. Bacterial VaginosisIt is a condition in which the bacteria normally present in the vagina are outnumbered by other bacteria that do not normally inhabit the vaginal tract. Pathogenic (disease-causing) bacteria such as Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, bacteria of the genera Mobiluncus, Prevotella, and Bacteroides cause bacterial vaginosis. Yellow discharge from the vagina, which is also foul-smelling, is sometimes described as 'fishy'. VulvovaginitisIt is an inflammation of the vulva (external genitals organs) as well as the vagina.
There are many factors that can cause irritation to the sensitive area of the external genitalia. Itching of the labia (skin folds surrounding the vagina), vagina and skin near the anus is a common symptom. For vulvovaginitis caused due to an infection, antibiotics, antifungal drugs, and other antibacterials are administered orally or topically to treat the infection.
CervicitisIt is an inflammation of the cervix (descending portion of the uterus leading to the vagina). Antibiotics (for bacterial infections), antiviral drugs (for herpes infection) and antimicrobial agents for other infections are employed for dealing with the microbe that has caused the infection in each case. A common protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of this infection, acquired mostly through sexual contact with an infected individual. Intense itching in the external genitals, swelling, redness, a burning sensation, and difficulty while urinating are some of the symptoms of this infection.
Vaginal CandidiasisThis is a very common infection, caused by the fungus, Candida albicans.
Intense itching of the labia (major and minor folds around the opening to the vagina and urethra), the vagina, and surrounding skin occurs.
Antifungal medicines in the form of creams or pessaries are usually enough to treat mild vaginal thrush.
It is important that you do not ignore symptoms that could hint at a serious health problem. Disclaimer: This Buzzle article is for informative purposes only, and should not be used as a replacement for expert medical advice.
Considered to be a basic component of responsiblefemale dog ownership, the spaying of female dogs is a simple and common surgical procedure that is performed by veterinary clinics all over the world.
A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. The normal vaginal discharge is clear or white that helps to drain out the old cells and bacteria from inside the vagina. This discharge is usually clear or whitish in color, but can turn a bit yellowish on drying, which is quite normal. It is well-known that the vagina is colonized, under normal circumstances, by many species of bacteria.
Smoking, douching, having an Intrauterine Device (IUD), and being sexually active are some factors that have a higher correlation with being afflicted by bacterial vaginosis. The discharge may also be gray or white in color, and it increases after sexual intercourse.
There are several reasons why this area may become inflamed, ranging from common infections to chemical irritants in various substances.
Infections caused by various bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses, pinworms, chemicals in perfumed soaps, powders, bubble baths, detergents, fabric softeners, sprays, etc., all cause the body to activate its inflammatory processes, which leads to itching sensation and swelling in the affected area. Swelling and redness are observed, aggravated further by scratching of the area to relieve the itch.
High-risk sexual activities, intercourse at a very early age, having multiple sexual partners, etc., increase the likelihood of contracting this condition. An allergy to a certain chemical in spermicides and condom latex can also inflame the cervix. Replacement of hormones, such as estrogen, to post menopausal women who have cervicitis because of lack of estrogen may be given, but it is risky in the long term.
Consumption of alcohol after taking these drugs provokes intense nausea, vomiting, and stomach upset. A visit to the doctor should not be postponed upon noticing abnormal changes in one's body, because early detection is vital for treatment. This page contains everything you, the pet owner, need to know about dog spaying (female dog desexing). Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. So, if you have noticed yellow smelly discharge, then it could be a sign of infection or inflammation. Among the drugs administered orally, metronidazole is the drug of choice (taken as a single large dose or twice daily) for about a week.
Vulvovaginitis is common in young girls because of inadequate hygiene, or because of chemicals in bath products. If a foreign body (such as a tampon and an intrauterine device) remains too long in the reproductive tract, it might encourage the bacteria to grow. A yellow, green or clumpy foul-smelling vaginal discharge is often a symptom of vulvovaginitis. Foreign bodies (cervical cap, cervical diaphragm, IUD, etc.) are also implicated as one of the causes of this condition. Women suffering from cervicitis may experience pain during sexual intercourse, while urinating, and in the vagina at other times. If all these measures fail to bring relief, laser therapy, cauterization or cryosurgery of the inflamed tissue is done.
People undergoing treatment are advised to avoid sexual activity till completion of the treatment. White vaginal discharge, described as 'crusty', 'clumpy' or like 'cottage cheese', is also present. The other genera whose bacteria are found in the vagina are Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Proteus, Corynebacterium, and several others. Tinidazole (as a single dose) or clindamycin (taken two times a day for a week) are also effective. A burning sensation while urinating and pain in the affected areas is another common symptom of this condition. Adding half a cup of vinegar or about 10 grams of baking soda to your bath, can prove to be quite beneficial. The level of estrogen in the body declines after menopause, and most women's bodies gradually adjust to the change. There may be bleeding after intercourse and a yellow discharge (may also be greenish) with a strong disagreeable odor. Rather, factors such as taking steroids (which weaken the immune system), antibiotics, and other such substances create the necessary conditions in which the fungi grows.
This is the reason why wearing tight clothes and synthetic undergarments often cause candida infections. When disease-causing bacteria increase in number, they cause discomfort, pain, and other manifestations of their presence, all grouped together as bacterial vaginosis. Moreover, metronidazole and clindamycin in the form of intravaginal creams or gels are used, but they are not an alternative to oral treatment. Some women, however, are affected to a greater extent by this estrogen withdrawal, and they develop inflammation of the cervix.
Both the forms of medicines (oral and topical) are taken in combination to treat the condition. If they are killed by a course of antibiotics, fungi can easily grow in such an environment. Although many women feel cleaner if they douche after their period or intercourse, it may worsen vaginal discharge.

The disadvantages of desexing (the cons of dog spaying) - why some people choose not to spay their female dogs.3. Douching removes healthy bacteria lining the vagina that protect against infection.Eat yogurt with live cultures or take Lactobacillus acidophilus tablets when you are on antibiotics. Candida is a yeast (fungus) that causes mild disease, but in immunocompromised individuals it may cause life-threatening illness. Once the egg has left the ovary it can be fertilized and implant itself in the lining of the uterus.
FAQ 5 - My pregnant dog needed a caesarean (C-section) - can she be spayed at the same time?8k. FAQ 8 - My veterinarian offered to perform a pre-anaesthetic blood screening test - is this necessary?8n. Dog birth control method 1 - separate the male dog from the female and prevent her from roaming.10b.
Dog birth control method 3 - "the contraceptive pill" and hormonal female oestrus (heat) suppression.10d.
Dog birth control method 4 - "male pill" - fertility suppressing implants (contraceptives) for male dogs.10e. Canine birth control method 5 - male canine vasectomy.WARNING - IN THE INTERESTS OF PROVIDING YOU WITH COMPLETE AND DETAILED INFORMATION, THIS SITE DOES CONTAIN MEDICAL AND SURGICAL IMAGES THAT MAY DISTURB SENSITIVE READERS.
The picture on the right shows a dog uterus that has been removed by dog spaying surgery - it is labeled to give you a clear illustration of the reproductive structures that are removed during surgery.Basically, the parts of the female reproductive tract that get removed are those which are responsible for egg (ova) production, embryo and fetus development and the secretion of the major female reproductive hormones (oestrogen and progesterone being the main female reproductive hormones). Benefits of spaying (pros of spaying) - reasons for spaying your dog.There are many reasons why veterinarians and pet advocacy groups recommend the desexing ofentire female dogs.
The prevention of unwanted litters:Pet overpopulation and the dumping of unwanted litters of puppies (and kittens) is anall-too-common side effect of irresponsible pet ownership. Every year, thousands of unwanted puppies and older dogs are surrendered to shelters and pounds for rehoming or dumped on the street (street-dumped animals ultimately end up dying from starvation, predation or transmissiblecanine diseases or finding their way into pounds and shelters that may or may not beable to find homes for them).
Many of these animals do not ever get adopted from the pounds and shelters that take them in and those that don't get adopted often end up being euthanased.
This sad waste of healthy life can be reduced by not letting pet dogs breed indiscriminately and the best way of preventing any accidental, unwanted breeding from occurring is through the routine neutering of all non-stud (non-breeder) female dogs (and male dogs too, but this is another page).
To reduce the spread of inferior genetic traits, genetic diseases and congenital deformities:Dog breeding is not merely the production of puppies, it is the transferral of genes and genetic traits from one generation to the next in a breed population. Petowners and breeders should desex female dogs that have conformational, coloring and temperamental traits,which are unfavorable or faulty to the breed as a whole, to reduce the spread of thesedefects further down the generations. Picture: This is a close up image of the vulva of a bitch (?) with hermaphrodism (canine hermaphrodite).
Dog uterus images: These photos show a female dog uterus that has one normal uterine horn (the horn on the left side) and one non-existent, undeveloped uterine horn (the uterus horn on the right side). Because the undeveloped right uterine horn can not produce any puppies, this defect would naturallyresult in a greatly reduced fecundity (fecundity refers to the number of pups born per litter) for this particular bitch, were she to be used as a breeding dog. Any female with such a significant reproductive tractbirth defect should never be chosen as a breeding animal because, should the defective uterine condition be found to be heritable, then the generations succeeding her could be afflicted with a similar genetic tendency towards poor litter sizes (never a desirable trait in a breeding population). Image 2: This is a photographic image of a post-mortem performed on a dog who died from pyometra (infection of the uterus).
The dog's uterus (which looks like an enormous number "3" laying on its side) was massively enlarged and completely full of infection and pus - a classic case of canine pyometra.
The dog died becausebacteria from the infected uterus invaded the dog's blood stream, causing septicaemia and blood poisoning.The condition could have been prevented by desexing surgery.
Image 3: This is a rabbit uterus with two major problems, both of which could have been preventedby early rabbit spaying surgery. A uterine intussusception is a condition whereby one section of a uterine horn telescopes into another section of the uterine horn.
The telescoped uterine horn becomes strangled inside the other section of uterine horn (as seen in this image), causing it to die and rot and become necrotic (decaying tissue). You can see the dead telescoped section of uterus in this image - it is green in color and gangrenous. Some entire bitches develop follicular cysts on their ovaries (also termed polycystic ovaries - ovaries with too many actively-secreting ovarian follicles), which produce excessive amounts of oestrogen, well above the quantities usuallyseen in a normal entire bitch.
Excessive estrogen is termed hyperestrogenism and it can result in a number of estrogen-induced behavioral problemsmanifesting (e.g. The reduction of male dog attraction:When a female dog comes into heat, she releases pheromones and hormones in her urine thatnotify male dogs of her increased fertility. It is, therefore, not uncommonfor the owners of undesexed, in-heat female dogs to have male dogs constantly coming into their yardsat all times of the day and night.This is a problem for many reasons.
Firstly, the wandering dogs willfight amongst themselves, producing a lot of ruckus and injury in the middle of the night. Secondly, the trespassing dogs will fight with the house owner's dogs, resulting in injuries and costly dog fightabscesses and, potentially, the spread of diseases like rabies. The roaming dogs may also predate upon thehouse-owner's other pets, including any small domesticated pets (cats, rabbits, poultry etc.)and livestock. Thirdly, the roaming dogs will void urine and feces in the female-dog owner's yard, which kills the plants and grass and leaves behind a pungent and noxious odor. Sometimes, the male dogs will even venture into the female-dog owner's house (they certainly will if there is a pet flap), where they will steal food and mate with the in-heat female in question. If the female dog does escape the house, she is almost certain to be mated and to fall pregnant. If the female dog is living outside in a backyard,even a seemingly-well-fenced yard, then she is also highly likely to become pregnant (male dogs willclimb and scale great heights and dig under fences and push through heavy gates to access and mate witha female dog on heat). By spaying all of the female dogs in your household, there will be nothing to attractthe male dogs into your yard and, consequently, the problem of trespassing stray dogs willbe solved. A spayed dog potentially costs less to feed than an entire animalof the same weight does and, therefore, neutering your animal may well save you moneyin the long run. Desexing equates to a loss of breeding potential and valuable genetics:There is no denying this. In an era where many unscrupulous breedersand pet owners ("backyard breeders" we call them) will breed any low-quality dog, regardless ofbreed traits and temperament, to make a quick buck, the good genes for breed soundness, breedtraits and good temperament are needed more than ever.
Emotionally immature dogs retain a lot of the playfulness and curiosity of their puppy-hood:cute traits that most dog-loving owners are all too keen to keep hold of. The only time thatthis inappropriate immaturity can become an issue is when the pet in question is meeting other adult dogs.
A fully grown dog with overly-playful puppy qualities pouncing up to another adult dog is likely to be misread by that other dog and bitten. As an elective procedure, dog spaying costs too much:The high cost of veterinary services, including desexing, is another big reason why somepet owners choose not to get their pets desexed.
The dog will "no longer be a woman" without her ovaries and uterus: It sounds silly, but it is a very common reason why many owners refuse to get their female dogs spayed.
Current dog spaying age recommendations.In Australia and throughout much of the world, it has always been recommended that female dogs bespayed at around 5-7 months of age and older. As far as the "older" goes, the closer to the5-7 months of age mark the better - there is less chance of a female dog becoming pregnant or developing a ovarian or uterine disorder or a hormone-mediated medical condition if she is desexed at a younger age.In addition to this, it has always been advised that it is best if a female dog is desexed prior tothe onset of her first season as this will greatly reduce the risks of the animal developingmammary cancer (breast cancer) in the future. The reasoning behind this 5-7 month age specification is mostly one of anaesthetic safety for elective procedures.
When asked by owners why it is that a dog needs to wait until 5-7 months of age to be spayed, most veterinarians will simply say that it is much safer for them to wait until this age before undergoing a general anaesthetic procedure. The theoryis that the liver and kidneys of very young animals are much less mature than those of older animals and therefore less capable of tolerating the effects of anaesthetic drugs and less effective at metabolizing them and breaking themdown and excreting them from the body. Younger animals are therefore expected to haveprolonged recovery times and an increased risk of suffering from severe side effects, in particular liver and kidney damage, as a result of general anaesthesia. Consequently, in order to avoid such problems, many vets will choose not to anesthetize a young puppy until at least 5 months of age for any elective procedure, including dog spaying. The debate:Whether this 5-7 month age specification for general anaesthesia and desexing is valid nowadays (2008 onwards), however,is much less clear and is currently the subject of debate. The reason for the currentdesexing-age debate is that the 5-7 month age specification was determined ages ago, way back in the days when animal anaesthesia was nowhere near as safe as it is now and relied heavily upon drugs that were more cardiovascularly depressant than modern drugs (e.g. Because modern animal anaesthetic drugs are so much safer on young animals than the old drugs used to be, there is increasing push to drop the age of desexing in veterinary practices. If the animal gets lost prior to this age, the unchipped dog may fail to find its way home. As modern pet anesthetics have become a lot safer, with fewer side effects, thedebate about the recommended age of canine spaying has been reopened in the veterinary worldwith some vets now allowing their clients to opt for an early-age spay or neuter, provided theyappreciate that there are greater, albeit minimal, anaesthetic risks to the very young pet when compared to themore mature pet. In these situations, dog owners can now opt to have their male and femalepets desexed as young as 8-9 weeks of age (the vet chooses anaesthetic drugs that are not as cardiovascularly depressant and which do not rely as heavily upon extensive liver and kidney metabolism and excretion).Powerful supporters of the early spay and neuter - in 1993, the AVMA (American Veterinary Medical Association) advised thatit supported the early spay and neuter of young cats and dogs, recommending that puppiesand kittens be spayed or neutered as early as 8-16 weeks of age.

This role in canine population control is why most shelters choose to neuter early.Dogs spayed very early will not attain sexual maturity and will therefore be unable to fall pregnant. Consequently, owners of female dogs will not have to deal with the dilemma of having an 'accidentally' pregnant pet and all of the ethical issues this problem poses (e.g. Likewise, veterinary staff also benefit from not having to perform dog desexing surgery on pregnant animals, a procedure that many staff find very confronting. This again helps to reduce the incidence of irresponsible breeding - dogs sold already desexed cannot reproduce. In particular, breast cancer (mammary cancer)in dogs is almost non-existent in animals that are desexed prior to their first season.From a veterinary anaesthesia and surgery perspective, the duration of dog spaying surgery and anaesthesia is much shorter for a smaller, younger animal than it is for a fully grown, mature animal.
I take about 5-10 minutes to neuter a female puppy of about 9 weeks of age compared to about 15-25 minutes for an older female and even longer if she is large-breed, obese, in-heat or pregnant. More early age dog spays can be performed in a day than mature dog spays and less anaesthetic is used on each individual, thereby saving the practice money per procedure.Routine, across-the-board, early spay and neuter by shelters avoids the need for a sterilization contract to be signed between the shelter and the prospective dog owner. A sterilizationcontract is a legal document signed by people who adopt young, non-desexed puppies and kittens, which declares that they will return to the shelter to have that dog or cat desexed when it has reached the recommended sterilization age of 5-7 months. The problem with these sterilisation contracts is that, very often, people do not obey them (particularlyif the animal seems to be "purebred"); they are rarely enforced by law and, consequently, the adopted animal is often left undesexed and able to breed and the cycle of pet reproduction and dumped litters continues.
Many of these disadvantages were outlined in the previous section (3a)when the reasons for establishing the 5-7 month desexing age were discussed and include: Early age anaesthesia and desexing is never going to be as safe as performing the procedure on an older and more mature dog. Regardless of how safe modern anaestheticshave become, the liver and kidneys of younger animals are considered to be less mature than those of older animals and therefore less capable of toleratingthe effects of anaesthetic drugs and less effective at metabolizing them and breaking themdown and excreting them from the body. Even though it is very uncommon, there will always be the occasional early age animal that suffers from potentially life-threateningside effects, in particular liver and kidney damage, as a result of young age anaesthesia. Thishypothermia predisposition is caused by the young puppy's increased body surface area (larger area for heat to be lost), reduced ability to shiver and reduced bodyfat covering (fat insulates against heat loss). The predisposition towards hypoglycemia is the result of a reduced liver ability to produce glucose from stores of glycogen and body fat, as well as the fact that these stores of fat and glycogen are smaller in the young animal.
A fullygrown dog with overly-playful puppy qualities pouncing up to another adult dog is likely to be misread by that other dog and bitten.Early neutering may result in urinary incontinence later on (but so can later neutering too). Because desexing equates to a loss of breeding potential and valuable genetics, many breeders choose to only desex their dogs after they have had some time to grow (after all, it is not possible to look at a tiny puppy and determine whether or not it will have the right color, conformation and temperament traits to be a breeding and showing dog).
This allows the breeder time to determine whether or not the animal in question will be a valuable stud animal or not. Dog spaying procedure (dog spay operation) - a step by step pictorial guide to dog spaying surgery.As stated in the opening section, dog spaying is the surgical removal of a female dog's internal reproductive organs. During the procedure, each of the female dog's ovaries and uterine horns are removed along with a section of the dog's uterine body. And, to be quite honest, from a general pet owner's perspective, this is probably all of the information that you really need to know about the surgical process of desexing a female dog.
There are many surgical desexing techniques available for use by veterinarians, however, I have chosen to demonstrate the very commonly-used "midline incision approach" of dog spaying. Diagrammatical images are provided to illustrate the process and I have included links to myphotographic step-by-step pages on cat spaying procedure (similar to dog spaying procedure) and pregnant cat spaying procedure. Any food that the animal fails to consume by bedtime should be takenaway to prevent it from snacking throughout the night. Do remember that your vet has the right to refuse to admit your pet for dog spaying surgery if you arrive late.
Her gum color will be assessed, her heart and chest listened to and her temperature taken to ensure that she is fit to operate on.
This pre-surgical examination is especially important if your pet is old (greater than 7-8 years). In addition to the routine health check, your dog will also be examined in order to determine whether or not she is in-heat or pregnant.If she is, the vet will discuss the added costs and risks of the dog spaying procedure with you and you can decide whether you want to continue with the operation or post-pone it. This is a simple blood test that is often performed in-house by your vet in order to assess your dog's basic liver and kidney function. It may help your vet to detect underlying liver or kidney disease that might make it unsafe for your dog to have an anaesthetic procedure.
Old dogs (>8 yrs) in particular should have a pre-anaesthetic blood panel performed (many clinics insist upon it), but cautious owners can elect to have young pets tested too. Things happen (very rarely, but they do) and you need to be aware of this before signing an anaesthetic consent form. Remember that the costs of dog spayingsurgery will increase if your dog is in heat (in season) or pregnant. As with human medicine, it is becoming more and more common these days for pet owners to sue vets for alleged malpractice. Vets today require clients to sign a consent form before any anaesthetic procedure is performed so that owners can not come back to them and say that they were not informed of the risks of anaesthesia, should there be an adverse event. Vets may need to call owners if a spaying complication occurs, if an extra procedure needs to be performed on the pet or if the pet has to stay in overnight.
It is often best if you ring the veterinary clinic before picking your pet up just in case it can not go home at the time expected (e.g.
The sedative calms the dog, makingit slip into anaesthesia more peacefully; the sedative often contains a pain reliefdrug (analgesic), which reduces pain during and after surgery and the sedative action resultsin lower quantities of anaesthetic drug being needed to keep the animal asleep. General anaesthesia is normally achieved by giving the dog an intravenous injection ofan anaesthetic drug, which is then followed up with and maintained using the same injectabledrug or, more commonly, an anaesthetic inhalational gas. The female dog has a tube inserted down its throat during the surgery to help it to breathe better; to stop it from inhaling any saliva or vomitus and to facilitate the administration of any anaesthetic gases. A bitch being prepared for dog spaying surgery would haveher belly scrubbed in a similar fashion. The surgery:In order for you to properly understand the process of dog spaying surgery, I have to take a second to explain the anatomy of the female dog's reproductive organs.
Image: This is a diagram of the reproductive anatomy of a female dog as it appears whenthe abdomen is incised and entered from the abdominal midline. I have not drawn in the canine intestines or bladder (aside from the stump of the bladder neck - bottom), which would normally overlie the animal's reproductive structures when the animal is positioned on its back (thereproductive organs occupy the roof of the abdomen, near the animal's spine and kidneys).Of particular importance, when it comes to canine spay surgery, are the fatty ovarian pedicles (the tubes ofdense fat and connective tissue containing the ovarian arteries and veins) and the uterine body, just ahead of the animal's cervix. These are highly vascular sites that must be tied off securely with sutures (so that they do not bleed) and cut in order for the uterus and ovaries to be removed.In the female dog, unlike the female cat, the ovaries are held down firmly into the abdominal cavity by tight bands of ligamentous tissue, called the right and left suspensory ligaments (these are indicated in the above image). In order for the veterinary surgeon to safely access and tie-off the dog's ovarian pedicles, these suspensory ligaments must firstlybe broken to allow the ovaries to be raised up out of the abdomen and into view. I have drawn this view in order to give you a three-dimensional idea of where the uterus sits in the dog (it is located very high within the abdomen). This is the anatomy that would be encountered if the veterinarian performed a flank spay(a spay technique whereby the veterinarian enters the animal's abdominal cavity via an incision madethrough the muscles of the animal's flank).
These are highly vascular sites that must be tied off securely with sutures (so that they do not bleed) and cut in order for the uterus and ovaries to be removed.In the female dog, unlike the female cat, the ovaries are secured firmly into place within the dorsal (upper) abdominal cavity by tight bands of ligamentous tissue, called the right and left suspensory ligaments (these are indicated in the above image). Breaking theseligaments can be difficult in dogs, particularly big dogs, adding to the risk of ovarian pedicle tearing and hemorrhagein this species (compared to the cat, where such risks are much lower).This risk of hemorrhage is made much greater when in heat or pregnant dogs are spayed (their ovarian pediclevessels are bigger and more fragile) or when very obese, large breed dogs are spayed (their ovarianpedicles are imbedded in thick fat, making them difficult to visualise, even when the suspensory ligaments arebroken correctly).
Photograph 1: This is a picture of a small incision line being made in the skin of a young cat being spayed. You'll notice that the incision line is very small (approx 1 cm long)and that it is being made approximately 1 inch below the animal's umbilical scar on the abdominal midline.In dog spaying surgery, however, the skin incision line is generally a lot longer than in the cat(anywhere from 2-6cm or more, depending on the size of the dog) and it is generally started further forwards on the abdominal midline, right behind the dog's umbilical scar. Image: This is the same diagram that I presented earlier, showing the reproductiveanatomy of the female dog. In this diagram, the sections of the reproductive anatomy that are ligated (tied closed with sutures) and incised (cut through) are indicated with green lines. This tying-off and cutting procedure needs to be performed with great care, otherwise there is the risk of severe internal bleeding occurring or a section of ovary being left behind (ovarian remnant), which could result in the animal returning to heat (showing signs of heat) after it has been 'desexed'. In this diagram, the sections of the reproductive anatomy that are ligated (tied closed with sutures) and incised (cut through) are indicated with orange lines.
This procedure needs to be done with great careotherwise there is the risk of severe internal hemorrhage occurring or a section ofovary being left behind (ovarian remnant), which could result in the animal returning to season(showing signs of heat) even though it has been 'desexed'. Because the linea alba is essentially a tendon-like, collagenous structure (made of collagen), it has less blood supply than red muscle and, therefore, takes longer to heal than muscle would. To take this slower healing into account, the veterinarian often uses a longer-lasting suture (a suturethat is slower to lose its strength and slower to absorb) to close the linea alba.

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