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admin | Prevent Bv | 08.08.2014
Effective public health programs, research, and policy relating to human sexuality, pregnancy, contraception, and the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (including HIV) depends upon knowledge of the structure (anatomy) and function (physiology) of the male and female reproductive systems. Reproductive physical maturity and the capacity for human reproduction begin during puberty, a period of rapid growth and change experienced by both males and females.
During puberty, the hypothalamus (a gland located at the base of the brain which regulates temperature, sleep, emotions, sexual function and behavior) produces hormones (chemicals that originate in a gland or organ and travel through the blood to another organ, stimulating it by chemical action to increase functional activity and secretions). These hormones stimulate the gonads, the reproductive glands (the testes in males and the ovaries in females) to produce testosterone (males) and estrogen and progesterone (females).
Male puberty generally occurs between the ages of 13-15 and is characterized by the secretion of the male hormone testosterone, which stimulates spermatogenesis (sperm production), and the development of secondary sexual characteristics (increased height and weight, broadening shoulders, growth of the testes and penis, pubic and facial hair growth, voice deepening, and muscle development). Female puberty generally occurs between the ages of 9-13, and results in ovulation and menstruation, which involve cyclic hormonal changes in estrogen and progesterone. Understanding female reproductive anatomy includes the study of the external and internal structures; and the hormonal cycle. The external genitalia, also called the vulva, includes the mons pubis (a fatty mound which covers the pubic bone), the labia majora (outer lips of the vagina), the labia minora (the inner lips of the vagina), the vaginal opening, the urethral opening (opening of the urethra, a tube which carries urine from the bladder outside of the body), the clitoris (a small structure with sensitive nerve endings located within the labia minora, the sole purpose of which is for sexual arousal and pleasure), and the perineum (the space between the anus (the rectal opening), and the vaginal opening). Urinary Track Infections: The close proximity of the urethra and the rectum makes women susceptible to urinary tract infections (UTIs) because bacteria from the anus can enter the urethra.
The internal reproductive anatomy includes the uterus, two ovaries, two fallopian tubes, the urethra, the pubic bone, and the rectum. The ovaries, two small almond-shaped structures located on each side of the uterus, are the female gonads (reproductive glands).
The hormonal cycle facilitates maturation and rupture of the ovarian follicle resulting in the release of an ovum (the female reproductive or germ cell). The first day of menstruation (referred to as Day 1) occurs when levels of estrogen and progesterone are low. When LH levels are highest (LH surge), the ovarian follicle “ruptures” and releases one ovum, which is “swept” into the fallopian tube by hair-like projections called cilia that line the fimbriae (the fringe-like end of the fallopian tube that is closest to the ovary). Following ovulation, the ruptured follicle is transformed into the corpus luteum, a glandular mass that continues to produce estrogen and high levels of progesterone.
If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum shrinks and levels of both estrogen and progesterone decrease. Following menstruation, estrogen and progesterone levels are low, triggering the hypothalamus to once again release GnRH, starting the entire cycle again. Menopause, the end of menstruation, occurs between the ages of 45 and 55 (with the average age of 51.3). To understand the male reproductive system, one must know the external and internal structures, and the process of spermatogenesis (sperm production) including the physiologic pathway of the sperm cell. The male external structures are the penis and the scrotum (a pouch which protects the testes). The testes are the male gonads and contain hundreds of tiny seminiferous tubules where sperm cells are produced.
Vasectomy, the male sterilization procedure described in more detail below, surgically blocks the vas deferens and cuts off sperm transport.
Pre-ejaculatory fluid contains enough sperm to cause pregnancy, and if infection is present in the male, enough fluid to transmit sexually transmitted infections, including HIV.
Although men continue to produce sperm throughout their lives, testosterone production decreases at about 45-65 years of age.
During coitus (sexual intercourse) between a male and a female, semen is released into the vagina and transported through the uterus into the fallopian tube.
During fertilization, the sperm enters the cell membrane of the ovum so the nuclei of the sperm and egg cells combine to form a zygote. An ectopic pregnancy is when a fertilized egg becomes implanted outside the uterus, most often in the fallopian tubes. Prior to fertilization, the sperm and egg cells have only half the number of chromosomes (the genetic determinants of heredity) of other body cells because they go through a process of cell division called meiosis, which reduces the number of chromosomes from 46 to 23.
Sex of the offspring is determined by whether the sperm contains an X or a Y sex chromosome. Understanding female reproductive anatomy includes the study of the external and internal structures; and the hormonal cycle. Remove dog odor pinterest dog urine brighten whites, Discover thousands of images about remove dog odor on pinterest a visual bookmarking tool that helps you discover and save creative ideas.
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Easygoing and slow to move about, the skunk rarely hurries to move out of your way, and it makes no exception for your curious dog.
Once your dog gets on the wrong side of a skunk, you won’t have any problem realizing it. And you may need to use something like Nature’s Miracle Skunk Odor Remover to eliminate the skunk odor on your pet. Skunk spray is actually oil based, that means that you cannot just wash it off with plain water. Since skunk spray is comprised of sulfur-based chemicals and thiols, you will need something with peroxide to neutralize the sulfuric compositions.


If your dog got sprayed and was led inside your house for just a few minutes, the smell will continue to linger in your house for a long time. Time is not on your side here because the longer you wait to treat the dog, the harder it is to get the smell off. You will observe some fizzing chemical reaction from the mix, but it’s not something to worry about as the gas is not toxic.
While wearing gloves and using a cloth, apply the potion all over your dog while concentrating on the place that was the skunk’s target.
You have to leave the potion on for about 5 minutes so it can do its job, then rinse it all out and do it again unless your dog smells normal already. Ask someone who has not been with the dog all this while (so he or she is not “suffering” from olfactory fatigue) to see if there’s still any bad odor.
After all the smell is gone, do some dog grooming and give your dog a bath to freshen him up and then leave the dog outdoors or in a closed room until the coat dries. IMPORTANT: As the potion is a gas-producing chemical mixture, you cannot keep the mixture enclosed in a container. If the skunk spray got your dog in the eyes and the eyes are extremely irritated, it is a good idea to go to the vet. However, usually though, all the dog will need is some rest and food after a good wash down. If concocting your own Skunk Removal Potion is too much of a hassle, think about getting a bottle Nature’s Miracle Skunk Odor Remover. If you have a separate room, like a garage or backyard with shelter, you can keep Kobe there until the smell is gone.
While the problems usually associated with sexual behavior are real and need to be addressed, human sexuality also has significant meaning and value in each individual's life.
Secondary sexual characteristics (growth of pubic and underarm hair, breast enlargement, vaginal and uterine growth, widening hips, increased height, weight and fat distribution) also occur as part of the female pubertal process. The uterus contains an inner lining called the endometrium (which builds ups and sheds monthly in response to hormonal stimulation). The cervix, the lower portion of the uterus, can be visualized during a gynecological examination by inserting a speculum into the vagina.
Despite the availability of Pap smear screening in the developed world, studies of its use reveal racial, economic and ethnic disparities.
Female babies are born with over 400,000 ova (the gametes, also referred to as egg cells or oocytes), which are stored in the ovaries. In response to these low levels, the hypothalamus secretes gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) which triggers the anterior pituitary gland to release two hormones: follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). The progesterone causes the endometrium to thicken, preparing it for implantation of a fertilized egg. The withdrawal of estrogen and progesterone cause the blood vessels of the endometrial (uterine) lining to “break” resulting in vaginal bleeding (menstruation). Most hormonal methods of birth control, including emergency contraception, work by preventing or postponing ovulation, and by thickening the cervical mucous. The absence of a menstrual period in a sexually active woman may indicate that pregnancy has occurred.
An entirely normal developmental and physiological process, it can be accompanied by symptoms including hot flashes, fatigue, moodiness, insomnia, decreased libido and sexual response, changes in memory, weight gain, and vaginal dryness. The epididymis is a small oblong body which rests on the surface of the testes where sperm mature and are stored. Sperm pass into the epididymis where they mature and become motile so they are able to move through the vas deferens and into the seminal vesicles where they mix with seminal fluids, rich in fructose and other nutrients. Although many factors contribute to whether or not a single act of intercourse will result in pregnancy, most important is whether or not a sperm cell will “meet” an ovum in the fallopian tube (fertilization). Only a single sperm cell is needed to fertilize the ovum, even though the average ejaculation contains approximately 300 million sperm.
The zygote will remain in the fallopian tube for approximately three days before it travels to the uterus where it will remain for approximately four to five days before implantation into the uterine lining.
Ectopic pregnancies are often the result of fallopian tube scarring caused by untreated sexually transmitted infections, which impedes the transport of the zygote from the fallopian tubes to the uterus. The 23 chromosomes from the sperm cell combine with the 23 chromosomes from the ovum to form a single cell (zygote) consisting of 46 chromosomes.
Here is some inspiring pictures about How To Remove Cat And Dog Urine Odor From Carpet Remove Pet Smell . In fact, a skunk’s trick is to let you get very close to him before it gives you a “parting gift”, which is why your dog will usually always get sprayed.
There will be a very strong odor and your dog’s eyes will most likely be hurting due to the spray, so he will probably be pawing at them. Its like olive oil on your favorite kitchen towel, simply rinsing with water will not remove the stain.
If your dog just has to be inside for some reason, try and isolate him in a room with open windows and close the door. If your dog has been bitten by the skunk, you should take him to the vet as soon as possible because the skunk may carry rabies. The spray is usually found at the neck or shoulder area where the dog turned to try and avoid the spray.Always use a paper towel or some cloth that you can throw away later to wipe the dog.


Make sure you have all the ingredients that you need on hand for this process because you must act fast in this situation. Pressure will build up over time in the closed container and cause the container to explode. I went to a 24hr vet and picked up (Skunk be gone) he still stinks but Kobe looks better and does not smell as bad.
The lower portion of the uterus is called the cervix, which contains a small opening called the os. As it continues to grow, it produces increasing amounts of estrogen, which stimulates the release of LH, and inhibits FSH, which suppresses further follicular development. Increasing estrogen levels causes the cervical mucous (vaginal secretions) to become clear and profuse and the os to dilate.
If fertilization takes place during ovulation, hormonal levels remain high, essential for the maintenance of the pregnancy. The glans is covered by a fold of skin called the foreskin (circumcision removes the foreskin).
The epididymis leads into the vas deferens (narrow tubes which carry sperm away from the testes).
The prostate gland and the Cowper's glands secrete fluids which also help to nourish and transport the sperm.
Fertilization can only occur if intercourse takes place before the time of ovulation that usually occurs “mid-cycle”, or about 14 days before the woman's next menstrual period. If left undiagnosed or untreated, the zygote grows in the fallopian tube, and may result in fallopian rupture. Click image to get bigger picture, and if you find How To Remove Cat And Dog Urine Odor From Carpet Remove Pet Smell interesting, you might pin it to Pinterest. Dog sprayed by skunk has such an offensive odor that some describes it as burnt rubber, dog poo, and rotten eggs combined.
You will need to inspect your dog’s eyes and skin for any problematic symptoms after the spray. The shrapnel can injure someone nearby, not to mention the mess you need to take care of later on.
If the dog sprayed by skunk seems very weak, tired, foamy at the mouth or is getting nauseated, you may need the vet’s help. George Papaniclaou, is a simple and cost-effective screening test that involves the collection of a sample of cells from the cervix, which are examined microscopically. These two actions may facilitate the transport of semen (containing sperm) from the vagina, through the uterus, and into the fallopian tube. The scrotum surrounds and protects the two testes, internal structures also referred to as testicles. The vas deferens extends to join with the ducts of the two seminal vesicles (located on side of the prostate gland) to form the ejaculatory ducts which extend through the body of the prostate gland and empty into the urethra. This mixture of fluids and sperm is called semen, the fluid which is expelled from a man's penis during ejaculation.
At the time of ovulation, the ovum is released from the ovary and transported in the fallopian tube where it remains for about 24-48 hours. Without medical or surgical intervention, ectopic pregnancy usually results in infertility, severe infection, or death. If you notice a problem from the spray in your dog’s eyes, try and rinse them or use some saline solution to help. Semen travels through the os into the uterus and the fallopian tubes following ejaculation during sexual intercourse.
The ovaries are close to, but not actually connected to the fallopian tubes, thin tube-like structures that are the site of fertilization, the fusion of the male and female gametes. The prostate gland surrounds the neck of the bladder (the structure that stores urine) and the urethra, (a thin tube which extends through the penis and carries semen and urine outside of the body, although not simultaneously). Sexual arousal can cause fluid from the Cowper's glands to be released prior to ejaculation. Ectopic pregnancy can be difficult to diagnose, as it shares many symptoms with uterine pregnancy. In the developed world, Pap smear screening has been instrumental in reducing morbidity and mortality associated with cervical cancer.
The Cowper's glands (also called the bulbourethral glands) are found on each side of the urethra, just below the prostate gland. This fluid is called pre-ejaculatory fluid and does not contain sperm unless it is leftover from a previous ejaculation.
However, Some symptoms of ectopic pregnancy include pain in the vagina, abdomen, or lower back, vaginal bleeding or spotting, dizziness, fainting, and low blood pressure.
Cervical screening technologies have expanded to include liquid cytology, although the traditional Pap smear is still used.



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