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admin | What Cures Bv | 05.02.2014
3.1 Students learn to explain why the concentration of water in cells should be maintained within a narrow range for optimal function.
It follows that a fixed concentration of substrate and enzymes is necessary for reactions to proceed at an ideal rate. 3.2 Students learn to explain why the removal of wastes is essential for continued metabolic activity. 3.3 Students learn to identify the role of the kidney in the excretory system of fish and mammals. 3.4 Students perform a first-hand investigation of the structure of a mammalian kidney by dissection, use of a model or visual resource and identify the regions involved in the excretion of waste products. Renal dialysis is similar to kidney function except that essential substances passively filtered from the blood are replaced by adding them to the blood. Active animals produce considerable quantities of nitrogenous wastes that must be removed quickly. 3.7 Students learn to distinguish between active and passive transport and relate these to processes occurring in the mammalian kidney.
In the first part of the nephron after the Bowmana€™s capsule, called the proximal tubule (see below), many of these molecules are a€?pumpeda€? back into the blood vessels as they wrap around the tubule.
The way the kidney filters the blood is analogous to a student tidying his desk by throwing everything onto the floor, then replacing only the materials he needs on the desk. 3.8 Students learn to explain how the processes of filtration and reabsorption in the mammalian nephron regulate body fluid composition.
The material collected in the Bowmana€™s capsule then passes into the proximal tubule where selective (active) reabsorption of all the glucose, amino acids, vitamins and hormones occurs.
The filtrate then passes down and up the loop of Henle in the medulla (inner) part of the kidney. The distal (distant from the glomerulus) convoluted tubule is mainly responsible for the regulation of potassium, pH (acidity) and calcium concentration in the body. From the distal tubule, the filtrate passes to the collecting tubule which joins other tubules, connects to the ureter and transports the urine to the bladder. 3.9 Students learn to outline the role of the hormones, aldosterone and ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) in the regulation of water and salt levels in blood.
You will know that tea and coffee increase the amount of urine produced - they are diuretics. Sense organs in the pituitary gland detect falls in osmotic pressure caused by a reduction of blood volume. A range of other sensors (including stretch receptors in the atria of the heart) detect falls in blood pressure due to dehydration and loss of salts from the blood. Aldosterone and ADH are both hormones that increase the reabsorption of water and sodium ions from the filtrate in the tubules of the nephron. 3.11 Students learn to define enantiostasis as the maintenance of metabolic and physiological functions in response to variations in the environment and discuss its importance to estuarine organisms in maintaining appropriate salt concentrations.


Work extra hard and reduce your social activities so that you can maintain your standard and avoid getting into trouble with parents or teachers? Do the same amount of work as usual and keep up your social life but tolerate the lower assessment ranking and criticisms you are bound to get?
Estuaries are places where the salinity of water changes during the day as the tides move in or out. If you can handle these concepts, it would be in your interest to find out the meaning of the words a€?osmoregulatorsa€? and a€?osmoconformersa€? so that you can improve the quality of your answers to questions on this dot point.
3.12 Students analyse information from secondary sources to compare and explain the differences in urine concentration of terrestrial mammals, marine fish and freshwater fish.
Marine fish have no trouble getting enough minerals - the oceana€™s water is full of minerals. Freshwater fish have the opposite problem - water tends to move into their cells by osmosis and minerals tend to diffuse out. 3.14 Students process and analyse information from secondary sources and use available evidence to discuss processes used by different plants for salt regulation in saline environments. 3.15 Students perform a first-hand investigation to gather information about structures in plants that assist in the conservation of water.
3.16 Students learn to describe adaptations of a range of terrestrial Australian plants that assist in minimising water loss. In the photograph of an Acacia sp seedling below, you can see that the first leaf to form was a bipinnate (compound) leaf.
In the next photograph, the leaves of a Casuarina sp (She-Oak) are shown to be reduced to tiny brown scales - the stems are acting as leaves. The leaves of Banksia serrata have a thick cuticle (Cu), tough sclerencyma (tough support tissue Sl) and most obviously, stomates in deep pits which have many hairs.
3.A A  Plants and animals regulate the concentration of gases, water and waste products of metabolism in cells and in interstitial fluid.
Osmosis and diffusion are passive - no energy is required from the organism.A  Active transport requires the expenditure of energy. In the first part of the nephron after the Bowmana€™s capsule, called the proximal tubuleA  (see below), many of these molecules are a€?pumpeda€? back into the blood vessels as they wrap around the tubule.A  This process requires energy because the materials must pass against a diffusion gradient. The material collected in the Bowmana€™s capsule then passes into the proximal tubule where selective (active) reabsorption of all the glucose, amino acids, vitamins and hormones occurs.A A  Most of the mineral ions and water are also reabsorbed here.
It is important to keep the volume and salt concentration of blood at a constant level.A  The hormones aldosterone and ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) control blood volume and salt concentration. You will know that tea and coffee increase the amount of urine produced - they are diuretics.A  ADH and aldosterone do the opposite - they reduce the volume of urine produced by the kidney.
2.Do the same amount of work as usual and keep up your social life but tolerate the lower assessment ranking and criticisms you are bound to get? Organisms that live in aquatic environments have the same a€?choicea€?.A A  If the water becomes more or less salty than usual, they can either work hard to maintain homeostasis or they can tolerate the change (and compensate in some way - just like you might keep a low profile).


Freshwater fish have the opposite problem - water tends to move into their cells by osmosis and minerals tend to diffuse out.A  As a result, to help overcome these problems, freshwater fish produce large volumes of very dilute urine.
This dot point will be (has been) covered in practical lessons.A A  Refer to your Practical Record Book.
The leaves of Banksia serrata have a thick cuticle (Cu), tough sclerencyma (tough support tissue Sl) and most obviously, stomates in deep pits which have many hairs.A A  The hairs slow the movement of air and hence reduce the rate of water loss from the pits and hence from the stomates.
Ganglion Cyst Cure: Complete guide to ganglion cyst causes, types, symptoms, treatment and prevention. If you have a ganglion cyst* on your hand or foot, the treatments can be painful, if not dire:  you can go to your doctor who will insert a big needle and drain the cyst (ouch!), you can have surgery- expensive and painful a€“ double ouch or the old folk remedy is to hit it with the family bible a€“ triple ouch! And as there seem to be more people being ill and that we might have entered the cold and flu season, I thought I might as well share my findings, here on the blog with you.
If you don’t like the taste of plain water, try sparkling water or add a slice of lemon or lime. Meanwhile, advice on how to ease the cold symptoms naturally includes inhaling steam, which can help loosen the mucus in your nose, making it easier to clear by blowing. After having finding myself having to go to bed before 6pm last night I thought it would be useful to look into how I can get better.
Do not do too much physical around the house but allow your body to recover whilst fully rested.
When you are having a cold and your body looses extra fluid drinking plenty of water is really important, as it helps replace fluids lost from fever and respiratory tract evaporation, and it helps loosen mucus.
Cold fresh air combined with more pillows for a slightly raised head will also help coughing. Ad two crisp English apples, one large sweet orange and one carrot together with lime and fresh ginger to taste in your juicer. To ensure a proper sleep, which you will need for a speedy recovery, drink boiled water with honey and black pepper before going to bed. Take a hot shower or boil water and poor it into a bowl, before resting your face above the steam. Yes, I’m sure you can get up and do it, but family and friends would be more than happy to help, so you can stay in bed and get well sooner.
Little use of you going to work only to pass the cold on to colleagues (and fellow commuters on your way). And you should eat healthy, starting the day with a strengthening oat porridge in the morning (make a oat soup if you are finding it difficult to swallow).



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