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admin | What Treats Bv | 09.10.2013
An infection is an invasion and multiplying of pathogenic microbes in the body tissues in which they are not usually present (1). Ask a Doctor Online Now!A colonization is the usual presence of non-pathogenic and even potentially pathogenic microbes on the skin, in the nose, mouth, bowel, penile or vaginal mucosa, as a part of normal human flora, in the amount not harmful for the body – this is not an infection. A contamination is the presence of germs which do not multiply, for example, in a contaminated (not infected)wound.
A carrier state is the non-usual presence of pathogenic microbes in the body, in the way not harmful for the carrier, but potentially dangerous for others, since the carrier is usually contagious.
An overgrowth of microbes, non-pathogenic in small amount, but pathogenic in large amount, for example, an overgrowth of Clostridium difficile bacteria in the colon can cause life threatening pseudomembranous colitis.
Re-activation of an infection may occur; for example, a Varicella zoster virus, which has remained dormant in the roots of the spinal nerves after successfully healed chicken pox, may be re-activated during stress or certain disease, and can cause shingles. Bacteremia, viremia, fungemia and parasitemia (the presence of microbes in the blood) may result in an infection of other organs, or sepsis.
Systemic infection, like influenza, affects the whole body and causes systemic symptoms, like general malaise, muscle pains, fever, nausea, etc.
Localized infection, like cellulitis, is limited to one or few body parts and presents with localized symptoms, like redness, swelling, pain or localized (nasal, ear, etc.) discharge.
Chronic infection, like tuberculosis or AIDS, may last from several weeks to several years.
Recurrent infection is one that frequently affects a person, like folliculitis in those who share the same sport equipment, or fungal infections  in those with lowered immunity. Invasion of multi-cellular parasites, like intestinal worms or head lice, into the body is called infestation. Viral infections are often systemic and may cause fever, headache, runny nose, sore throat, muscle and joint pains, diarrhea, skin rash, etc. Fungal (yeast) infections in a person with a healthy immune system usually affect only the skin. In a person with a weak immune system, fungal infections, commonly caused by a yeast Candida albicans, may appear in the mouth (oral thrush), esophagus, rectum or vagina; systemic candidiasis is severe and commonly fatal infection.
Parasitic infections cause different symptoms, depending on the type of parasite and organ affected. Infestation (Latin infestare = to attack, disturb) is an invasion of multi-cellular parasites, like intestinal worms (helminths) or head lice to the body. In medical terms, the incubation period is the time from when a person is exposed to an infectious agent (pathogenic microorganism) till the onset of signs and symptoms.
Fever in localized skin infections or food poisoning may be absent, in tuberculosis or viral pneumonia it is usually low-grade, in influenza moderate, and in bacterial pneumonia or sepsis high.
Pain in childhood viral infections and flu is usually general and vague, and in localized bacterial infections, like bacterial prostatitis, localized and intense. Discharge from the nose, eyes, ears, trachea, bronchi and lungs (phlegm, sputum), nipples, bowel (mucus in the stool), urethra, vagina and wounds may appear in all types of infections.
An incubation period is the time elapsed between exposure to pathogenic microbes and symptoms appearance.
An autoinfection – the spread of an infection from one body part to another, usually by hands or clothes (folliculitis, impetigo). By drinking contaminated water, one can contract stomach flu, cholera, dysentery, typhoid fever, amebiasis, etc. By swimming in contaminated swimming or spa pools, or lakes, one can contract hot tub folliculitis, intestinal parasite Cryptosporidium, eye and middle ear infections.
Industrial cooling or hot water systems, air condition and room-air humidifiers can be a source of Legionella. During walking barefoot, Clostridium tetani, sandworms, or intestinal parasites, like Strongyloides stercoralis or hookworms can be contacted. Infections acquired in hospitals can be dangerous, since causing microbes are often resistant to regular antibiotics, and patients infected are often already seriously ill.
Legionella may be sometimes found in the tap water in newly opened or poorly maintained hospitals.
A fomite is an inanimate object or substance capable of transmitting infectious agents (microorganisms) from one object to another. Ask a Doctor Online Now!Microbes may make harm by releasing toxins, for example, in food poisoning, a parasite Entameba hystolytica can release toxins, which can destroy colonic mucosa, resulting in bleeding ulcers and diarrhea. Invasion of microbes triggers immune response of the body and attracts inflammatory cells, like leukocytes, and substances, like cytokines, which attack the microbes. Effective anti-microbial medications for most infections, except viral ones, are available.
Ask a Doctor Online Now!Please note that any information or feedback on this website is not intended to replace a consultation with a health care professional and will not constitute a medical diagnosis. Amir, the base of infection is an invasion of microorganism into your body what results in inflammation. If you think that any photos appearing on this site infringe on your copyright, please let me know right away.
Pharyngitis, a painful inflammation or a viral infection of the throat is the main cause of sore throat. Viruses that cause viral infections like common cold, coughing, nose blowing, sneezing, swollen glands in the neck (lymph nodes), infection of the tonsils (tonsillitis), and mild fever can be some of the common causes for sore throats virally.
Streptococcus and Arcanobacterium  Haemolyticum are the common bacteria that causes sore throat infections. Gastroesophagea reflux disease (GERD) is caused by the backflow of food and stomach acids into the esophagus, which is a tube that connects the mouth to the stomach. Indoor and outdoor pollution, complications in postnasal drip, yelling, and low humidity can some of the allergic causes of sore throats.
The most common symptom is experiencing pain in the throat and sometimes this pain spreads to the ear. Lump in the neck, suffering with hoarseness for more than two weeks can be said as the symptoms of sore throat.
Heart burns are the symptoms faced by one if sore throat is caused by Gastroesophageal Reflux. Initially, instead of seeking a doctor in primary stages it is better if you keep yourself safe at home.
Eating raw garlic can reduce the itchy and the scratchy irritation that caused due to sore throat. Yes, you made find that trying out pepper would be little difficult because of the spiciness of pepper. As dryness and low humidity is one of the causes for sore throat, using a sore throat at your work place or in your room can reduce the suffering.
Home treatment with antacids and other acid- reducing medicines may decrease the pain caused by mild GERD and sometimes it may even prevent the severe conditions.
As the causes for sore throat may vary from mild to severe it is best if you consult a doctor. If the sore throat is caused by a bacterial infection it is better suggested if you take antibiotics. Pain relievers such as ibuprofen, acetaminophen may help you to relieve from the severe pain. All these medicines are taken only under the advice of doctors and you should not exceed recommended dose.
Following these simple measures and carefully taking the medicines would relieve you from the suffering caused by sore throat infections.


Childhood illnesses: The factsWhile vaccines have made some childhood illnesses rare, many others remain a fact of life.
To provide even greater transparency and choice, we are working on a number of other cookie-related enhancements. All About Health related problems and healthy lifestyle, different types of diseases, its causes, signs, symptoms and treatments. TweetThroat infection is the tenderness in the throat that is very common and affects people of any age group.
Take a cup of milk and add five garlic cloves into it and boil it for 10 minutes and then cool it to drinkable condition and drink it. Take one table spoon of honey and add half tea spoon of ginger juice and mix it and take regularly. Take a glass of water and boil it with one teaspoon of Cinnamon and a pinch of pepper powder. For example, if you have Staphylococcus aureus bacteria (a common cause of skin infections) in your nose, you may infect others, even if you alone never develop an infection. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth due to invasion of otherwise non-harmful colonic bacteria into the small intestine can cause bloating and diarrhea.
Example: infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which can cause infectious mononucleosis, often triggers no symptoms in small children. Examples of bacterial infections: staphylococcal skin infections, pseudomonas folliculitis, streptococcal pharyngitis, osteomyelitis, pneumococcal pneumonia, bacterial meningitis, etc. Patchy areas with a brownish or reddish scaly rash on the scalp (scalp ringworm), trunk, limbs or groin (jock itch), peeled skin on the hands or feet (athlete’s foot), or discolored or cracked nails are typical symptoms of a skin fungal infection.
Intestinal parasites cause bloating, diarrhea, mucus in the stool and eventual weight loss. Not every person who comes into contact with an infectious agent will become infected but once the infection is acquired, the micoorganism will take a period of time during which it multiplies and spreads within the body until the point that signs and symptoms become evident.
There is no single specific symptom but a combination of symptoms and signs that speak for an infection. In everyday speech, only infections transmitted directly from person to person (like flu) are considered as contagious.
Once contaminated, fomites may carry microbes for few minutes or several weeks, depending on the type of the microbe and certain circumstances, like air humidity and temperature.
Such a defense reaction regularly results in an inflammation of infected tissue, which can be observed, for example, as purulent discharge in common cold or swollen joint in bacterial arthritis. For example, Streptococcus pneumoniae , causing pneumonia, can trigger fluid collection in the lungs, impeding oxygen exchange between the air and the blood and thus reducing the oxygen supply to the tissues, what may result in death.
When in doubt, a doctor can take a sample of blood, urine, stool, sputum, nasal or other discharge and send it to laboratory, where microbes can be determined by serologic tests or a culture.
A doctor can often make a diagnosis from symptoms and physical examination, but in doubtfull or severe cases, lab tests has to be done to determine the causing microbe.
Sore throat, a distressing infection is commonly seen in all age groups from infants to aged persons. Mononucleosis, a virus, effluent in causing flu, breathing difficulties is responsible for sore throat infection in extremes.  Other viral infections such as mumps, laryngitis (infection of voice box), and measles can also lead to sore throat infections. This may usually occur when your immune system gets heated up due to some changes in climatic conditions. You may experience pain radiating to your ear and other symptoms include sudden weight loss, blood in saliva and phlegm that leads to sore throat infection caused by tumors. This in overtime, leads to inflammation, sores and narrowing of the esophagus which is the cause of sore throats. Chewing tobacco, drinking alcohol, and intake of any spicy foods irritate the throat and make you feel scratchy and itchy. As the suffering may occur in any form you cannot easily find out whether it causes sore throat or other common flues.
You need to let the garlic juices coat through your complete throat and mouth but not just by biting the garlic cloves.
Generally, the causes for sore throat are tested in lab by taking the samples of your saliva. Increase the intake of citrus fruits in your diet and liquids in order to prevent sore throats and other mouth infections. It is intended for general information purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. Bacterial Throat infections are more unproblematic to heal than the viral throat Infections.
Turmeric has anti-inflammatory factors and it releases the infection of throat and provides soothing feel.
Contamination also refers to presence of pathogenic microbes on medical equipment, in the water, food etc. Examples of viral infections: influenza, childhood diseases like chicken pox, rubella, rubeolla and infectious mononucleosis, AIDS, viral hepatitis, viral hemorrhagic fever, etc. Effective over the counter or prescribed anti-fungal ointments and oral medications are available. The irritation caused by sore throat may be mild enough and it may leave you without any medication. Streptococcus is the bacterium that causes strep throat infection in both adults and children.
Also smoking or breathing through mouth may lead to excessive nose and throat dryness which is one of the causes for throat infections. Also straining your throat muscles by speaking loudly in a noisy environment stresses your throat membranes that lead to irritation.
However there are certain symptoms and you can avoid by taking necessary preventive measures. Repeat this gargling at least 3 to 4 times a day and this helps in rehydrating the dry tissues in the throat.
All you need to do is add 4 to 5 shakes of cayenne pepper to a glass of warm water and add 2 to 3 drops of lime juice to it.
If the sore throat persists for more than a week it is better if you visit your nearby doctor. Taking antibiotics unnecessarily may not solve the problem as some bacteria may become resistant to the antibiotics. Aspirin is taken generally to get rid of the mild fever in adults but not in children and teens as it leads to serious illness called Reye syndrome. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. It is the infection of the upper respirational region. People with throat infection can have breathing problems, difficulty in swallowing and inflammation in the throat. Sometimes the pain persists for several days that it becomes difficult to chew and swallow your own food, sometimes you even might go speechless because of the severe pain. Inflammation of epiglottis is one of the serious causes affecting sore throat because it becomes difficult for you to swallow food which is usually the function of epiglottis.
If you have any further queries and doubts that hover your mind after reading this article feel free to comment via the comments section. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the BootsWebMD Site. A streptococcal infection consists of fever, low blood pressure, sore throat, puffy lymph nodes, itchiness, and tissue destruction.


Except of acyclovir and related antiviral drugs, at present, there is not a lot of effective medicines for viral diseases available. A sore throat usually mentioned as a throat infection or pharyngitis, causes pain in the back part of the throat.
Inflammation of uvulitis and is responsible for the food to enter into the digestive system. Surgical removal of parasitic cysts, like in Echinococcus, from the liver, bones, brain or lungs is sometimes required. The viral throat infection are Adenovirus (group of viruses that can contaminate the membranes of the respiratory area, intestines, eyes, and urinary region.), RSV (Respiratory syncytial virus), Rhinovirus (causes the common cold), Influenza (known as flu), coronavirus, and occasionally also initiated by the EBV (Epstein-Barr virus) or HHV-4 (human herpesvirus 4), cytomegalovirus (DNA virus and is a part of the Herpesviridae family) and HIV.
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It is most common in babies under 12 months old, and occurs most often between October and March.
Some young children with their first RSV infection will develop noticeable wheezing, and may need treatment in hospital. Ear infectionYoung children are prone to ear infections because of their small Eustachian tubes. These tubes connect the ears to the throat and they may get blocked when a cold causes inflammation. Childhood vaccinations help prevent infections from certain bacteria that can cause ear infections. Glue earGlue ear refers to a build up of fluid in the middle ear, usually without any pain. The medical term for glue ear is otitis media with effusion and it often follows an acute ear infection. If glue ear lingers and threatens to interfere with a child's hearing, grommets (ear tubes) may be recommended to help fluid drain and air to move in and out of the ear.
Hand, foot and mouth diseaseHand, foot and mouth disease causes a fever along with blisters on the inside of the mouth, the palms of the hands, the buttocks and the soles of the feet. Hand, foot and mouth disease is not the same as foot and mouth disease, which affects farm animals. ConjunctivitisTears, redness, discomfort, discharge and crusty eyelashes are all signs of conjunctivitis. Often caused by the same viruses as the common cold, conjunctivitis spreads rapidly in schools and nurseries. Slapped cheekSlapped cheek syndrome or fifth disease causes a bright red rash on a child's face. The culprit is parvovirus B19, a virus that may cause mild cold-like symptoms before the rash is seen. RotavirusThe NHS estimates that every child will have at least one rotavirus infection before they are five. The main symptoms are vomiting and watery diarrhoea, which can make babies become dehydrated very quickly. A rotavirus oral vaccine is available for babies and is part of the NHS childhood vaccination programme. Doctors have yet to discover exactly what causes it but it is thought to be caused by an infection. The symptoms include a fever, patchy rash, swelling and redness of the hands and feet, bloodshot eyes and chapped, red lips. ChickenpoxChickenpox is usually a mild infection but is a very infectious condition caused by the varicella-zoster virus. MeaslesIf your children have had their MMR jabs, you probably don't have to worry about measles, although there are still many cases among unvaccinated children.
MumpsMumps is another childhood illness that was very common before the MMR vaccine became available.
The infection often causes no symptoms, but when it does, the classic sign is swollen glands between the ear and jaw.
This creates the appearance of "hamster cheeks." Despite high vaccination rates, there are still cases, usually amongst unvaccinated teenagers and young adults.
Rubella (German measles)Rubella, also called German measles, is a mild virus that usually causes no serious problems other than a fever and a rash.
The symptoms are a low grade fever and a rash that spreads from the face to the rest of the body.
Whooping coughWhooping cough, caused by infection with Bordella pertussis bacteria, makes children cough so hard, they run out of breath and inhale with a "whoop." The infection is most severe in infants and may require hospital treatment. MeningitisMeningitis is an inflammation or infection of the tissue around the brain and spinal cord. In older children, teenagers and adults, the main symptoms are severe headache, vomiting, fever and stiff neck. Viral meningitis is usually mild, but bacterial meningitis is more severe with serious consequences if it isn't treated quickly. Sore throatMost children get a sore throat now and then, usually due to a common cold virus. Seek medical advice if a sore throat lasts more than a week, or if there's pain or difficulty swallowing, excessive drooling, a rash, pus in the back of the throat or fever. The rash usually appears 12 – 48 hours after the fever and often begins on the chest and abdomen and spreads all over the body. Reye's syndromeYou probably know you should never give aspirin to children under 16, except on a doctor's advice. This life-threatening condition may affect children who take medication containing aspirin during a viral illness. Reye's syndrome has become very rare since the aspirin health warnings were issued in the 1980s. It most commonly causes clusters of tiny blisters on the skin that ooze and form a golden crust.
RingwormYet another skin infection, ringworm is actually caused by a fungus - no worms involved. The fungus spreads easily from child to child, so sharing combs, brushes, towels and clothes should be avoided.
The flu more commonly causes high fever, chills, body aches, extreme fatigue and nausea or vomiting. While most children get better on their own, the flu can lead to serious complications like pneumonia, especially in younger children. Nasal spray flu vaccination is offered to all children aged 2, 3 and 4 years old and to those children in primary school years 1 and 2.
It’s also recommended for children aged 2 to 17 years old who have long-term health conditions. Flu jab vaccination is offered to children aged 6 months to 2 years who have long-term health conditions. Seasonal allergiesSeasonal allergies, like hayfever, are not an infection, but a reaction to microscopic particles like pollen (seen here in pink).
Symptoms may include sneezing, watery eyes and a runny or stuffy nose and may only occur in spring or autumn.



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