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admin | Cure Bv Naturally | 06.12.2015
The process of natural selection follows a sequence, as listed below.Some of the variations within a population may give some individuals an advantage over others in the population. The bacteria called non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae are a common cause of infection in the upper respiratory tract.
Researchers from the University of Southern California and the Oak Crest Institute of Science have discovered the link between antibiotics and bacterial biofilm formation leading to chronic lung, sinus and ear infections. During the study, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) bacteria a common pathogen of humans was exposed to non-lethal doses of ampicillin, a class of antibiotics commonly used to treat respiratory, sinus and ear infections, or other beta-lactam antibiotics. Biofilms are highly structured communities of microorganisms that attach to one another and to surfaces. Webster believes modern medicine needs to find ways of detecting and treating biofilm infections before the bacteria are able to form these protective structures.
A group of researchers from the US has moved a step closer to preventing infections of the common hospital pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, by revealing the mechanisms that allow the bacteria to rapidly clog up medical devices.
Researchers at The Australian National University (ANU) have found possums in New Zealand prefer to eat leaves high in available protein, giving authorities new evidence to help them limit possum damage to New Zealand's forests. Ninety per cent of Norway's two million pairs of cliff-nesting seabirds are located in nesting colonies above the Arctic Circle. Red knots migrate between their breeding grounds in the Arctic and their wintering grounds in West Africa.
The discovery that dung beetles use the light of the Milky Way to navigate in the world has received much praise. Mitochondria are membrane-bound components within cells that are often described as the cells' powerhouses.
We know what you’re thinking right now: how can a home remedy be any better than the antibiotics that your doctor prescribed to you? Since the immune system is under siege from constant courses of antibiotics, this makes it difficult for the body to ward off infections, leaving you vulnerable to a host of illnesses and infections that could make your bacterial vaginosis look like a walk in the park. So if it’s so apparent that antibiotics are failing in any bacterial vaginosis treatment, why do doctors bother with it in the first place?
Given all the dangers of treating BV with antibiotics, it’s safe to say that you’re beginning to realize the benefits of a bacterial vaginosis home remedy treatment! Prevailing wisdom held that antibiotic resistance works only on an individual level: a bacterium acquires a genetic mutation that confers protection against a drug, allowing it to survive and reproduce. But the new study, published September 2, 2010, in the journal Nature, reveals that there are also population-wide changes in the bacterial community at work. The chance that we’ll have new and dangerous super bugs emerging is quite high, and I’m worried that our arsenal of antibiotics is dwindling.
In the past few years, the rise of 'super bugs' such as MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) has had hospitals and medical professionals scrambling to fend off a public health disaster.
The team then analyzed the proteins made by high-MIC bacteria in the presence of norfloxacin, and discovered that an enzyme called tryptophanase was particularly abundant. It turns out that indole offers vulnerable bacteria two kinds of protection against norfloxacin. By comparing the growth of bacteria, the researchers found that the mutants produce indole at a significant cost to themselves. This altruistic behavior—which appears in species throughout the animal kingdom, including humans—presents a well-known paradox for evolutionary biologists: if evolution favors the fittest, why would an individual sacrifice its own fitness for the rest of the group?
Collins's findings bolster the 'kin selection' theory—formalized in the 1960s by the British evolutionary biologist W.D. Though the study may make waves in the evolutionary biology field, Collins thinks its implications are most pertinent for public health. Future research on antibiotics might well focus on targeting the indole pathway as a means to block bugs' ability to share resistance, Collins says. Free resources for science teachers and students, including animations, short films, and apps.
HHMI’s science magazine explores biomedical research through in-depth features, news, and perspectives.
HHMI’s innovative research center where scientists pursue challenging problems in a collaborative setting. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is resistance of a microorganism to an antimicrobial drug that was originally effective for treatment of infections caused by it.
Acinetobacter baumannii have become resistant to many antibiotics and like other bacteria are currently being countered most effectively through thorough hygiene in healthcare situations. More commonly known as MRSA (which stands for Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), this ‘superbug’ is very easily spread through human contact and can cause a range of illnesses from skin disorders to deadly diseases like meningitis and pneumonia. Tuberculosis has been know by many names including scrofula and the White Plague and has been a huge cause of death and distraction throughout history, with evidence found in bodies estimated to be around 9,000 years old.

Gonorrhoea is spread through sexual contact and causes various infections in both men and women.
Klebsiella pneumoniae can cause a range of infections and has proven to be very resistance to a range of antibiotics. Quick to mutate and adapt to counter different antibiotic treatments, Pseudomonas aeruginosa shows an innate ability to develop resistance to antibiotics. One of the better known ‘superbugs’ because of a consistent presence in hospitals around the world, C. Discovered in 1949 as the bacterium that causes onions to rot, Burkholderia cepacia can be very dangerous to humans in the worst cases. A lot of antimicrobial resistance is due to genetic mutation of key genes that affect pore formation, efflux mechanisms or enzyme production of the microbes. These mutations are caused by pressures that are applied to the organisms due to the presence of the antimicrobial.
Another method of developing resistance is the ability of microbes to exchange genetic material, in the form of plasmids, during times of stress. The multiplex endpoint PCR technology offers a number of potential advantages, results are available in a matter of hours rather than days, the extreme sensibility facilitates detection of even minutes the amounts of pathogen DNA in clinical samples and the test is not significantly affected by prior administration of antibiotics.
The Analyzer Unyvero™ Pneumonia Application was used in detection of pneumonia associated pathogens and their antibiotic resistance genes using the Pneumonia Unyvero™ System, following PCR pathogen species with sequencing of the amplified microbial DNA. The main pathogens of community acquired pneumonia from the cohort study, 36 cases, (20 males in mean age 35-66 years and 16 females in mean age 40-55 mean years) were Streptococcus pneumonia (16 cases), Staphilococcus aureus, (10 cases), Klebsiella pneumonia (5 cases), and other important agents were “atypical”, such as Haemophilus Influenzae, Chlamidophila pneumonie and Moraxela cataralis. Also most resistance antibiotics were Makrolides, (29 cases and Lincosamides (6 cases) and this cases have had the chromosomial integrates.
Conclusion The Unyvero™ results have been available 2 days before the primary microbiology report and 3 days before the final confirmation results, obtained by microbiology culture. Why do we not have an appropriate test standard that is suitable for measuring antimicrobial efficacy on touch surfaces?
The standard protocols ISO 22196 and JIS Z 2801 measure microbial reduction at 24 hours exposure, under warm & wet conditions.
Products that work under these test conditions do not all work under typical indoor conditions (20 deg C, 22% RH).. Allowing this to continue sounds like the opposite of antimicrobial stewardship, and is likely to result in new forms of antimicrobial resistance.
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The study results, published in the current issue of PLOS ONE, illustrate how bacterial biofilms can actually thrive, rather than decrease, when given low doses of antibiotics. The dose of the antibiotic was not enough to kill the bacteria which allowed the bacteria to react to the antibiotic by producing glycogen, a complex sugar often used by bacteria as a food source, to produce stronger biofilms when grown in the laboratory. Therefore, bacteria forced into forming stronger biofilms will become more difficult to treat and will cause more severe chronic infections. The difficulties of treating biofilm infections, which can be up to 1,000 times more resistant to antibiotics, have prompted some physicians to propose a gradual move away from traditional antibiotic treatments and toward non-antibiotic therapies. According to a new report from Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) researchers, a handful of resistant pathogens can protect an entire colony. Eventually, as vulnerable bacteria die, the mutant's stronger progeny repopulate the colony. Under the onslaught of an antibiotic, resistant Escherichia coli produce—at an energy cost to themselves—a protein that seeps into the communal broth and triggers a slew of protective mechanisms in their non-resistant neighbors. The new findings could help explain why resistance has been so difficult to curb, the researchers say.
Collins and colleagues at Boston University grew bacteria in a bioreactor—a large, capped glass vessel with many extended arms that allow researchers exquisite control over what the bugs are exposed to.
To their total surprise, the researchers discovered that the MIC of individual samples was much lower than the MIC for the population as a whole.
One is to turn on cellular machines that pump the antibiotic out of the cell, as if expelling a poison. Hamilton—that says that organisms may behave altruistically toward others that share their genes. The researchers confirmed that the same population-wide protection occurs when bugs are exposed to other kinds of antibiotics. More broadly, the work highlights the pressing need for investment in new antibiotic development. However, some strains of E.coli can cause serious illness and most commonly lead to severe food poisoning as well as meningitis and infections. The bacteria can survive in harsh conditions for long periods of time so are often difficult to deal with in weaker patients, and coupled with increasing resistance presents a tough challenge when encountered by doctors.

Most often treated with Penicillin type antibiotics, by 1960, 80 per cent of hospital samples were antibiotic resistant. It is believed that Nefertiti and her Pharaoh husband Akhenaten both died from tuberculosis in around 1330 BC, and documents remain from ancient Egypt that talk of the dangers of the disease. Certain strains of the bacteria have shown resistance to antibiotics and have mutated over the course of 50 years or so, slowly adapting different resistances as doctors change their approach by using different antibiotics to counter the disease. Primarily affecting middle-aged and older men with weakened immune systems, this bacteria can be dangerous but is mostly ‘opportunistic’ and is far less likely to affect healthy adults.
Described as ‘opportunistic’ because it primarily affects humans that are already critically ill, this bacteria can cause serious complications in the treatment of AIDS, cancer or cystic fibrosis patients. Luckily, the bacteria is affected by penicillin so is treated easily in most cases – however several strains are building resistance to various other antibiotics.
While it mostly responds well to treatment with a combination of antibiotics, it has been shown to have high levels of resistance to several types of antibiotics and is able to survive in extreme conditions.
The most resistance microbe, Pseudomonas aeruginosa(1 case), has been registered as multi drugs resistance [MDR]*. The Unyvero Analyzer only provides rapid data to support the therapeutic decision of currant medic. This layer is highly protective for the organisms within it, and when new bacteria are produced they stay within the slimy layer.
Adults will suffer protracted lung infections as the bacteria hunker down into their protective slime, and children will have repeated ear infections.
As they upped the bugs' exposure, the scientists periodically removed samples of bacteria and measured their 'minimum inhibitory concentration', or MIC—the minimum strength of drug that stops growth of the bug. Upon further digging, they found that bacterium with high MICs were few and far between—typically making up less than one percent of the population. The metabolite also turns on pathways that protect the cell from oxidative stress, a chemical imbalance that leads to the build up toxic molecules called free radicals.
So even if altruistic behavior prevents an individual from surviving to pass its own genes on to future generations, others in the population can fulfill that evolutionary role.
What's more, many types of bacteria produce indole, suggesting that a similar cooperative process may happen in a host of bacterial species. Some, like Tuberculosis for example, are already a huge challenge to overcome in their own right and will only become harder to control as their resistance to antibiotics grows. A high level of resistance to antibiotics has been found across several strains of E.coli and while it is rare to find these strains causing illness, it is another concerning example of a bacteria that has the potential to cause problems if our use of antibiotics goes unchecked.
Sometimes called Iraqibacter, Acinetobacter baumannii became very prevalent during the Iraq war amongst injured soldiers who passed through several different medical facilities. A concerted effort in tracking the disease and improving hygiene measures in hospitals has seen cases of MRSA fall by 84.7 per cent in the UK between 2003 and 2011, proving that prevention is often the best form of defence against bacteria.
While instances of the disease reduced to only 5,000 a year in the UK in 1987, the increase in antibiotic resistance has seen a rise in cases in the early 90s. The small hairs or ‘pili’ on the bacteria act like hooks that are used to move the cell and attach it to other healthy cells. Due to its high levels of resistance, it is common in the US to perform tests to identify which strain is present in a patient to better inform doctors of how to treat them.
While it isn’t a massive threat to humanity currently, this bacteria will become an increasing threat over the next few years.
Particularly dangerous to humans with preexisting lung conditions such as Cystic Fibrosis, scientists have been developing new ways to fight the bacteria as it evolves an increasing resistance to antibiotics. With the introduction of antibiotic-produced glycogen, the biofilms have an almost endless food source that can be used once antibiotic exposure has ended. What may appear to be antibiotic resistance when an infection does not clear up may actually be biofilms at work. A few years ago, Collins's team reported that antibiotics work, in effect, by pummeling bugs with free radicals. This is slowing the rate at which resistance is built up but this bacteria is still of concern across the globe. This bacterium would survive the treatment and breed, passing on the antibiotic - resistant gene to its offspring.
Difficile is actually increased by exposure to antibiotics – you are more likely to get ill from C.

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