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admin | Bv Homeopathic Treatment | 11.05.2016
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The human body is colonized by a vast number of microorganisms collectively referred to as the human microbiota. Understanding the link between the microbiota and our health is the focus of a growing number of research projects and papers, with new insights becoming available every day.
Recently, a comparative genome analysis of the most abundant vaginal Lactobacillus species explored adaptation mechanisms of vaginal lactobacilli in the vaginal ecosystem (Mendes-Soares et al., 2014). The presence of BV and loss of lactobacilli appears one of the risk factors of preterm delivery (Donders et al., 2009). This means that you will not need to remember your user name and password in the future and you will be able to login with the account you choose to sync, with the click of a button. This page doesn't support Internet Explorer 6, 7 and 8.Please upgrade your browser or activate Google Chrome Frame to improve your experience. One of the main microbiota body sites is the female genital tract, commonly dominated by Lactobacillus spp., in approximately 70% of women. The Human Microbiome Project and the European MetaHIT consortium initiated almost one decade ago, aim at detailed characterization of the structure and the composition of the microbiota from various body sites. Because of the limitations of culture-based approaches, the detection and clustering of the VMB in different groups is based in the last few years on culture-independent methods, since culture-dependent methods have some limitations. For instance, 56% of women who delivered at term (n = 98) were reported in another study to be colonized by two or more species of lactobacilli which included L.
Each individual species can constitute approximately 99% of the ribotypes observed in any individual woman. Primary attention has been focused on the composition and function of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota and its relation with health and disease.
The vaginal microbiota in healthy adult premenopausal women can be divided into different community groups. The most frequently isolated species are Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus jensenii and Lactobacillus iners. Nevertheless, in recent years, the microbiota from other body sites, such as the skin, oronasopharyngeal cavity and genital tract, have also gained more attention.
Although different techniques have been used, similar patterns have been observed in most studies. The exact mechanisms by which lactobacilli could prevent preterm delivery are not known, but pathogen inhibition could be involved.

Residing at the port of entry of bacterial and viral pathogens, the vaginal Lactobacillus species can create a barrier against pathogen invasion since mainly products of their metabolism secreted in the cervicovaginal fluid can play an important role in the inhibition of bacterial and viral infections.
An important body site providing a habitat for the development of structured microbial communities is the vaginal tract, which is broadly colonized by microorganisms known as the vaginal microbiota (VMB). For instance, Escherichia coli infection is a frequent cause of preterm birth (Carey and Klebanoff, 2005) and L. Therefore, a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiota appears to be a good biomarker for a healthy vaginal ecosystem.
Residing at the port of entry of various pathogens causing urogenital and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in women, there has been an increasing interest in the composition and function of the VMB.
Interestingly, lysogeny of phage particles was observed recently in most of the vaginal isolates of L. This balance can be rapidly altered during processes such as menstruation, sexual activity, pregnancy and various infections. Therefore, the VMB has been recognized as an important factor involved in the protection of the host from various bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. The remaining clusters were characterized as normal, intermediate or BV-associated and were dominated mainly by G. An abnormal vaginal microbiota is characterized by an increased diversity of microbial species, leading to a condition known as bacterial vaginosis. In addition, the VMB of the mother plays an essential role in the initial colonization of new-born babies and therefore the development of a healthy GI and skin microbiota (Dominguez-Bello et al., 2010). Grade I was characterized by a normal microbiota and has been subsequently separated in grade Ia and Iab, in which L.
Information on the vaginal microbiota can be gathered from the analysis of cervicovaginal fluid, by using the Nugent scoring or the Amsel's criteria, or at the molecular level by investigating the number and type of Lactobacillus species. It is recognized for a long time that the healthy VMB (which generally refers to lack of symptoms, absence of various infections, and good pregnancy outcome) is dominated mainly by Lactobacillus species, of which the presence can be therefore used as a valuable biomarker for evaluating health and disease. However, when translating this to the clinical setting, it should be noted that the absence of a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiota does not appear to directly imply a diseased condition or dysbiosis. However, it is only now since the more wide-spread application of high throughput sequencing approaches possible to provide a balanced insight and perspective on their multifaceted appearance in the VMB and their multifaceted role in vaginal health. The authors were able to detect two additional community types labeled as VI and VII, but were not able to detect a L. Apart from its occurrence in the vagina, the species has been reported to be present in the rectum of healthy individuals and this colonization appears to be associated with a decreased risk of BV (El Aila et al., 2009).

Nevertheless, the widely documented beneficial role of vaginal Lactobacillus species demonstrates the potential of data on the composition and activity of lactobacilli as biomarkers for vaginal health.
EMMPRIN induces matrix metalloproteinase 8 (MMP-8), which is suggested to make the vaginal barrier more prone to upper genital infections linked to preterm birth.
The substantiation and further validation of such biomarkers will allow the design of better targeted probiotic strategies. This might thus imply that D-lactic acid production is an important factor in the protection against preterm delivery. Srinivasan and co-workers also reported that the VMB of 93% of American women without BV, as determined by Gram staining, are dominated by L. For each compositional state, we have added an example of their abundance based on the study of Ravel et al. Grade II represents an intermediate status between grade I and grade III, with the presence of L.
However, these numbers are only exemplary and should be considered with caution, as they clearly depend on the study population (size and characteristics) and they certainly need to be substantiated in further studies. The low in vivo concentrations of H2O2 could therefore be explained by the relatively hypoxic environment of the vaginal lumen.
Therefore, the actual number of vaginal community types is still under discussion and is driven by the technology used, the sequencing depth, the number of samples of each type, the computational choice made, as well as the underlying data structures. However, another study using single vaginal douching with 3% H2O2 failed to observe any positive results as compared to the metronidazole control group (Chaithongwongwatthana et al., 2003), indicating that H2O2 is not a key active metabolite of vaginal lactobacilli. Furthermore, most studies also report clusters without clear dominant species, but instead a proportion of multiple Lactobacillus species. A key challenge for future studies on the VMB composition is to integrate and further substantiate the findings of the studies using differing sequencing approaches. Hopefully, this will result in the identification of clinically relevant microbiota clusters that could be good biomarkers of the VMB state. This might be, as compared to the fecal enterotypes (Siezen and Kleerebezem, 2011), more difficult than initially anticipated given the fact that human microbial communities at different body sites appear in a continuum of different compositions, as we will also highlight below for the VMB.

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