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admin | Prevent Bv | 23.06.2014
This name Staphylococcus is a Greek word staphyle, meaning a€?bunch of grapesa€?, and kokkos, meaning a€?berrya€?, for this is what staph appears like under the microscope, a a€?bunch of grapesa€? or a€?round little berriesa€?.
Staph infections of the skin normally cause localized collections of pus, which are known as boils, abscesses, or furuncles.
Staph infections of the skin can also develop to impetigo which is a crusting of the skin or cellulitis which is inflammation of the connective tissue under the skin. When this bacterium enters the blood system and migrates to other organs, numerous severe infections can develop. Staphylococcal pneumonia primarily affects those individuals with underlying diseases of the lungs and can lead to formations of abscess in the lungs. Staph food poisoning is an illness involving the intestines and causes vomiting, nausea, diarrhea and especially dehydration. Another illness caused by the toxins of Staph aureus is a€?toxic shock syndromea€? where the bacteria develop under conditions which have no or little oxygen. There are approximately 30 different variety of staph which can infect humans, but most of the infections are caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Staph infections can be as minor as a boil to infections which are antibiotic-resistant to infections which are flesh eating. In approximately half of the cases, however, resistance is seen with all antibiotics even the stronger ones.
A staph infection is infectious when the lesion is draining or weeping and if individuals share towels or further personal items that can be contaminated. If a sore develops unusually red or painful, the individual must get medical attention immediately.
This website is for informational purposes only and Is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. If you manage this site and have a question about why the site is not available, please contact us directly. The advent of antibiotics in the late 1920s revolutionized science and medicine was brought into the modern era.
For the first time we were able to fight and win the bacteria that cause various infections, the leading cause of mortality at the time. Antibiotic kill bacterial growth We consider antibiotic is substance that can kill or inhibit bacterial growth.
To be effective and tolerable, the antibiotic needs to be a harmful substance to bacteria, but relatively safe for our cells. The first antibiotic, penicillin, was discovered in 1928 by the English bacteriologist Alexander Fleming.
At present antibiotics are synthetic substances produced in the laboratory, many derivatives of natural substances such as penicillin. Antibiotic resistance One of the biggest problems of modern medicine is the indiscriminate use of antibiotics, which has led to the emergence of bacteria resistant to them. The antibiotic kills bacteria, however it induces the development of resistant strains, doesn't it?
However, sometimes our body cannot completely get rid of these bacteria, allowing them to reproduce and cause a new infection, now composed only of bacteria resistant to the initially chosen antibiotic. Some species of bacteria are likely to create resistance as well as some antibiotics cause resistance more easily. Antibiotics Through previous studies we know in advance the profile of each species of bacteria. The only way to make sure of the sensitivity profile of bacteria is through culture tests, which can be a culture of blood (blood cultures), urine, stool etc.
When the case is serious and cannot wait for 72 hours, strong antibiotics covering a broad spectrum of bacteria are prescribed, and after the results of cultures only the antibiotic most indicated by specific antibiogram is left.
Infective endocarditis, Tonsillitis, Erysipelas, Urinary tract infection, Pneumonia, Meningitis, Tuberculosis, Gonorrhoea, Syphilis, Sinusitis, infection by H. Pregnant women should be very careful with antibiotics, because some classes are associated with malformations.
Many antibiotics are eliminated by kidneys; it may become toxic for patients with renal failure, since their removal becomes affected. AzithromycinThe duration of treatment and the dose depends on two factors: the drug circulation time in blood and resistance profile of bacteria.


Some infections are easily treated with short courses of one antibiotic, such as gonorrhea, chlamydia or cystitis. In milder infections, antibiotic choice is empirical, based on prior knowledge of sensitivity. AmoxicillinPenicillin was the first antibiotic developed and resulted in several other structurally similar ones. It should be noted that despite all mentioned above derivatives belong to penicillin family, the spectrum of action of each is very different, and piperacillin, for example, is used by hospital infections, whereas amoxicillin is generally indicated for infections of the airways.
Cephalosporin appeared soon after penicillin, its mechanism of action and exhibit very similar to the latter. So the penicillin and cephalosporin, although having different spectrum of action, are highly variable, they can also be used against serious infections such as meningitis, and even for simple skin wounds. Quinolone are used to treat many infections, bacteria from the gut, including, diarrhea and urinary infections. Aminoglycoside are antibiotics used in majority of cases during a hospital stay, because they are administered intravenously.
DoxycyclineMacrolide are generally used for respiratory infections, often in combination with penicillin or cephalosporin, acne, or chlamydia, in many cases as a substitute for penicillin allergic patients. Other groups: aztreonam, clindamycin, ethambutol, imipenem, isoniazid, meropenem, metronidazole, nitrofurantoin, pyrazinamide, rifampicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Bacterial infections and their treatment fascinate medical researchers and doctors for the wide range of bacterium that attack or invade humans, and the resistance to the human immune system that they exhibit. Throughout human history bacterial infections have been making individuals sick, and spreading from person to person, yet until recently, bacteria were unknown, and treatment was not available unless we consider ineffective methods such as bloodletting and herbal mixtures placed on the patient that were believed to offer the best chance of recovery for more serious ailments. It wasn’t until 1674 that a dutchman, Antony van Leeuwenhoek wrote to the Royal Society about his discovery describing numerous small animalcules swimming around in the spit of several people whose plaque he had inspected using one of the first microscopes.
The discovery of penicillin in 1928 by Alexander Fleming, and it’s usefulness in the treatment of bacterial infections marked a turning point, and triggered an explosion of research that led to many millions of lives being saved as antibacterials became affordable, and more importantly, proved effective at providing rapid relief and recovery. Antibiotic treatments are categorized using three broad mechanisms, those that inhibit cell wall formation, those that interrupt protein synthesis, and those that inhibit metabolism of the bacteria by preventing DNA synthesis or the permeability of the cell membrane. Treatments for antibiotic infections need to be prescribed by a competent medical professional, who will be able to describe the infection based on professional diagnosis, perhaps backed up with laboratory analysis of blood samples.
Patients should never be tempted to use antibiotic medications without explicit advice from their doctor, it is especially important that older antibiotics that remain from a previous and perhaps different infection are not used because all antibiotics are not created equal. Medical practitioners over the last 50-60 years have been a little too quick to prescribe antibiotics, in many cases the patient would have recovered without their use, and unfortunately the result is increasing resistance to antibiotic treatment for bacterial infections. The commonly observed symptom from paronychia is red, painful, swollen area around the nail mostly at the area of hangnail or at the cuticle. In this paper I will speak of the major classes of antibiotics, briefly explaining why they are used. Antibiotics can be bactericidal when directly destroy bacteria, or bacteriostatic, when they prevent the multiplication of them, facilitating the work of our immune system in infection control.
This does not mean that there can be side effects but, by definition, an antibiotic must be more toxic to invading bacteria than to the body invaded.
Its discovery occurred by accident when his boards of study with the bacteria staphylococcus were accidentally contaminated by a fungus of the genus Penicillium.
When the first antibiotics began to be traded, there was an idea that infectious diseases were in their final days, and it was just a matter of time to be free from any kind of bacterial infection. Antibiotic resistance can be understood through the laws of evolution and natural selection.
It usually takes some courses of taking the same antibiotic, over months or years for resistant bacteria to emerge. Many of the infections that we have are caused by bacteria that live naturally in our body, controlled by our immune system, just waiting for a drop to attack in defense.
For example, we know that the E.coli bacteria that cause urinary tract infection are usually sensitive to antibiotics Bactrim and Ciprofloxacin. For these analyzes you should collect a small amount of fluid or secretion that contain the infecting bacteria and place in an environment conducive to bacterial growth. Viral infections do not improve with antibiotic and therefore should not be treated with the same ones.
Some patients are allergic to certain classes of antibiotics; the most common are penicillin and sulfonamides.


In these cases, it is often necessary to adjust the dose to prevent overuse of antibiotics in the bloodstream. A single infection can be treated for different times depending on the prescribed antibiotic.
For curing others, such as tuberculosis, antibiotics need to be trebled and a treatment of at least 6 months is needed to heal.
In more severe cases or in infections not responding to antibiotics originally prescribed culture of a suitable material should be made to better guide the choice of antibiotic. The main antibiotics of the penicillin derivatives are: amoxicillin, ampicillin, azlocillin, carbenicillin, cloxacillin, mezlocillin, nafcillin, penicillin, piperacillin, ticarcillin. Examples: cefaclor, cefadroxilo, cefazolin, cefixime, cefoperazone, cefotaxime, cefotetan, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, cephalexin, cephalothin, loracarbef. Many billions of dollars are invested in finding new treatments for bacterial infections, yet the battle to save life continues as bacteria evolve. This was the first recorded observation of living bacteria, but sadly treatments remained elusive. Each mechanism is more or less effective against certain types of bacteria, yet all provide an arsenal of techniques for producing bacterial infection treatments.
Women who are pregnant are particularly advised to avoid antibiotic treatments as these could be harmful to the fetus. The common grouping of bacterial infection treatments under the umbrella term antibiotic does not mean that all antibiotics are the same. Medications that were effective 10 years ago, or even last year, may no longer be effective, and could be harmful.
It's no use killing bacteria that cause pneumonia and at the same time killing the cells of the lungs. Fleming noted that around these fungi, there were no bacteria, which led to the discovery of penicillin, an antibacterial substance produced by these beings. However, as the use of new antibiotics became more widespread, resistant strains of bacteria were emerging and multiplying, creating thus a vicious cycle that continues until today. This process is nothing more than natural selection where the fittest survive and pass their genes to their offspring.
If an antibiotic is prescribed 10 days, it is because it is known beforehand that this time is required to kill almost all the bacteria. If the patient takes no antibiotics, for example, to treat virus infections, it will be pre-selecting for the most resistant bacteria, and subsequently there will be a real bacterial infection, caused by resistant bacteria. However, patients with conditions of recurrent urinary tract infection, with multiple courses of antibiotics, they may have E.coli resistant to these antibiotics.
48 to 72 hours later it will be possible to identify exactly which bacteria are present and perform various tests with various antibiotics, trying to find out which are effective and which are ineffective.
Examples: ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, levofloxacin, lomefloxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin. For instance, the injury may be occurred due to picking or biting off the hangnail or from pushing back the cuticle.
Moreover, not all of urinary tract infection is caused by E.coli, there may be bacterial infections with completely different sensitivity profiles.
If the treatment is stopped after 5 days, for example, more resistant bacteria, which need more time to antibiotics, may continue living and multiplying, causing now much more resistant infection. How to know, then, specifically for each case which bacterium is causing the infection and which antibiotic is the most appropriate?
Every culture is taken in its outcome, so the name of the bacterium and a short list of antibiotics, to which they are resistant and sensitive, can be identified, so your doctor can choose the best option. What happens is that if we reduce the number of bacteria to 5% or 10%, the infection goes away because our immune system is able to control what's left.



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