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Hard X-rays can penetrate solid objects, and their largest use is to take images of the inside of objects in diagnostic radiography and crystallography. The roentgen (R) is an obsolete traditional unit of exposure, which represented the amount of radiation required to create one electrostatic unit of charge of each polarity in one cubic centimeter of dry air. The rad is the (obsolete) corresponding traditional unit, equal to 10 millijoules of energy deposited per kilogram.
The sievert (Sv) is the SI unit of equivalent dose, which for X-rays is numerically equal to the gray (Gy).
X-rays are generated by an X-ray tube, a vacuum tube that uses a high voltage to accelerate the electrons released by a hot cathode to a high velocity. In crystallography, a copper target is most common, with cobalt often being used when fluorescence from iron content in the sample might otherwise present a problem.
X-ray fluorescence: If the electron has enough energy it can knock an orbital electron out of the inner electron shell of a metal atom, and as a result electrons from higher energy levels then fill up the vacancy and X-ray photons are emitted.
So the resulting output of a tube consists of a continuous bremsstrahlung spectrum falling off to zero at the tube voltage, plus several spikes at the characteristic lines. In medical diagnostic applications, the low energy (soft) X-rays are unwanted, since they are totally absorbed by the body, increasing the dose. To generate an image of the cardiovascular system, including the arteries and veins (angiography) an initial image is taken of the anatomical region of interest. A specialized source of X-rays which is becoming widely used in research is synchrotron radiation, which is generated by particle accelerators. The most commonly known methods are photographic plates, photographic film in cassettes, and rare earth screens. Before the advent of the digital computer and before invention of digital imaging, photographic plates were used to produce most radiographic images. Since photographic plates are sensitive to X-rays, they provide a means of recording the image, but they also required much X-ray exposure (to the patient), hence intensifying screens were devised.
Areas where the X-rays strike darken when developed, causing bones to appear lighter than the surrounding soft tissue. Contrast compounds containing barium or iodine, which are radiopaque, can be ingested in the gastrointestinal tract (barium) or injected in the artery or veins to highlight these vessels. An increasingly common method is the use of photostimulated luminescence (PSL), pioneered by Fuji in the 1980s.
The PSP plate can be reused, and existing X-ray equipment requires no modification to use them.
For many applications, counters are not sealed but are constantly fed with purified gas, thus reducing problems of contamination or gas aging. Some materials such as sodium iodide (NaI) can "convert" an X-ray photon to a visible photon; an electronic detector can be built by adding a photomultiplier. So brush up on this toilet trivia, and then pay attention to how often you go, how long it takes, and what the end result looks and, yes, smells like. On the other hand, foods packed with insoluble fiber, such as corn, oat bran, and carrots, are more difficult for your body to digest, which explains why they may emerge in the toilet bowl looking relatively unchanged. A bowel movement never smells pleasant, but particularly pungent stool is often a sign of infection, according to Sheth. Do you hit the bathroom at the same exact time every morning, or can you go days before you need to go No. Digestion can take anywhere from 24 to 72 hours, during which time the food you’ve eaten travels down your esophagus to your stomach, then to your small intestine, your large intestine, and out through the anus.
Diarrhea is the result of stool passing too quickly through the large intestine, where most of the water content is absorbed. The act of flatulence is embarrassing, at least for some, but this result of harmless bacteria breaking down food in the large intestine is completely healthy. Studies suggest that the more time you spend in the bathroom, specifically reading, the more likely you are to develop hemorrhoids, or swollen blood vessels in and around the anus. Most of the time, a diet devoid of fiber, which keeps your bowels regular and prevents constipation and hard stools, is to blame.
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This process produces an emission spectrum of X-ray frequencies, sometimes referred to as the spectral lines.
The intensity of the X-rays increases linearly with decreasing frequency, from zero at the energy of the incident electrons, the voltage on the X-ray tube. A second image is then taken of the same region after iodinated contrast material has been injected into the blood vessels within this area. The contrast compounds have high atomic numbered elements in them that (like bone) essentially block the X-rays and hence the once hollow organ or vessel can be more readily seen.
In modern hospitals a photostimulable phosphor plate (PSP plate) is used in place of the photographic plate. The rest is an often-stinky combination of fiber, dead and live bacteria, other cells, and mucus. Oz Show, who explained during a now-famous appearance on The Oprah Winfrey Show that the perfect stool is log-like and S-shaped, not broken up into pieces. Terrible-smelling poops are a signature side effect of one stomach bug caused by the parasite giardia, ingested most often by swimming in fresh water lakes. Sheth notes in his book that South Asians unload nearly three times as much stool as British people do, a difference he explains is largely due to the higher fiber content in the average Indian diet. Floating stools are often an indication of high fat content, which can be a sign of malabsorption, a condition in which you can't absorb enough fat and other nutrients from the food you’re ingesting.
Your colon is filled with bacteria that release gas as a byproduct of digesting the food you eat.
It sounds like a strange correlation, but think about it: The longer you stay in the bathroom trying to go, the more pressure and stress you put down there. Most Americans eat 10 to 15 grams of fiber a day; doctors recommend 30 to 35 grams to prevent hemorrhoids, according to researchers from Los Angeles Medical Center. In a study released earlier this month, British researchers discovered that one in six cell phones may be contaminated with fecal matter that can spread E.

View all.ConnectDon't miss out on breaking news, live chats, lively debates, and inspiring stories. The spectral lines generated depend on the target (anode) element used and thus are called characteristic lines.
These two images are then digitally subtracted, leaving an image of only the iodinated contrast outlining the blood vessels.
Photographic film largely replaced these plates, and it was used in X-ray laboratories to produce medical images. In the pursuit of a non-toxic contrast material, many types of high atomic number elements were evaluated.
After the plate is X-rayed, excited electrons in the phosphor material remain "trapped" in "colour centres" in the crystal lattice until stimulated by a laser beam passed over the plate surface.
Electrons accelerate toward the anode, in the process causing further ionization along their trajectory.
Soluble fibers found in foods like beans and nuts are broken down during digestion and form a gel-like substance that becomes part of your poop.
Sheth has seen patients get full work-ups for bright red stool that turned out to be nothing more than the passing of beets. Part of getting that log-style shape, compared to poo that comes out more pebbly-looking, comes from eating fiber, which lends bulk to stool and acts as a glue to keep the stool stuck together as it exits your body.
It could also suggest a more serious digestive condition such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, or celiac disease. They can also result from food allergies or intolerances, like lactose intolerance, or from other digestive issues. Your body absorbs some of it into the bloodstream, which you breathe out through your lungs, and expels the rest out of your other end. Sheth suggests asking someone whose healthy gut bacteria likely differs from yours; ideally, a friend or family member who lives in a different household.
Sitting for too long on the toilet can also restrict blood flow around the anal area, which can make hemorrhoids worse. Join the conversation!Free NewslettersPersonalized tips and information to get and stay healthier every day. Physicians might consider that Morgellons and Bartonella are in some way intertwined.??Morgellons sufferers report an array of symptoms happening just under the skin, such as the emergence of fibers and filament clusters, specks, particles and sand shaped granules, yet physicians are unaware of this phenomena because they are not using enlargement devices. The radiologist or surgeon then compares the image obtained to normal anatomical images to determine if there is any damage or blockage of the vessel. In more recent years, computerized and digital radiography has been replacing photographic film in medical and dental applications, though film technology remains in widespread use in industrial radiography processes (e.g.
For example, the first time the forefathers used contrast it was chalk, and was used on a cadaver's vessels. This process, known as a Townsend avalanche, is detected as a sudden current, called a "count" or "event". Leafy vegetables can cause green stool, while certain medications can make your waste look white or clay-colored. Pencil-thin poops, on the other hand, can be a sign of rectal cancer, which narrows the opening through which stool passes, according to Sheth. It’s normal to pass gas anywhere from 10 to 18 times a day, according to the American College of Gastroenterology. An unaided visual exam using the naked eye is no longer appropriate to an emerging illness involving so many artifacts. When the film is developed, the parts of the image corresponding to higher X-ray exposure are dark, leaving a white shadow of bones on the film. No one trusts the judgment of a mechanic who refuses to look under the hood of a car. A more thorough approach needs to be taken using equipment such as dermascopes and microscopes, as this is the only way to identify the microscopic fibers that are the defining symptom of Morgellons, and which separates it from all other diseases. Photographic plates are mostly things of history, and their replacement, the "intensifying screen", is also fading into history. Though it could be from something as harmless as iron supplements or black licorice, the color could also be a sign of bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Using a dermascope can also prevent misdiagnosing diseases that have some similar symptoms, such as Lyme (although some patients may have both). The metal silver (formerly necessary to the radiographic & photographic industries) is a non-renewable resource. Microscopic enlargement needs to be at minimum 60x-200x in order to see the fibers clearly. As evidenced in the photos in our galleries, there is something clearly wrong with the skin of Morgellons sufferers. Thus it is beneficial that this is now being replaced by digital (DR) and computed (CR) technology.
Where photographic films required wet processing facilities, these new technologies do not. Most doctors currently believe that the fibers patients come to see them about are 'textile' in nature. If you take a look at the galleries of fibers in urine, stool, blood, skin, and hair, you will see that these filaments are invading the body systemically and cannot possibly be textile.
Click here to view other particles in the skin as well as other unidentified artifacts.?• ?Randy Wymore, Director of OSU-CHS Center for the Investigation of Morgellons Disease and Associate Professor of Pharmacology and Physiology had the fibers analyzed at the Tulsa police department's forensic laboratory. The Morgellons particles didn't match any of the 800 fibers on their database, nor the 85,000 known organic compounds. For those insisting the CDC study of Morgellons laid down the law for definitive answers about Morgellons, I'd suggest you listen to Doctor Randy Wymore speak more in depth about the study and its inherent flaws and bias.
Many clinicians refer to this condition as delusional parasitosis or delusional infestation and consider the filaments to be introduced textile fibers.
In contrast, recent studies indicate that MD is a true somatic illness associated with tickborne infection, that the filaments are keratin and collagen in composition and that they result from proliferation and activation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the skin. Previously, spirochetes have been detected in the dermatological specimens from four MD patients, thus providing evidence of an infectious process. (2013) has revealed the presence of Borrelia in Morgellons lesions in everyone tested. It is the subject of considerable debate within the medical profession and is often labeled as delusions of parasitosis or dermatitis artefacta.
This view is challenged by recent published scientific data put forward between 2011-2013 identifying the filaments found in MD as keratin and collagen based and furthermore associated with spirochetal infection.
The novel model of the dermopathy put forward by those authors is further described and, in particular, presented as a dermal manifestation of the multi-system disease complex borreliosis otherwise called Lyme disease.
The requirements for a diagnosis of delusional disorder from a psychiatric perspective are clarified and the psychological or psychiatric co-morbidity that can be found with MD cases is presented.

Management of the multisytem disease complex is discussed both in general and from a dermatological perspective. Despite evidence demonstrating that an infectious process is involved and that lesions are not self-inflicted, many medical practitioners continue to claim that this illness is delusional.
We present relevant clinical observations combined with chemical and light microscopic studies of material collected from three patients with Morgellons disease. Our study demonstrates that Morgellons disease is not delusional and that skin lesions with unusual fibers are not self-inflicted or psychogenic.
Proliferative stages of bovine digital dermatitis demonstrate keratin filament formation in skin above the hooves in affected animals. The multifactorial etiology of digital dermatitis is not well understood, but spirochetes and other coinfecting microorganisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of this veterinary illness.
Morgellons disease is an emerging human dermopathy characterized by the presence of filamentous fibers of undetermined composition, both in lesions and subdermally. While the etiology of Morgellons disease is unknown, there is serological and clinical evidence linking this phenomenon to Lyme borreliosis and coinfecting tick-borne agents.
Although the microscopy of Morgellons filaments has been described in the medical literature, the structure and pathogenesis of these fibers is poorly understood. In contrast, most microscopy of digital dermatitis has focused on associated pathogens and histology rather than the morphology of late-stage filamentous fibers.
The most effective antibiotics have included tetracyclines (doxycycline, minocycline), macrolides (Zithromax, Biaxin), Septra DS, and quinolone drugs (Cipro, Levaquin, Avelox, and Factive). Often the skin lesions and associated symptoms resolve once the above antibiotics are used in a comprehensive treatment plan" ??Horowitz, Richard (2013-11-12).
Why Can't I Get Better?: Solving the Mystery of Lyme and Chronic Disease (Kindle Locations 2662-2666). Still, 100% of the patients, that were felt to genuinely haveMorgellons Disease, have large microscopic-to small macroscopic fibersvisible under their outer layer of skin.
These fibers are not associated withscabs or open lesions, nor are they under scarred tissue. The idea thatMorgellons fibers are mere fuzz and lint, simply sticking to the lesions andscabs, is not possible based on the observations that were just described.These fibers are under "normal-appearing" areas of skin.
The photographs indicate that the particles are very active, and are growing "tendrils," fibers," "ruffles," protrusions," and are creating connections between themselves. These connecting "fibers" appear to be creating translucent "crystal clear" objects that give the appearance of "crystal fibers."                                                                              —Fungihomeworld. 5mar2010                 ?                   ?        Although Morgellons has no known "cure" at this time, we believe recognizing and identifying the disease gives a patient something to go on so they can start becoming proactive with their health. Often these visits are out-of-pocket expenditures as patients escalate up the food chain to specialists not within their health plans, bankrupting themselves unnecessarily. Having a diagnosis will allow sufferers to make informed decisions about their next healthcare choices. There is no silver bullet when it comes to Morgellons. A holistic approach working with diet and pH, plus supplements to rebuild the body's systems is one avenue towards proactive change and symptom reduction. Fibers and particles in various states of emergence from the skin. This mass exodus happens after coconut oil has been applied to my skin and usually takes 3-4 hours after application to see these kind of results.
Fibers under the skin can clearly be seen in these photos as well as in urine and stool, plus the lab doing DNA testing has noted that they are seeing fibers in stool samples.
I truly do not understand how this could be misconstrued as a mental illness—and anti-depressants and anti-psychotics are not a fix. This community is looking for a way to repair the health of the body.  A quick Google search revealed that only a quarter of the dermatologists in the United States even own a dermascope.
Plus, a scope that only enlarges 10 or 15 times, is not going to be appropriate for diagnosis of Morgellons.
The fact that our doctors are supposedly experts and authorities, and considered the last word in the eyes of most of the public, yet are clearly not equipped to diagnose a new disease such as Morgellons, reflects poorly on the medical profession.?You have power to move the Morgellons cause along, if only you will participate. We need your support and input as health "authorities" to bring credibility to the phenomenon? happening. If you think there are not enough people sick with this disease to warrant your time, think again and heed a call from those of us who are looking at the skin of our friends and families and are finding fibers in them.
As of yet, this "healthy" population is asymptomatic, but we believe they are carrying the seeds of this disease in their systems. Imagine a world in which every patient going for a physical with their GP or dermatologist had 3 minutes devoted to examination of the skin with a scope—and what kind of data could be gathered from this! That's the kind of world I would like to live in. One final note before I step off my soapbox is to reinforce the oath you took on becoming a doctor.
DOP in patients records have led to loss of their legal rights, hospitalization against their will and in some cases children being removed from their parents.
Also, be cautious as to how you phase things as in "I'm having crawling sensations on my skin." instead of "I'm infested with bugs!" I'd refrain from using the term "Morgellons" until you sense you can trust your practitioner. Click the links to see extensive documentation of Morgellons fibers in Urine, Stool, Blood, Skin, Hair Above: Fiber is magnified 200x. At the time this was taken, my urine pH was very low (acidic) and I was having a hard time bringing it up to alkaline for two days. When I checked my skin I saw many more fibers then usual and many were still under the skin. I asked myself what would cause such fiber growth, and made the connection to an acidic system. It it my personal wish to see physicians actually begin to use magnification so that they may understand the phenomena their patients are experiencing. Photo submitted courtesy of oddiyfuqoro NA will? Above: This particle is one of the classic forms I find being expelled from the body. The Morgellons particles didn't match any of the 800 fibers on their database, nor the 85,000 known organic compounds. For those insisting the CDC study of Morgellons laid down the law for definitive answers about Morgellons, I'd suggest you listen to Doctor Randy Wymore speak more in depth about the study and its inherent flaws and bias. Often the skin lesions and associated symptoms resolve once the above antibiotics are used in a comprehensive treatment plan" ??Horowitz, Richard (2013-11-12).

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