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admin | What Cures Bv | 19.01.2014
Although streptococcal pharyngitis cannot be accurately diagnosed by symptoms or a physical exam alone, there are certain clues that can help you determine if a sore throat is bacterial in nature. Symptoms like coughing and postnasal drip can cause pharyngitis, but are less likely to occur with strep.
Swollen and tender lymph nodes in the neck are another symptom of streptococcal pharyngitis. If streptococcal pharyngitis goes untreated it can lead to potentially serious complications including scarlet fever (pictured above), rheumatic fever, sinusitis, mastoiditis, glomerulonephritis and guttate psoriasis. Performing a rapid strep test in-office is the quickest way to determine whether a patient with pharyngitis needs an antibiotic or not.
It is important that clinicians differentiate between bacterial and viral forms of pharyngitis.
View the slideshow and learn more about practicing good antimicrobial stewardship by knowing when to prescribe antibiotics or if other over-the-counter remedies are appropriate.
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We are a company that specializes in needs pertaining to personal and business development, image consulting and adolescent social enhancement. A common misconception amongst lay people is that bacterial and viral infections are the same, that in fact one is just another term meaning the other. To be sure, both bacterial infections and viral infections are quite capable of quickly reaching epidemic or pandemic proportions, as witnessed by the great bacterial plagues of medieval times, the Black Death being the best known, or the disastrous Spanish flu viral outbreak of the early 20th century, both of which were responsible for considerable death and suffering.
Bacteria are amongst the smallest living organisms, in fact they are only single celled, and are too small to actually reproduce, so they divide into two instead, although this technique is remarkably efficient allowing bacteria to quickly increase their numbers with every generation doubling in size.
Viruses, whilst being smaller than bacteria, are not in fact living organisms, they are instead just genetic material that requires a human or other living host to allow them to multiply.
Being living microorganisms, bacteria are able to survive without a host, they simply need conditions to be right for continued survival, and can quite easily survive on surfaces, inside bedding and furniture, on doorknobs, faucets, elevator control panels, keyboards, phones, and so small we don't see them. Viruses are not living organisms, and as such are not able to live for long outside a host, although this does not mean that surfaces or soft items are safe.
Bacterial and viral infections are both very capable of spreading very efficiently from person to person thru sneezing, saliva, bodily fluids, or direct contact and are easily confused for one another. New virus strains also appear regularly, but they don't have any ability to develop resistance, and treatment usually involves letting the virus run its course, although in serious cases antiviral medications may be prescribed. A further difference between bacterial infection vs viral infection is the possibility of vaccination against many viral infections, something that until recently hasn't always been possible against bacterial infections.
A test developed by researchers at Duke Medicine detects a specific genetic "signature" in the host's immune system unique to a viral infection, demonstrating a potential new method for diagnosing the source of illnesses that have long been tough to pinpoint.
A blood test developed by researchers at Duke Medicine showed more than 90-percent accuracy in distinguishing between viral and bacterial infections when tested in people with respiratory illnesses.
The test, which detects a specific genetic "signature" that the sick person's immune system expresses as a response to the virus, demonstrates a potential new method for diagnosing the source of illnesses that have long been tough to pinpoint. When infected by a virus, a person's immune system responds differently than when fighting a bacterial infection. In previous work, the Duke team described the development of a blood test, using a special assay, to identify some 30 genes involved in the immune response to viral infection among volunteers who had agreed to be infected with a series of common upper respiratory viruses. Unlike current tests that rely on evidence of the pathogen in the blood stream a€“ requiring knowledge of that particular bug to detect it a€“ the new approach could be used to detect unknown emerging diseases, including potential bioterrorism threats. The assay provided true positive identifications of viral infection in 89 percent of the cases, and correctly ruled out the negative cases 94 percent of the time.
The researchers said larger studies are planned, and additional work is ongoing to trim the amount of time it takes for the test results to be reported. Duke researchers are looking to genomic technologies a€“ not the isolation of bacteria or viruses a€“ to quickly detect and diagnose infectious diseases such as the flu and staph.

In children with fever but no other symptoms of illness, it is difficult to know whether a child has a viral infection that will resolve on its own or a potentially serious bacterial infection that requires antibiotics. A new study from King's College London offers clues as to why chronic pain can persist, even when the injury that caused it has gone.
Dandruff is not caused by a fungus, as many believe, but by an imbalance between two competing bacteria that naturally colonise the human scalp, according to a study released Thursday. It's rare for scientists to get what they describe as "clean" results without spending a lot of time repeating the same experiment over and over again. Strep often produces white patches in the throat and on the tonsils, as well as red, swollen tonsils. When congestion, runny nose and other cold symptoms accompany a sore throat, a virus is likely responsible. High-grade fevers over 101 degrees Fahrenheit raise the likelihood that strep is causing a sore throat. Most of these tests have a 95% sensitivity and a 98% specificity, so although they are highly accurate it is still possible to miss some cases. Inappropriate antibiotic use, particularly for viral respiratory infections, is one of the main factors driving recent increases in antimicrobial resistance. Garrett BennettSinusitisSinusitis is the inflammation of the sinus that is caused by either a viral or bacterial infection. This erroneous belief stems from the similarities between bacteria and viruses, and leads to a false sense of the impact each can have.
Bacterial infections are therefore very difficult to fight once they reach a critical mass and the human immune system quickly needs external help in the form of antibacterial medication.
Viruses attach themselves to existing cells in body damaging them in the process, and also using the cell to reproduce and so infect other cells. To prevent transmission, regular cleaning and disinfecting is important, especially in a hospital. Most viral genetic tissue is capable of lying dormant outside a host for a short time, in the case of the flu virus as much as three or four days. However, there are some fundamental differences, most particularly, that being living organisms bacteria are in a state of continual evolution, and are able to develop resistance to antibiotic medications. 18, 2013, issue of the journal Science Translational Medicine, the finding moves the technology closer to clinical use, where it could help patients get quicker diagnoses and treatments, while curbing the unnecessary use of antibiotics that don't work on viral infections.
These differences are evident at the genetic level, where certain genes are switched on during a viral attack, creating a fingerprint that broadly identifies the culpable pathogen.
Among 102 people arriving at a hospital's emergency department with fever, 28 had a viral infection, 39 had a bacterial infection and 35 were healthy controls.
Researchers have found a new health benefit of resveratrol, which occurs naturally in blueberries, raspberries, mulberries, grape skins and consequently in red wine. Because of this, all negative swab specimens should be sent for culture to confirm the absence of strep bacteria. Sinusitis typically occurs when excess mucus develops or there is a blockage to the sinuses. Because they co-opt cells into reproducing the virus, growth can be slower than bacterial infection. Using the test, the Duke researchers were able to accurately classify more than 90 percent of the patients as having viral infection or not.
The causes of excess mucus or blockage to the sinuses can be from an active cold, allergies, a deviated septum, or cilia not working properly, which are the small hairs in your sinuses that help move mucus out.
Although some viruses are benign, many harm their host organism by destroying or altering its cell structures. Acute sinusitis is a sinus infection that last anywhere from ten days to eight weeks depending on the severity. Generally, the body perceives viruses as antigens and produces antibodies to counteract the virus.Bacteria are organisms with a full cellular structure.

Chronic sinusitis is an ongoing infection that may show signs of improvement by reoccur within a short or long time frame. Harmful bacteria and their toxins are perceived as antigens by the body, which in turn produces antibodies.In some cases infectious diseases may be treated effectively with antiseptics, which are chemicals that oxidize or in other ways inactivate the infecting organism. Both acute and chronic sinusitis can be in the form of a viral or bacterial infection.Viral Sinus InfectionsViral sinus infections are the most common type of sinusitis.
Antibiotics are effective in treating bacterial infections, sometimes working by destroying or interfering with the growth of bacterial cell walls or the functioning of cell wall physiology or by inhibiting bacterial synthesis of DNA, RNA, or proteins. A The first few days your symptoms will worsen and after about the fifth day you will start to see improvement. These types of sinus infections generally go away on their own without the need for antibiotics. Teachers should review the dangers of common bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics through long-standing over-application, as shown by the increasing incidence of drug-resistant tuberculosis and other bacteria.
The symptoms you may experience while having a viral sinus infection are headaches, congestion, low fever, nasal discharge, and trouble sleeping. Using a commercially available kit, teachers can demonstrate how antibiotics may act generally or specifically against bacteria. If your cold is lingering around and does not runs its course naturally you may actually have a sinus infection. Agar plates may be inoculated with different bacteria, and different antibiotic discs may be placed on these plates to create a clear zone in which growth around the antibiotic discs is inhibited.
Another way a viral sinus infection can form is from influenza, or more commonly known as the flu.
Unlike common viral sinus infections, the flua€™s symptoms are typically diagnosed within two days.
When you experience any type of sinus infection it will more than likely be a viral sinus infection.Bacterial Sinus InfectionsBacterial sinus infections are less common but do occur as a result of a severe sinus infection. It may be difficult to tell the difference between bacterial and viral sinus infections because they share common symptoms. Some common symptoms of bacterial sinusitis are cold symptoms that have worsened or shown no improvement in the first ten days, extreme fevers, facial pain or nasal discharge lasting four days or greater.A Bacterial sinus infections can also form when your symptoms have healed and return shortly after, making you think, why do I keep getting sinus infections? There are tests your doctor can perform to determine whether or not you have a bacterial or viral sinus infection. If your symptoms show no sign of improvement after seven to ten days it is safe to say you have developed a bacterial sinus infection.Viral vs Bacterial Sinus Infections TreatmentThere are treatments available to help cure and heal your symptoms of sinus infections.
Viral sinus infections heal on their own with time while the virus runs its course through your body.
There are some simple home methods you can learn to help reduce sinus inflammation as well.On the other hand, bacterial sinus infections can require antibiotics to fight of the bacteria that have formed.
Both types of sinus infections require rest and consumption of fluids, which are the main components to natural remedies of a sinus infection. If you feel you may have a bacterial sinus infection it is best to visit your doctor to be properly diagnosed and be provided the best treatment, which may or may not include antibiotics.
In some cases, people will experience chronic sinusitis and may require an evaluation from a sinus and nasal specialist. If you are experiencing reoccurring sinus infections, it may be in your best interest to see a specialist and discuss alternative treatments to help cure you permanently. Bennett has been recognized as a Top Doctor in the RealSelf peer voted community.Castle Connolly Top Doctor 2016Dr.

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