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A chest X-ray (CXR) or chest radiograph is an image obtained by passing ionizing X-rays (electromagnetic radiation) through the chest (thorax). The x-ray of chest is may be taken from different angles based on the direction of passing the ionizing X-rays.
Posterior-anterior (PA) view refers to X-ray images taken by allowing x-rays to pass from the back side of the body to the front side of chest and fall on the x-ray film placed in front of chest.
Anterior-posterior (AP) view refers to X-ray images taken by allowing the ionizing rays to pass from front to the back of the chest where the x-ray film is placed.
Lateral view refers to films obtained by pass X-rays from one side of the patient towards the other side where film is placed. Other occasionally used views of chest X-ray include decubitus view (lying down position), oblique and expiratory view. Structures which can be examined in chest X-rays are airways, cardiac shadow, ribs and thoracic vertebra, position of trachea, costophrenic angle (angle between diaphragm and rib cage), cardiophrenic angle, diaphragm, lung parenchyma, breast shadow and other soft tissue shadows. Localised opacities are seen in pneumonia (inflammation of lung parenchyma), lung inflammation due to radiation exposure (radiation pneumonitis), infarction of lung, and certain lung malignancies. Single well-defined opacities are seen in lung cancer, tuberculosis, localized bacterial and fungal infections, cyst arising from the bronchus, blood vessel malformation and in autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis and Wegener’s granulomatosis). Multiple diffuse patchy opacities are seen in lung fibrosis, Pneumocystitis carnii pneumonia, allergic pneumonitis, and in occupational lung diseases (pneumoconiosis). Diffuse alveolar patchy opacities are seen in lung edema in heart failure, alveolar haemorrhage, acute respiratory distress syndrome and sarcoidosis.
Diffuse nodular opacities are seen in metastatic cancer of the lung, haematogenous (blood) spread of bacteria, virus and fungus to lung, and in occupational lung diseases. Bronchial asthma can cause hyperinflation in patients with severe bronchial asthma, whereas in mild and moderate bronchial asthma it appears normal. Acute and sub-acute allergic pneumonitis can present with poorly defined, diffuse and patchy infiltration of lung.
Lung fibrosis is usually secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis, hence more common near the apex of the lungs. Pleural effusion (collection of fluid in pleural sac) presents with uniform homogenous opacity which is obliquely inclined with more opacities towards the outer end of the lung margin.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): Increased translucency, diminished lung marking, flattening of the diaphragm, hyperinflation of lung and presence of bullae suggest emphysema.
Pneumothorax (collection of air in pleural sac): There will be uniform opacity on one side of lung and trachea and heart will be pushed towards the opposite side of pneumothorax. Hydropneumothorax presents with uniform opacities with the meniscus exactly transverse to the line of patient. Empyema which is characterized by collection of pus in the pleural cavity shows the fluid level similar to the hydropneumothorax. Lung abscess is characterized by collection of pus in the lungs which is characterized by presence of cavity filled with fluid and air in the X-ray. Bronchiectasis (destructive dilatation of larger airways): This may appear normal on X-ray, but certain types of bronchiectasis may show cystic dilatations with or without air fluid levels.
Pulmonary embolism : This may present with focal reduced blood flow (oligemia), wedge shaped opacities, and sometimes there might be enlargement of right pulmonary artery.
Lung cancer may present as solitary pulmonary nodule mainly near the apex of lung, and serial x-ray show characteristic doubling time of 6 to 18 months in malignant cancers, and doubling time of more than 24 months in case of benign cancers.
Pneumoconiosis (occupational lung diseases) are due to chronic exposure to minerals, metals and organic material which characteristically present with allergic pneumonitis. Heart failure may be associated with enlargement of heart, prominence of vascular marking in lungs, and variation in shape of heart.
Coarctation of aorta is constriction of aorta distal to left subclavian artery and this presents with dilatation of left subclavian artery and ascending aorta. Tetrology of fallot is a congenital heart disease characterized by pulmonary stenosis, right ventricular hypertrophy, ventricular septal defect and overriding of aorta. Pulmonary stenosis is obstruction to the flow of blood from right ventricle to pulmonary artery due to narrowing of the pulmonary artery, and is associated with enlargement of the right ventricle. Mitral stenosis is a narrowing of the mitral valve opening hence it causes resistance to flow of blood from left atrium to left ventricle. Mitral regurgitation is back flow of blood from left ventricle back to left atrium due to incomplete closure of mitral valve. Aortic stenosis is narrowing of aortic opening hence left ventricle may not pump sufficient blood into aorta with each heart beat. Tricuspid stenosis is characterised by obstruction of blood flow from right atrium to right ventricle due narrowing of opening of tricuspid valve.
Perforation of the intestines or perforated gastric ulcer can show presence of gas under diaphragm on x-ray. Other features due to traumatic injury like pneumothorax, hemorrhage in thoracic cavity and hydropneumothrorax may be diagnosed using a chest X-ray. Ask a Doctor Online Now!Please note that any information or feedback on this website is not intended to replace a consultation with a health care professional and will not constitute a medical diagnosis.
Documentation is an integrated component of the process of developing a nursing care plan that is initiated by the appropriate nursing personnel. For demonstration purposes, the abbreviated medical history below is appropriate for all examples (Figs. Figure AppD-1A addresses the three major NANDA diagnoses, which are numbered in the NANDA Diagnosis column. Each NANDA diagnosis would be addressed separately using the APIE format based upon the nursing assessment, the care plan, and the NANDAs. With charting by exception, the nurse generally starts by working with a standard systems flow sheet (Fig. Figure AppD-5 shows a graphic flow sheet that indicates multiple areas of routine charting. FIGURE 2 · Example of problem area (focus) charting: SOAP (subjective, objective, analysis, plan). FIGURE 3 · Example of problem area (focus) charting: APIE (assessment, problem, implementation, evaluation).
Pelvic inflammatory disease is the most common preventable cause of infertility in the United States. Pelvic inflammatory disease is most common in women younger than age 25 who have more than one sex partner.
Your doctor will ask about your medical history, including the sexual habits of both you and your partner or partners.
The diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease is not always easy because the site of infection cannot be examined easily. During the pelvic examination, your doctor may swab the inside of your cervix with a sterile, cotton-tipped swab.
Laparoscopy — A slender, telescope-like instrument is inserted through a small incision in the navel or just below it.
Ultrasound — An electronic device is moved over the abdomen or placed in the vagina, creating echoes that are transformed into images of organs for viewing on a screen. Most cases of pelvic inflammatory disease clear up after 10 to 14 days of antibiotic treatment.
Other than avoiding sexual intercourse, there is no guaranteed way to prevent pelvic inflammatory disease. Because most cases of pelvic inflammatory disease are linked to STDs, treating a woman's sex partners is essential to prevent repeat infections.
The primary treatment for pelvic inflammatory disease is antibiotics, and in most cases, antibiotics alone can cure the infection. If you are being treated for pelvic inflammatory disease, call your doctor two to three days after beginning treatment to report your progress.
Some women with a severe infection need to be hospitalized to receive antibiotics intravenously. As with any significant infection, bed rest or reduced activity is important to promote recovery. Getting prompt treatment and follow-up care can cure pelvic inflammatory disease and keep it from causing further problems. CDC National Prevention Information Network (NPIN) National Center for HIV, STD and TB PreventionP.O.


Disclaimer: This content should not be considered complete and should not be used in place of a call or visit to a health professional. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own personal medication records.
Developing chronic kidney disease (CKD) could cause you a progressive and unstoppable loss of renal function over a specific timeframe. Vascular problems in the kidneys and the inflammation of the glomerular could increase the chances of developing kidney diseases because these medical conditions alter the functioning of the kidney. The best way to determine whether a person is suffering from CKD is to create a checklist of its symptoms and signs. As the functioning of the kidney decreases, the common symptoms of CKD subsequently emerge. People who undergo therapy for CKD usually aim to control the progressive decrease in their kidney function. Der Circulus arteriosus cerebri ist ein arterieller Gefa?ring an der Gehirnbasis, welcher der Blutversorgung des Gehirns dient. Die Anatomie des Circulus arteriosus cerebri ist au?erordentlich variantenreich, so dass die Bedeutung der Gefa?e, die Blut in den Circulus arteriosus cerebri einspeisen sehr unterschiedlich sein kann. Der Circulus arteriosus cerebri bildet einen Kollateralkreislauf (Anastomose), der bei Verschluss einer der beteiligten Arterien in gewissen Grenzen die Durchblutung des Gehirns aufrecht erhalten kann. However, if the virus moves into the chronic stage, your liver will become inflamed permanently, which will lead to cirrhosis. Chronic hepatitis C, clinically speaking, has a habit of only being found by accident as it can go years without any symptoms at all.
Chronic Hepatitis B, it's called the silent killer and it affects millions of people around the world. Symptoms of hepatitis B can be pretty mild as around 30% of people infected have no early symptoms. Knowing you have an STD is probably going to be a private part of your life you wouldn't want everyone to know about, so we've put together a small tutorial on how to erase you browsing history in a number of popular browsers so whoever sits down at the computer next won't suddenly start asking unwanted questions about your medical condition. This is helpful in screening and diagnosing various diseases of the organs in the thoracic cavity including the airways and alveoli (lungs), pleura, heart and blood vessels, bones, diaphragm, and certain gastrointestinal conditions. This is the least commonly used view as the interpretation of the information in these films is difficult. Presence of pneumatoceles indicates that the cause of pneumonia as staphylococcal infection. Chronic allergic pneumonitis and progressive allergic pneumonitis present with honey comb appearance. Other findings suggestive of COPD on X-ray include pneumonic opacities and heart failure features.
Dilated airways may appear to run parallel giving tram track appearance when viewed longitudinally, or may show ring shadows when seen in cross section. Alveoli are typically deflated and exert negative pressure which pulls the trachea and heart towards the side of atelactasis. Silica and coal dust exposure is characterized by small round opacities, and asbestosis exposure is characterized by linear opacities. There might be notching of 3rd to 9th rib due to erosion of inferior rib by dilated collateral blood vessels. Hypertrophic and restrictive cardiomyopathy may show very mild cardiac enlargement on X-ray. In chest X-ray heart appears boot-shaped and vascular marking in the lung may be diminished.
X-ray shows straightening of left upper border of heart, pulmonary arteries will be very prominent, and the esophagus will be pushed back. X-ray characteristically shows enlargement of left atrium, there will be increased prominence of pulmonary blood vessels. Hypertrophy of left ventricle of heart may present with rounding off of apex of heart in chest X-ray.
Large hernia may be made out in normal chest X-ray, and there might be features suggestive of aspiration in lower lobes of lung. Computerized templates of forms or hard copy pen-and-paper preprinted forms can be used, depending on the individual facility needs, resources, and requirements. The documentation is written as a narrative as the events occurred (ie, narrative chronological charting). For instructional purposes using this example, the NANDA diagnoses are also in bold italics within the charting. At the time of the collection of data, the nurse also discovers significant abnormal findings related to nausea, abdominal distention, and pain. AppD-4A), which indicates most normal findings according to body system (neurologic, cardiovascular, and so forth) or other organized, preprinted format. Gastrointestinal tissue perfusion ineffective related to mechanical blockage of peristalsis as manifested by hyperactive bowel sounds RUQ, absent bowel sounds in remaining quadrants, and acute, severe abdominal pain and nausea. It is the most common serious infection among young women, with approximately 1 million new cases diagnosed in the United States each year. The infection can cause tissue inside the fallopian tubes to become scarred, which can damage the fallopian tubes or block them completely. Women who have had an STD have a higher risk of getting pelvic inflammatory disease, as do those who have already had a previous pelvic infection. Ultrasound can help the doctor see if the fallopian tubes are swollen or there is an abscess, which is a collection of infected fluid.
However, women who are in stable sexual relationships with only one partner have very little risk if neither person was infected with an STD from a previous partner. All recent sex partners of a woman with pelvic inflammatory disease should be examined by a doctor and treated as if they had both gonorrhea and chlamydia. Because pelvic inflammatory disease often is caused by more than one type of organism, two or more antibiotics may be necessary. If your condition is not improving, you will need to visit your doctor again to have another examination.
If fever and pain do not improve after several days, you may need a pelvic ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) scan to see if an abscess has formed. Pain and discomfort can be relieved with pain medication, hot baths and heating pads applied to the lower back and abdomen. Follow your doctor's advice closely, finish all your medication and return to your doctor for all scheduled checkups.
This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. This rapid decrease in the functioning of your kidney would then lead to a series of symptoms such as feeling weaker, experiencing severe fatigue, and reduction in your appetite.
Such causes include hypertension or high blood and glumerulonephritis or the inflammation of small blood vessels in the kidney. Kidney stones and even pin worms could also lead to the inflammation of the glomerular and complications in the small blood vessels of the kidneys. If most of the symptoms in the list are experienced by a person suspected of CKD, then there is a huge possibility that he or she has really developed chronic kidney disease. These symptoms include increased blood pressure levels caused by the overproduction of vasoactive hormones, increase in uric levels and rapid accumulation of potassium in the human bloodstream. Meanwhile, accumulated urea in the body causes uremia, a medical condition wherein a person becomes lethargic and the fibrous sac in his or her heart becomes inflamed and sore.
If you want to prevent yourself from experiencing this fatal disease, you should take care of your kidneys and make sure that they are functioning at their optimal levels. Vor allem die Auspragung der Anastomosen uber die Communicans-Arterien ist interindividuell sehr verschieden. It can be both acute, lasting less than six months and healing on its own, or chronic, lasting longer and can be fatal.
Over 85% of adults who get the virus will build up the appropriate anti-bodies and fight it off. Although there is chance of the virus being fatal, a low percentage of cases turn out this way.
Like all forms of hepatitis, your liver becomes inflamed, impairing its ability to work effectively.


If results come back positive, your doctor will identify which type it is and offer you the best course of treatment.
People in industries such as food preparation, daycare centers, and health care are the prominent people that can spread hepatitis A. Hepatitis B is a virus that attacks your liver which causes inflammation and is the most common serious liver disease in the world. Around three and four million people have this deadly disease in the US and don't even know it. Although the chest X-ray is the most widely performed diagnostic imaging study, it does have several limitations. Hence this view is preferred only in bed ridden patients, in conditions to see posterior parts of lungs and for abnormalities of vertebrae and scapula.
Patchy opacity with cavitary lesion in apex of lung is usually due to tubercular infection. Nursing diagnoses (NANDAs) are integral parts of the nursing process and need to be reflected in your facility’s documentation and record-keeping formats. The NANDA diagnoses are developed from this medical history and from an initial comprehensive admission nursing assessment, which is not provided here. Notice  how the numbered NANDAs, from the abbreviated medical history above, are integrated into the assessment. Other ways of documenting charting errors are to write recorded in error or mistaken entry and your initials.
Researchers believe most cases develop from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), infections that are spread through sexual contact. Then, in about 10% of women, the bacteria migrate up to the uterus, fallopian tubes or ovaries.
Any woman whose sex partner has more than one sex partner is also at increased risk of pelvic infection.
Your doctor may order a blood test to see if your white blood cell count is high, which may indicate that the pelvic inflammatory disease is more severe. A woman with pelvic inflammatory disease should not have sex again until her sex partners have been treated. If you have an abscess, you probably will need surgery in addition to antibiotics to cure the infection. To avoid reinfection, your sex partner(s) also should be treated, and you should follow all of the recommendations for prevention. People who have developed diabetic nephropathy, a medical condition caused by the angiopathy of blood vessels in their kidneys, are also susceptible to kidney disease. Lastly, accumulated potassium in the bloodstream, also known as hyperkalemia, could make a person experience fatal episodes of cardiac arrhythmias.
Substances used for the therapy of this disease usually include angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or substances that are antagonistic to angiotensin II receptor. You can take good care of your kidneys by adopting a healthy diet, quitting smoking and regulating your alcohol intakes. There are many strands of the virus throughout the world today, however we will be focusing on the most common: hepatitis A, B, and C. Unfortunately, the virus can eventually lead to any number of conditions if left untreated, including liver cancer, cirrhosis, and fatal scarring of the liver. Washing hands properly is the most effective way to limit the spread of the disease as well as basic hygiene. It is spread through sharing needles, toothbrushes, but is most commonly transmitted through unprotected sex. It's important to get tested because if left untreated it can cause serious damage to your liver.
People that need to be tested for hepatitis C include people that have had treatment for clotting problems prior to 1987, used and shared needles (around 80% of people that share needles will become infected with hepatitis C within the first year), and Blood transfusion or organ transplant before 1992.
However, several other imaging studies are available as a follow up to the chest X-ray thereby providing better visualization of underlying disease. The basic nursing process consists of the assessment, identification of NANDAs, plans with specific goals, interventions or implementations, and the evaluation of each plan or goal.
About one in every seven women receives treatment for pelvic inflammatory disease at some point in her life. The two diseases most likely to lead to pelvic inflammatory disease are gonorrhea and chlamydia. Less commonly, pelvic inflammatory disease can develop if bacteria get into the upper portions of the reproductive tract after childbirth, after inserting an intrauterine device (IUD) or after an induced abortion.
Although oral contraceptives can prevent pregnancy, women with more than one sex partner also should make sure their partners use condoms every time they have vaginal intercourse. If you use oral antibiotics, it is important to finish all of the medication, even if the symptoms go away.
According to research studies, people who suffer from this medical condition also experience higher mortality rates, as the functioning of their kidneys continue to decrease. Once you have done these important management tips, you would become less vulnerable to chronic kidney disease.
It is estimated that just over 3% of the worlds population carries a strain of the virus, most not even being aware of it. If required, you doctor will give you a local anesthetic, and insert a small needle into your liver to retrieve a tissue sample, which they can then study under a microscope. It can easily be spread through the contact of fluids such as sharing a drink, touching foods, or even deep kissing.
Her history includes a cerebrovascular accident 2 years ago, resulting in weakness of the left leg.
Without treatment, the same bacteria that cause these diseases also can cause pelvic inflammatory disease.
All of these procedures carry some risk of infection, especially if the patient also has an STD. It can lie dormant for decades, slowly eating away at your liver without any physical symptoms. In fact, 60% of the people who have contracted acute hepatitis C never even knew they had it, as it often goes misdiagnosed.
For acute versions of the A and B strain, plenty or rest and fluids is all that is needed to clear out the virus.If you are infected with chronic hepatitis, your doctor may advise weekly injections of pegylated interferon alfa, along with twice-daily oral doses of ribavirin.
There is a vaccination for the virus and it can be treated, but if you do contract it you can get very sick including nausea, jaundice, fever, and a swollen liver. She was admitted to the acute care facility 2 days ago with a diagnosis of left lower lobe pneumonia.
In this article, we will examine the three strains in-depth, and provide pictures to better illustrate.Hepatitis A, the least severe of the three, is transmitted by a fecal to mouth route.
With luck, the combined efforts of the medicine will clear the virus from the bloodstream completely, or at a minimum greatly slow the virus down.
People that already have issues such as liver or kidney problems are in a worse situation as it can become quite problematic. The most common ways to become infected is consuming contaminated food or water, or sexually.
If your liver is fatally damaged, you will be put on a liver transplant list and await surgery.
If a donor is found in time, and the virus can be or has been cleared from your system, you can expect a full recovery. Hepatitis B can be transmitted via blood transfusions, tattoos, sharing drug needles, and even from breastfeeding a child. Although it's generally associated as an STD, or sexually transmitted disease, as that is the most common way to get it. However, this is the only way it can be transmitted.Hepatitis Symptoms Do I Have HepatitisHepatitis A takes between 15-45 days to between the time of infection, and the start of the illness.
This strain of the virus does not have a chronic stage, and there exists a vaccination that will permanently prevent the illness.



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