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admin | Get Rid Of Bacterial Infection | 21.07.2015
Bacterial ulcers are a common fish disease problem, particularly with ornamental pond fish such as goldfish and koi.
An ulcer is defined as a break in the skin extending through all the layers, which fails to heal and is often accompanied by inflammation. If just one is affected it is probably due to a health problem specific to that individual. It is hard to give a general answer because it really depends on the circumstances surrounding each case. If several are affected it is vital that the system and all of the fish are examined, either in or out of the water, to determine the full extent of the spread of the infection. My own experience is that the chances of survival are greatly improved by a thorough debridement of the lesion together with topical treatment.
As far as treatments are concerned this is really a matter of judgment based on the severity of the situation. I should stress the importance of tackling bacterial diseases such as ulcers in a systematic, thorough way. Numerous bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases cause severe damage on roots, foliage, stem, pods, and seeds, resulting in yield and quality losses in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) worldwide. ReferencesAraya CM, Alleyne AT, Steadman JR (2004) Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Uromyces appendiculatus from Phaseolus vulgaris in the Americas. JavaScript is currently disabled, this site works much better if you enable JavaScript in your browser.
They are one of the most difficult problems to deal with, especially if large numbers of fish are affected.
The typical skin ulcer has a central area of tissue erosion that may be shallow or deep a€“ in many cases exposing the underlying muscle.


A close view of the photo shows many infected scales around the lesion which had to be removed to facilitate healing. However if several are affected it is quite likely that there is an underlying environmental problem. If just one individual is affected and assuming that it has been diagnosed at an early stage, simply dealing with any other health problems and treating the lesion topically may suffice. It is important that all of those affected are treated at the same time otherwise the untreated fish will in turn get worse as well as acting as a reservoir of infection. The options are topical treatments, medicated food, bath treatments (short duration or long term) or antibiotic injections. Simply applying dartboard medication, in which a range of different treatments is tried in succession, is unlikely to work and in all probability will simply make matters worse.
Cultivars with resistance to multiple diseases are needed to reduce these losses and dependence on pesticides for disease control. Dealing effectively with bacterial ulcers can be time-consuming and really requires a high degree of skill and experience.
Around the edge of the lesion is usually an area of whitish necrotic (dead) tissue and debris, with a large outer zone of inflammation extending into healthy tissue. High numbers of opportunistic bacteria, such as would be found in water with a high organic content or other diseased fish, also increase the risk of infection. In this quite common situation it is no good simply throwing in some anti-bacterial treatment and hoping. This is often the situation where an outbreak of bacterial disease goes on for months, despite continually treating the most obviously affected individuals. Whatever course of treatment is decided the aim should be to resolve the problem within a matter of 2-3 weeks.


However, unlike bacterial gill diseases, the success rate can be very high even with quite severe and advanced cases. It is important to establish and resolve the underlying cause, be it water quality or parasites, as well as treating the bacterial infection.
To the owner it looks like fresh outbreaks despite his best efforts, when it is really just an ongoing chronic infection. If there is not a marked improvement during that time then either the treatment plan needs reappraising or there are still underlying problems that havena€™t been tackled. One hundred seventy-five F1 plants of ST, 177 of CN, and 195 of CB and their parents were evaluated in the greenhouse using sequential inoculations with pathogens causing BCM, CBR, ALS, CBB, and ANT, in that order.
Progenies of surviving F1 plants were again evaluated in the F2, using similar sequential inoculations. In most, but not all, cases they are caused by opportunistic bacteria already in the pond or tank. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 123:1038–1047Balardin RS, Jarosz AM, Kelly JD (1997) Virulence and molecular diversity in Colletotrichum lindemuthianum from South, Central and North America.
In the F5, five breeding lines from ST, two from CN, and one from CB exhibited intermediate to high levels of resistance to the five diseases when compared with the parents. Thus, selection in the F1 and F2 was effective for simultaneous introgression of resistance to the five diseases in all three Andean ? Middle American inter-gene pool common bean populations. FAO, RomeGeil PB, Anderson JW (1994) Nutrition and health implications of dry bean: a review.



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