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Having an uncomfortable sensation of something constantly running down the back of your throat? Post Nasal Drip is a medical condition in which the sufferer constantly feels a fluid accumulation at the back of his or her throat. Sufferers of Post Nasal Drip Syndrome usually experience a number of discomforts like bad breath. As aforementioned, people with Post Nasal Drip problems constantly feel the urge to clear their pharynx. The affected person also suffers from a blocked nose due to mucus accumulation in the nasal passage. The sufferer also experiences respiratory problems because of mucus accumulation and nasal congestion. The uneasiness in stomach often leads to a nauseating feeling or vomiting sensation in affected people.
Excessive mucus accumulation at the back of throat is one of the main causes of Post Nasal Drip. Rhinitis, whether due to allergic or non-allergic causes, can lead to an inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the nose and be a prime cause for this condition. A swelling up of any of the sinuses adjacent to the nasal cavity can also give rise to this syndrome. This disease gives rise to heartburn and can be a factor behind the development of this syndrome.
Using birth pills can increase the level of estrogen hormones and be a causative agent for this condition.
The presence of polyps or fleshy growths in the nasal passage can lead to the obstruction of the nose and cause this disease. The diagnosis of the condition is mainly done by observation and checking the medical history of the patient.
Antibiotics, nasal steroids, antihistamines and decongestants are some of the common Post Nasal Drip medicines. For worse situations like chronic Post Nasal Drip due to bacterial infections, surgery may be necessary for permanent treatment. Gurgling with warm water containing a little baking soda and salt can also be a good cure for Post Nasal Drip mucus. Taking your face over a bowl of boiled water and inhaling the vapors often proves to be a suitable way to treat thick Post Nasal Drip. In addition, post-nasal drip can cause alterations in taste sensations, which can cause a loss in taste or a metallic taste in the mouth.
If you note Post Nasal Drip in children or adults in your family or suffering from the disorder yourself, you should seek immediate medical collection.
Nasal Congestion: Commonly known as a A“blocked nose,A” nasal congestion is a common symptom of many of the conditions that cause a sore throat.
Nasal Discharge: Rhinorrhea or a runny nose is another symptom that often accompanies a sore throat. Coughing: Coughing is a common symptom of many upper respiratory tract infections, and excessive coughing can also lead to inflammation of the throat and pharynx. Sneezing: Many of these infections cause irritation of the nasal lining, leading to sneezing.
Fever: More severe respiratory tract infections can affect the whole body, leading to a fever. Headache: A headache often accompanies a sore throat, even in the case of minor infections such as the common cold. Fatigue: Fatigue is a common sign of an infection, and is the result of the body using all its resources to fight the infection. Muscle and Joint Pain: Muscle and joint pain is not very commonly associated with a sore throat, but some of the more serious infections can cause joint pain, along with fever and weakness. Swollen Lymph Nodes: Many infections are accompanied by swollen lymph nodes, and this includes some of the conditions that cause a sore throat. The three main causes for sore throat are infections, irritants, and acid reflux, of which infections are probably the most common cause. Irritants and Allergens: Sometimes it is not an infection that causes a sore throat, but a reaction to substances in the environment. Since a sore throat is a symptom of some underlying condition, and rarely a condition in itself, sore throat home remedies are only symptomatic treatment. A water salt water gargle is one of the oldest A– and possibly the best - cure for a sore throat. When it comes to age-old home remedies for an irritated throat, the honey and ginger mixture is another great one.
Another recipe for a sore throat remedy is a mixture of honey, apple cider vinegar, and warm water. Chamomile tea is also one of the best swollen throat remedies, and is another treatment that you can repeat several times a day. Alcohol does dehydrate the body, but in small amounts it might actually work as an effective sore throat treatment. Garlic may not be great for your breath, but it may compensate by helping cure a sore throat. Although a sore throat and the other accompanying symptoms might ruin your appetite, it is important to keep eating healthy. In most cases, a sore throat is a minor problem, and home remedies, along with a little rest for both your throat and your body, will help you recover quite quickly. Home remedies for sore throat, ear ache and recurrent chills: i have gone to the doctor twice regarding my sore throat and severe ear aches.
Natural cures for stuffy nose, light headedness and sore throat: what are some natural cures for stuffy nose, light-headedness, and sore throats???? Advice on stuffy nose and sore throat: why dont ANY medicines seem to do the job when i get a stuffy nose and sore throat??? Health advice on swollen glands: what other infections or diseases of any sort could include sore throat symptoms or swollen glands? The best way to get rid of a sore throat is to drink fresh carrot juice (as much as possible) and within a day or two, it should be gone. It is a well known viral infection that affects people during the spring and autumn seasons. Hand Foot and Mouth Disease is also known as ‘Coxsackievirus Infection’ and ‘Hoof and Mouth Disease’.
It is one of the most visible Hand Foot and Mouth Disease symptoms in adults as well as children. In sufferers of Hand Foot and Mouth Disease gums, tongue, tonsils and throat are seen to be covered with rashes.
In case of Hand Foot and Mouth Disease in toddlers or young children below 12 years of age, Aspirin should not be used.
Unless there is a severe infection, Hand Foot and Mouth Disease lasts for a little over a week.
The major complications of Hand Foot and Mouth Disease are Dehydration and Febrile seizures. The disease can also give rise to complicated neurological cases like Encephalitis, Guillain Barre Syndrome and Cerebelar Ataxia. In infants under 4 weeks of age suffering from Hand Foot and Mouth Disease fingernail and toenail loss is quite common.
Hand Foot and Mouth Disease in pregnancy is very serious for the health of the unborn baby. Hand Foot and Mouth Disease can affect pregnant women only if they have not suffered from it during their childhood. If you are having Hand Foot and Mouth Disease or have anyone in your family suffering from it, try home remedies. Roseola rash is a common viral disease that affects kids, particularly those between 6 months to 2 years old.
Studies show that roseola have higher risks in older infants because they have yet to develop antibodies against certain virus; whereas, while they are still in the mother’s womb, they are well protected by the mother’s immune system. After exposure of the child to someone who has roseola rash, it would take for approximately one to weeks for the symptoms to appear. The kind of fever that hits the child is usually sudden and a high one, which is often 103°F or 39.4°C. After a few days the fever had set in, rashes typically appear, but may not happen to some other patients. Although a roseola rash is not a serious condition, but the high fever that it may bring is something that one should be wary about. The culprit of this disease is the human herpes virus 6 (HHV6), but studies show another causative agent, which is the human herpes virus 7 (HHV7). As part of proper management of the condition, an appointment with the physician is always sought especially if the rashes do not improve or disappear after a few more days and a high fever that lasts for more than a week. Roseola rash is considered to be a mild viral disease; therefore treatment is not usually indicated. Antiviral medications can also be given to children as there is no specific treatment for this disease. Fluid Intake – Increasing the fluid intake (water, juices, lime soda, electrolyte solution) will facilitate release of impurities out from the body through frequent urination. Healthy diet – Always maintain a healthy diet to make sure that children will have a complete supply of nutrients their body needs for optimum protection from certain organisms that would bring harm to them.
Sponge baths – Lukewarm sponge bath or cool washcloth can be used to lower the fever and discomfort.
Although it is very rare, if in any case treatment of roseola may not be successful, there can be serious complications that go with it. The serious thing about roseola is that it is contagious, even if the affected individual has not been clearly diagnosed yet.
Therefore the best way to prevent the spread of the virus is to observe proper hand washing. Remedies for Scratchy ThroatWhile it maybe a symptom of other diseases, there are several home remedies for scratchy throat, that will give you relief.
Inhaling steam through your mouth can reduce the duration of throat infection and soothe the throat. For adults who are experiencing pain and burning along with scratchy itchy throat, take a painkiller like ibuprofen or aspirin. To soothe a scratchy throat take a glass of warm water and add a tablespoon of apple cider vinegar to it.
Disclaimer: This Buzzle article is for informative purposes only, and should not be used as a replacement for expert medical advice. Sufferers of the disease are seen to cough constantly to clear their throat and get relief from the uncomfortable dripping feeling.
If determining the cause becomes difficult, an X-ray examination of the person’s nasal passage may be done to check if there is a sinus or nasal polyps.
These Post Nasal Drip medications are generally used for people having mild cases of the syndrome.
If nasal problems are found to be a result of allergies or acid problems, necessary medications should be used as cures for Post Nasal Drip.
For people suffering from Post Nasal Drip natural treatments like these are often found to be effective. Usually, after the post-nasal drip has been resolved, taste sensations will return to normal. As aforesaid, the condition is not fatal but it can lead to discomfort and cause a number of complications. ThereA’s no one who hasnA’t had to endure a sore throat at some point in their life A– more likely several times. This is usually an infection of the upper respiratory tract, such as the common cold, laryngitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, and more serious conditions such as diphtheria and influenza.
This happens when the membranes that line the nasal passages become inflamed, thus narrowing the passages and making it difficult to breathe through the nose. Some of the irritants that cause a sore throat can also irritate the nasal lining, causing a bout of sneezing. Mild swelling of the lymph nodes is nothing to worry about A– lymph nodes are part of the immune system and the swelling simply means that your body is fighting off the infection. Pollution is a common cause of sore throats A– vehicular and industrial pollution are two examples. This is why, if you seem to have a serious infection, you should consult a doctor, who will treat the infection itself. Simply take a small piece of ginger, crush the juice out of it, mix it with a teaspoon of honey, and swallow.
Whiskey on the rocks is of course ruled out, but you can have a peg of whiskey straight up, or else add it to a glass of warm water and sip it slowly.
However, if you get recurrent sore throats or if a sore throat lasts for more than a week, you should get yourself checked by a doctor. An evaluation of the efficacy of licorice gargle for attenuating postoperative sore throat: a prospective, randomized, single-blind study. Children, especially those between 6 months and 3 years of age, are the most common victims of this condition though it also affects many adults.
The Coxsackievirus A16, a member of genus Enterovirus, is the main causative factor for this disease. In patients of hand foot and mouth disease vomiting sensation follows after a bout of Diarrhea. Treatment mainly involves reducing the effect of the symptoms of the condition until the rashes resolve themselves. In older kids and adults, the infection is typically very mild and continues for around a week or more. In pregnant women, the virus can be transmitted through the placenta of the mother and affect the child. However, the child may suffer from mild fever and Meningitis Encephalitis, Epilepsy and Myocarditis in severe cases.
Pregnant women should keep away from crowded places, avoid contact with HFMD infected people and also refrain from using contaminated clothes and objects. But in case of complications such as pain in the arms, neck or legs, it is better to call a doctor.
However, this direct protection from their mother fades away with time, and this makes them vulnerable to viral diseases such as roseola. If the child would experience a fever of 103°F and higher and may last for more than seven days already, it is recommended to have the child seen by a doctor. Once a person is infected with such virus, the virus will be transmitted to another individual by direct contact with the infected person through respiratory secretions and saliva.
With doctor’s prescription, fever can be managed by over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Therefore it is recommended for children to get enough rest, especially when accompanied by fever, to completely recover. Avoid using ice, cold water, or cold baths as they may cause rapid decrease in temperature and may lead to chills. Since some patients may not manifest the rashes that are typical of roseola and show only fever, there is a big possibility that they can already infect others who may come in contact with them.


Since children are fond of touching a lot of objects that come in contact with their hands, it is always the responsibility of the caregiver or the mother to wash the child’s hands regularly or disinfect toys and materials that they use. The typical high fever will run for three to seven days followed by the appearance of the pinkish red rashes.
Martin, MD, MPH, ABIM Board Certified in Internal Medicine and Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA. It is an extremely commonplace disease, but can be aggravating as it results in difficulty in swallowing, and fever in many cases.
There are many scratchy throat causes - viral infections (like cold or flu), bacterial infections (like strep throat or whooping cough), allergies, dryness, muscle strain, etc. Ginger and pineapple are anti-inflammatory, and will reduce the scratchy-burning sensation in the throat. To make a home remedy using garlic, crush 2-3 cloves of garlic and keep taking them daily, till your throat condition gets better.
However, if you get scratchy throat due to some allergy, then consider taking an OTC antihistamine. Drinking a lot of fluids when suffering from scratchy throat, helps to heal the throat faster.
Patients suffer from a hoarse voice which can make it difficult to understand what they are saying. Applying a piece of cloth soaked in warm water over throat at regular intervals can give relief from soreness.
So you can avoid this disease by keeping away from spicy foods and beverages like caffeine, diuretics or alcohol. Fluid accumulation builds up pressure in the ear cause Post Nasal Drip ear pain and hearing loss. Aberrations in taste are usually the result of bacteria and other compounds present in mucus. In most cases, a sore throat is simply the symptom of a common cold, where the soreness is the result of irritation of the throat and pharynx from the nasal fluids. What happens is that the excess of mucus in the nose exits into the throat in a process known as postnasal drip.
Household irritants such as paint and certain cleaning solutions can also cause a sore throat when their fumes are inhaled. Normally, this acid is kept from rising out of the stomach, but in some cases, due to a variety of reasons, this mechanism may malfunction.
Steam inhalation will also clear your nasal passages, thus reducing the postnasal drip that is causing or aggravating the sore throat. The chewing should be very light A– just enough to release the chemicals inside the garlic, not to crush it completely.
You can keep sipping hot drinks and soups through the day A– these will nourish you while simultaneously soothing your throat and clearing your nasal passages. A visit to the doctor is also advisable if the sore throat is accompanied by more serious symptoms, such as fever and body aches.
However, the disease can also appear in one-time sufferers due to infection by a different member of the Enterovirus family.
Over the counter drugs like Tylenol (Acetaminophen) and Ibuprofen can be used to reduce fever and painful symptoms.
If that is not possible and the person happens to be someone in your family, you should wash your hands before and after you treat him or her. An unaffected person may contract the disease by coming in contact with the saliva, blister fluids, stools, nasal discharge, throat discharge of an infected child or adult. In spite of developing immunity to one type of virus, the patient can fall prey to Hand Foot and Mouth Disease once again due to this new viral infection.
Enteroviral attack in the third semester can give rise to Hand Foot and Mouth Disease in babies during the first month after birth. Liver necrosis can also result in death in infants suffering from Hand Foot and Mouth Disease. Check out these Pictures of Hand Foot and Mouth Disease and know how Hand Foot and Mouth Disease rash on body looks like.
Roseola rash is not considered to be a serious disease, but various children react differently. By the time you get to notice a child’s high fever, the seizure may have already passed; therefore if you suspect a seizure, have the child checked by physician the right away.
For example, children sharing the same cup by someone who is infected will surely facilitate transfer of the virus. The virus can be spread through the tiny drops of fluid expelled by the infected person by sneezing, laughing, talking, or coughing. As much as possible, extra effort should be done to prevent, if not stop, the spread of the virus. HSV-1 can also cause genital herpes. Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is the most common cause of genital herpes, but it can also cause oral herpes. This article will help you get rid of a scratchy throat with simple and effective remedies. Drinking lots of fluids will keep your mouth and throat moist and prevent further irritation to the throat. In most sore throat problems, gargling along with the above remedies, will give you good relief.
Avoiding spicy dishes and beverages will reduce mucus production and help you prevent this annoying condition. Depending on its underlying causes, a sore throat may be accompanied by many other symptoms.
If you can squeeze in a couple of gargles through the course of the day, so much the better.
If you can control it, avoid sleeping with your mouth open A– this is a common cause of a dry, and therefore sore, throat. There are also some Hand Foot and Mouth Disease images that you will find useful for reference. But they may be carried out if the doctor suspects a different condition to be the cause of these symptoms. It is also advisable that you avoid using the objects and clothes of the individual for some time. Make sure that you act early to make yourself or your dear one bounce back to health with the least complications.
Some develop a mild case of roseola, while others experience the whole symptoms typical of roseola. Note that antibiotics are found to be ineffective in the treatment of viral diseases such as roseola.
Children who inhale the drops or touch them and touch their noses and mouth would most likely bring the virus closer to their body and even facilitate the entrance of the virus inside the system. If the child is sick due to roseola, it is better to isolate the child so to avoid infecting other children.
Trends in HSV Types and Genital HerpesGenital herpes can be caused by either HSV-2 or HSV-1. Keep the pan on a table and cover your head with a towel, remove the lid and inhale the steam from your mouth. If you are using this home remedy, then it would probably be a good idea to keep some breath mints handy.
Some vitamin C rich foods are black currants, Indian gooseberries (Amla), strawberries, and lemon. After resting your throat, you will notice the scratchiness and hoarseness of the throat has reduced. Dishes with chilies, green peppers and hot peppers are some of the Post Nasal Drip foods to avoid. This in turn may be due to an infection, or it may be due to some irritant, such as paint fumes. Excessive straining of the vocal cords through talking, shouting, screaming, or singing, can also lead to a sore throat. However, frequent irritation of the throat caused by acid reflux can also lead to a sore throat. Rashes on buttocks arise after a bout of Diarrhea and are one of the major symptoms of Hand Foot and Mouth Disease in Children.
However, topical drugs are not usually recommended as they prevent rashes from drying naturally.
Virus A infection in third semester can lead to the birth of a stillborn baby in some cases. The distribution may vary from patient to patient because in others, the rashes may reach the legs and the face while in some other patients, these areas are being spared. Also note that children with roseola may have a low immunity; isolating them from others may also be helpful to facilitate faster healing and limiting their exposure to other opportunistic organisms that may add to the infection.
With strep throat, one might also experience swollen tonsils, burning in the throat, and headache.
This remedy for adults and children helps in the treatment of bronchitis, sore throat, tonsillitis, and other throat ailments. The bark of this tree might not be easily available, in this case you can take the slippery elm capsules. Apple Cider Vinegar or ACV has enough acidity to kill the bacteria and it soothes the soreness too. There are many bacterial and viral infections that can cause inflammation of the throat, sometimes as the primary symptom, and sometimes as just one among many different symptoms.
In recent years, HSV-1 has become a significant cause in developed countries, including the United States. Adults can have this tea, 2-3 times a day and for children, half-a-cup 2 times a day, should serve the purpose. Many of these infections are upper respiratory tract infections, such as laryngitis and tonsillitis.
In a pan, add a little bit of olive oil and bay leaves, then add chopped onions, chopped garlic, chicken pieces and fry for a minute. In addition, there are many harmless substances that can cause a sore throat if a person is allergic to them. Usually however, a sore throat is merely one of the more unpleasant complications of the common cold. Identifying an allergen can be quite difficult A– people can develop allergies to all sorts of things, and it is often difficult to find a clear link between a substance and an allergic reaction.
The risk of infection is highest during outbreak periods when there are visible sores and lesions.
SymptomsWhen genital herpes symptoms do appear, they are usually worse during the first outbreak than during recurring attacks. Herpes, Pregnancy, and Newborn InfantsHerpes can pose serious risks for a pregnant woman and her baby.
The risk is greatest for mothers with a first-time infection, because the virus can be transmitted to the infant during childbirth.
Guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend using specific diagnostic tests for women in labor to determine the risk of transmission.
Babies born to mothers infected with genital herpes are often treated with the antiviral drug acyclovir, which can help suppress the virus. Herpes viruses include human herpes virus 8 (the cause of Kaposi sarcoma) and varicella-zoster virus (also known as herpes zoster, the virus responsible for shingles and chickenpox). The word "herpes" comes from the Greek word "herpein," meaning "to creep." This refers to the unique characteristic pattern of all herpes viruses to creep along local nerve pathways to the nerve clusters at the end, where they remain in an inactive (dormant) state for variable periods of time. The usual cause of oral herpes (herpes labialis), which are commonly called cold sores or fever blisters. HSV-1 can also cause genital herpes, which is a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2). Until recently, the general rule was to assume that HSV-1 caused oral herpes and HSV-2 caused genital herpes.
It is now clear, however, that either type of herpes virus can be found in the genital or oral areas (or other sites). In fact, HSV-1 is now responsible for more than half of all new cases of genital herpes in developed countries. The Disease ProcessHerpes is transmitted through close skin-to-skin contact. To infect people, the herpes simplex viruses (both HSV-1 and HSV-2) must get into the body through tiny injuries in the skin or through a mucous membrane, such as inside the mouth or on the genital or anal areas. The risk for infection is highest with direct contact of blisters or sores during an outbreak. But the infection can also develop from contact with an infected partner who does not have visible sores or other symptoms. Once the virus has contact with the mucous membranes or skin wounds, it enters the nuclei of skin tissue cells and begins to replicate. The virus is then transported from the nerve endings of the skin to clusters of nerve cells (ganglia) where it remains inactive (latent) for some period of time.
However, at some point, the virus wakes up and travels along nerve pathways to the surface the skin where it begins to multiply again. During this time, the virus can infect other people if it is passed along in body fluids or secretions.
Viral shedding may be accompanied by noticeable symptoms (outbreak) but it can also occur without causing symptoms (asymptomatic shedding).
In either case, a person is infectious during periods of viral shedding. Symptoms may appear as multiple small red bumps or patches that develop blisters.
Certain triggers can wake up the virus from its dormant state and cause it to become active again. In general, recurrent episodes of herpes cause less severe symptoms than the primary outbreak.
HSV-1 is the most prevalent form of herpes simplex virus, and infection is most likely to occur during preschool years. In addition, because HSV-1 can be passed in saliva, people should also avoid sharing toothbrushes or eating utensils. Transmission of Genital Herpes Genital herpes is transmitted through sexual activity. People can get HSV-2 through genital contact or HSV-1 through mouth-to-genital contact with an infected partner.
People with active symptoms of genital herpes are at very high risk for transmitting the infection. Unfortunately, most cases of genital herpes infections occur when the virus is shedding but producing no symptoms.
Most people either have no symptoms or do not recognize them when they appear. In the past, genital herpes was mostly caused by HSV-2, but HSV-1 genital infection is increasing. There is also evidence that children today are less likely to get cold sores and become exposed to HSV-1 during childhood. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 1 in 6 Americans ages 14 to 49 years have genital herpes. While HSV-2 remains the main cause of genital herpes, HSV-1 has significantly increased as a cause, most likely because of oral-genital sex.
African-American women are at particularly high risk. People with compromised immune systems, such as those who have HIV, are at very high risk for genital herpes.
Drugs that suppress the immune system, and organ transplantation, can also weaken the immune system and increase the risk for contracting genital herpes. It is almost impossible to defend against the transmission of oral herpes, because it can be transmitted by very casual contact, including kissing.


Still, you can help reduce the risk of transmitting oral herpes by not sharing objects that touch the mouth, such as eating and drinking utensils, toothbrushes, and towels. It is best to refrain from any type of sex (vaginal, anal, or oral) during periods of active outbreak. However, herpes can also be transmitted when symptoms are not present (asymptomatic shedding).
Although condoms may not provide 100% protection, they are proven to significantly reduce the risk of sexual disease transmission, including herpes.
Natural condoms made from animal skin do NOT protect against HSV infection because herpes viruses can pass through them. Use a water-based lubricant. Lubricants can help prevent friction during sex, which can irritate the skin and increase the risk for outbreaks.
Only water-based lubricants (K-Y Jelly, Astroglide, AquaLube, and glycerin) should be used. However, it is best not to use condoms pre-lubricated with spermicides. Do not use spermicides for protection against herpes. Nonoxynol-9 can cause irritation around the genital areas, which makes it easier for herpes and other STDs to be transmitted. Use a dental dam or condom for oral sex. If you have any symptoms of oral herpes, it is best not to perform oral sex on a partner until any visible sores or blisters have healed. Limit the number of sexual partners.
The more sexual partners you have, the greater your chances of becoming infected or infecting others. It is very unlikely to transmit or contract genital herpes from a toilet seat or bath towel. Studies suggest that male circumcision may help reduce the risk of HSV-2, as well as human papillomavirus (HPV) and HIV infections. However, herpes can cause significant and widespread complications in people who don't have a fully functioning immune system. The CDC recommends that all people diagnosed with herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) get tested for HIV. Most people with HIV are co-infected with HSV-2 and are particularly vulnerable to its complications. HSV-2 infection increases HIV levels in the genital tract, which makes it easier for the HIV virus to be spread to sexual partners. Herpes and PregnancyPregnant women who have genital herpes due to either HSV-2 or HSV-1 have an increased risk for miscarriage, premature labor, inhibited fetal growth, or transmission of the herpes infection to the infant in the uterus or at the time of delivery. Herpes in newborn babies (herpes neonatalis) can be a very serious condition. Fortunately, neonatal herpes is rare.
Although about 25 to 30% of pregnant women have genital herpes, less than 0.1% of babies are born with neonatal herpes. The baby is at greatest risk during a vaginal delivery, especially if the mother has an asymptomatic infection that was first introduced late in the pregnancy. The risk for transmission also increases if infants with infected mothers are born prematurely, there is invasive monitoring, or instruments are used during vaginal delivery. Transmission can occur if the amniotic membrane of an infected woman ruptures prematurely, or as the infant passes through an infected birth canal.
This risk is increased if the woman is having or has recently had an active herpes outbreak in the genital area. Very rarely, the virus is transmitted across the placenta, a form of the infection known as congenital herpes.
Also rarely, newborns may contract herpes during the first weeks of life from being kissed by someone with a herpes cold sore. Infants may get congenital herpes from a mother with an active herpes infection at the time of birth.
Aggressive treatment with antiviral medication is required. Most infected pregnant women do not have a history of symptoms, so herpes infection is often not suspected or detected at the time of delivery. Fortunately, if a woman does have genital lesions, rapid diagnostic blood tests can quickly determine her chances of transmitting the virus to her baby during delivery.
Some women with new or recurrent herpes may also be prescribed antiviral medication during pregnancy. A woman with herpes can usually safely breastfeed her baby, as long as she does not have a lesion on her breast or nipple. Neonatal herpes can spread to the brain and central nervous system, causing encephalitis and meningitis. Herpes can also spread to internal organs, such as the liver and lungs. Infants infected with herpes are treated with acyclovir, an antiviral drug.
They usually receive several weeks of intravenous acyclovir treatment, often followed by several months of oral acyclovir. It is important to treat babies quickly, before the infection spreads to the brain and other organs. Fortunately, rapid diagnostic tests and treatment with acyclovir have significantly improved survival rates and reduced complication rates.
Nearly all who recover have some impairment, ranging from very mild neurological changes to paralysis.
Like encephalitis, meningitis symptoms include headache, fever, stiff neck, vomiting, and sensitivity to light. Fortunately, herpes meningitis usually resolves after about a week without complications, although symptoms can recur. Herpes Eye ComplicationsOcular herpes is a recurrent infection that affects the eyes. Ocular herpes is usually a simple infection that clears up in a few days, but in its more serious forms, and in severe cases, it can cause blindness. It only affects the upper layer (epithelium) of the cornea and heals with scarring. Stromal Keratitis. Iridocyclitis is another serious complication of ocular herpes, in which the iris and the area around it become inflamed. Herpes Skin ComplicationsEczema Herpeticum A rare form of herpes infection called eczema herpeticum, also known as Kaposi varicelliform eruption, can affect people with skin disorders and those with a weakened immune system. Untreated, this condition can be extremely serious and possibly fatal. Gingivostomatiti Oral herpes can cause multiple painful ulcers on the gums and mucus membranes of the mouth, a condition called gingivostomatitis.
Children with gingivostomatitis commonly develop herpetic whitlow (herpes of the fingers). Herpetic Whitlow A herpetic whitlow is an infection of the herpes virus involving the finger, often around the fingernail.
In children, this is often caused by thumb sucking or finger sucking while they have a cold sore.
It can also occur in adult health care workers, such as dentists, because of increased exposure to the herpes virus. The use of latex or polyurethane gloves prevents herpes whitlow in health care workers. SymptomsHerpes symptoms vary depending on whether the outbreak is initial or recurrent. The primary outbreak is usually worse than recurrent outbreaks, with more severe and prolonged symptoms. In fact, studies indicate that 10 to 25% of people infected with HSV-2 are unaware that they have genital herpes. The first signs are a tingling sensation in the affected areas (genitalia, buttocks, and thighs) and groups of small red bumps that develop into blisters. The sores may sometimes itch, but itching decreases as they heal. About 40% of men and 70% of women develop other symptoms during initial outbreaks of genital herpes, such as flu-like discomfort, headache, muscle aches, and fever.
Some women may have difficulty urinating and may, occasionally, require a urinary catheter.
Women may also experience vaginal discharge. Recurrent Genital Herpes Outbreak In general, recurrences are much milder than the initial outbreak. The virus sheds for a much shorter period of time (about 3 days) compared to an initial outbreak of 3 weeks. Women may have only minor itching, and the symptoms may be even milder in men. On average, people have about four recurrences during the first year, although this varies widely.
There are some differences in frequency of recurrence depending on whether HSV-2 or HSV-1 caused genital herpes.
HSV-2 genital infection is more likely to cause recurrences than HSV-1. Symptoms of Oral HerpesOral herpes (herpes labialis) is most often caused by HSV-1, but it can also be caused by HSV-2. It usually affects the lips and, in some primary attacks, the mucus membranes in the mouth. A herpes infection may occur on the cheeks or in the nose, but facial herpes is very uncommon. Primary Oral Herpes Infection If the primary (initial) oral infection causes symptoms, they can be very painful, particularly in children. The sores last 10 to 14 days and can be very uncomfortable. Blisters that may be preceded or accompanied by sore throat, fever, swollen glands, and painful swallowing.
Recurrent Oral Herpes Infection A recurrent oral herpes infection is much milder than the primary outbreak. It usually manifests as a single sore, commonly called a cold sore or fever blister (because it may arise during a bout of cold or flu).
The sore usually shows up on the outer edge of the lips and rarely affects the gums or throat. Recurrences of genital herpes are more likely with HSV-2 infection than with HSV-1 infection. The outbreak of infection is often preceded by a prodrome, an early group of symptoms that may include itchy skin, pain, or an abnormal tingling sensation at the site of infection.
Recurrent outbreaks feature most of the same symptoms at the same sites as the primary attack, but they tend to be milder and briefer. Occasionally, the symptoms may not resemble those of the primary episode, but appear as fissures and scrapes in the skin or as general inflammation around the affected area.
They include sunlight, wind, fever, physical injury, surgery, menstruation, suppression of the immune system, and emotional stress. Oral herpes can be triggered within about 3 days of intense dental work, particularly root canal or tooth extraction. Timing of Recurrences Recurrent outbreaks may occur at intervals of days, weeks, or years.
For most people, outbreaks recur with more frequency during the first year after an initial attack. The good news is that in most healthy people, recurring infections tend to become progressively less frequent, and less severe, over time.
However, other conditions can resemble herpes, and doctors cannot base a herpes diagnosis on visual inspection alone.
These tests include: Virologic tests (viral culture of the lesion) Serologic tests (blood tests that detect antibodies) The CDC recommends that both virologic and serologic tests be used for diagnosing genital herpes. People diagnosed with genital herpes should also be tested for other sexually transmitted diseases.
At this time, experts do not recommend screening for HSV-1 or HSV-2 in the general population. Genital herpes can be caused by either HSV-1 or HSV-2.
It is important to determine which virus is involved, as the type of herpes infection influences prognosis and treatment recommendations.
Recurrences of genital herpes, and viral shedding without overt symptoms, are much less frequent with HSV-1 infection than with HSV-2. False-negative (testing negative when herpes infection is actually present) or false-positive (testing positive when herpes infection is not actually present) results can occur. Your health care provider may recommend that you have a test repeated. Virologic TestsViral culture tests are made by taking a fluid sample, or culture, from the lesions as early as possible, ideally within the first 48 hours of the outbreak.
PCR tests are much faster and more accurate than viral cultures, and the CDC recommends PCR for detecting herpes in spinal fluid when diagnosing herpes encephalitis. PCR can make many copies of the virus' DNA, so that even small amounts of DNA in the sample can be detected.
However, many labs now use PCR for herpes testing because it is highly accurate. An older type of virologic testing, the Tzanck smear test, uses scrapings from herpes lesions.
The scrapings are stained and examined under a microscope for the presence of giant cells with many nuclei or distinctive particles that carry the virus (called inclusion bodies).
The Tzanck test is not reliable for providing a conclusive diagnosis of herpes infection and is not recommended by the CDC. Serologic TestsSerologic (blood) tests can identify antibodies that are specific for either HSV-1 or HSV-2. When the herpes virus infects you, your body's immune system produces specific antibodies to fight off the infection. If a blood test detects antibodies to herpes, it is evidence that you have been infected with the virus, even if the virus is in a non-active (dormant) state. The presence of antibodies to herpes also indicates that you are a carrier of the virus and might transmit it to others. Serologic tests can be especially useful for people who do not have active symptoms, but who have other risk factors for herpes (such as other STDs, multiple sex partners, or a monogamous partner who has genital herpes). Although glycoprotein (gG) type-specific tests have been available for many years, many of the older nontype-specific tests that cannot distinguish HSV-1 from HSV-2 are still on the market.
Canker sores frequently crop up singly or in groups on the inside of the mouth, or on or underneath the tongue.
The drugs are used initially to treat a first attack of herpes, and then afterward to either treat recurrent outbreaks (episodic therapy) or reduce frequency of recurrences (suppressive therapy).
Drugs can, however, reduce the severity of symptoms, improve healing times, and prevent recurrences.
If people experience very severe disease or complications, they need to be hospitalized and receive an antiviral drug intravenously. Your health care provider will prescribe one of the three antiviral medications, which you will take for 7 to 10 days. You should begin the medication as soon as you notice any signs or symptoms of herpes, preferably during the prodrome stage that precedes the outbreak of lesions. If taken during prodrome, episodic therapy may help prevent an outbreak from occurring or reduce its severity. Valacyclovir is taken once a day. Suppressive treatment can reduce the frequency of outbreak recurrences by 70 to 80%. It is generally recommended for people who have frequent recurrences (6 or more outbreaks per year).
Because herpes recurrences often diminish over time, you should discuss annually with your health care provider whether you should stay with drug therapy or discontinue it. While taking any suppressive therapy for genital herpes, it is still important to regularly use latex condoms and to avoid any sexual activity during recurrences. A new form of acyclovir (Sitavig) is administered orally as an adhesive tablet; it is applied to the gum region of the mouth, where it dissolves during the course of the day. In addition, acyclovir is available in topical form, as is the related drug penciclovir (Denavir). Topical TreatmentsThese ointments or creams can help shorten healing time and duration of symptoms.
However, none are truly effective at eliminating outbreaks. Penciclovir (Denavir) heals HSV-1 sores on average about half a day faster than without treatment, stops viral shedding, and reduces the duration of pain. Ideally, you should apply the cream within the first hour of symptoms, although the medication can still help if applied later. Apply the cream 5 times a day, beginning at the first sign of tingling or pain. Over-the-counter topical ointments may provide modest relief. They include Anbesol gel, Blistex lip ointment, Campho-phenique, Herpecin-L, Viractin, and Zilactin. Some contain a topical anesthetic such as benzocaine, tetracaine, or phenol. Lip balm that contains sunblock, or sunscreen applied around the lips may help prevent sun-triggered outbreaks. Herbs and SupplementsGenerally, manufacturers of herbal remedies and dietary supplements do not need FDA approval to sell their products. Just like a drug, herbs and supplements can affect the body's chemistry, and therefore have the potential to produce side effects that may be harmful. There have been several reported cases of serious and even lethal side effects from herbal products. Always check with your provider before using any herbal remedies or dietary supplements. Many herbal and dietary supplement products claim to help fight herpes infection by boosting the immune system. There has been little research on these products, and little evidence to show that they really work. Epidemiology, clinical presentation, and antibody response to primary infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in young women. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 among persons aged 14 - 49 years -- United States, 2005-2008. Guidance on management of asymptomatic neonates born to women with active genital herpes lesions.
Genital shedding of herpes simplex virus among symptomatic and asymptomatic persons with HSV-2 infection.



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