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admin | Prevent Bv | 19.08.2014
3.1 Students learn to explain why the concentration of water in cells should be maintained within a narrow range for optimal function. It follows that a fixed concentration of substrate and enzymes is necessary for reactions to proceed at an ideal rate.
3.2 Students learn to explain why the removal of wastes is essential for continued metabolic activity.
3.3 Students learn to identify the role of the kidney in the excretory system of fish and mammals.
3.4 Students perform a first-hand investigation of the structure of a mammalian kidney by dissection, use of a model or visual resource and identify the regions involved in the excretion of waste products.
Renal dialysis is similar to kidney function except that essential substances passively filtered from the blood are replaced by adding them to the blood. Active animals produce considerable quantities of nitrogenous wastes that must be removed quickly. 3.7 Students learn to distinguish between active and passive transport and relate these to processes occurring in the mammalian kidney. In the first part of the nephron after the Bowmana€™s capsule, called the proximal tubule (see below), many of these molecules are a€?pumpeda€? back into the blood vessels as they wrap around the tubule. The way the kidney filters the blood is analogous to a student tidying his desk by throwing everything onto the floor, then replacing only the materials he needs on the desk. 3.8 Students learn to explain how the processes of filtration and reabsorption in the mammalian nephron regulate body fluid composition.
The material collected in the Bowmana€™s capsule then passes into the proximal tubule where selective (active) reabsorption of all the glucose, amino acids, vitamins and hormones occurs.
The filtrate then passes down and up the loop of Henle in the medulla (inner) part of the kidney. The distal (distant from the glomerulus) convoluted tubule is mainly responsible for the regulation of potassium, pH (acidity) and calcium concentration in the body.
From the distal tubule, the filtrate passes to the collecting tubule which joins other tubules, connects to the ureter and transports the urine to the bladder.
3.9 Students learn to outline the role of the hormones, aldosterone and ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) in the regulation of water and salt levels in blood.
You will know that tea and coffee increase the amount of urine produced - they are diuretics.
Sense organs in the pituitary gland detect falls in osmotic pressure caused by a reduction of blood volume. A range of other sensors (including stretch receptors in the atria of the heart) detect falls in blood pressure due to dehydration and loss of salts from the blood. Aldosterone and ADH are both hormones that increase the reabsorption of water and sodium ions from the filtrate in the tubules of the nephron. 3.11 Students learn to define enantiostasis as the maintenance of metabolic and physiological functions in response to variations in the environment and discuss its importance to estuarine organisms in maintaining appropriate salt concentrations.
Work extra hard and reduce your social activities so that you can maintain your standard and avoid getting into trouble with parents or teachers? Do the same amount of work as usual and keep up your social life but tolerate the lower assessment ranking and criticisms you are bound to get?
Estuaries are places where the salinity of water changes during the day as the tides move in or out.
If you can handle these concepts, it would be in your interest to find out the meaning of the words a€?osmoregulatorsa€? and a€?osmoconformersa€? so that you can improve the quality of your answers to questions on this dot point. 3.12 Students analyse information from secondary sources to compare and explain the differences in urine concentration of terrestrial mammals, marine fish and freshwater fish. Marine fish have no trouble getting enough minerals - the oceana€™s water is full of minerals. Freshwater fish have the opposite problem - water tends to move into their cells by osmosis and minerals tend to diffuse out.
3.14 Students process and analyse information from secondary sources and use available evidence to discuss processes used by different plants for salt regulation in saline environments.


3.15 Students perform a first-hand investigation to gather information about structures in plants that assist in the conservation of water. 3.16 Students learn to describe adaptations of a range of terrestrial Australian plants that assist in minimising water loss. In the photograph of an Acacia sp seedling below, you can see that the first leaf to form was a bipinnate (compound) leaf.
In the next photograph, the leaves of a Casuarina sp (She-Oak) are shown to be reduced to tiny brown scales - the stems are acting as leaves.
The leaves of Banksia serrata have a thick cuticle (Cu), tough sclerencyma (tough support tissue Sl) and most obviously, stomates in deep pits which have many hairs.
3.A A  Plants and animals regulate the concentration of gases, water and waste products of metabolism in cells and in interstitial fluid.
Osmosis and diffusion are passive - no energy is required from the organism.A  Active transport requires the expenditure of energy.
In the first part of the nephron after the Bowmana€™s capsule, called the proximal tubuleA  (see below), many of these molecules are a€?pumpeda€? back into the blood vessels as they wrap around the tubule.A  This process requires energy because the materials must pass against a diffusion gradient. The material collected in the Bowmana€™s capsule then passes into the proximal tubule where selective (active) reabsorption of all the glucose, amino acids, vitamins and hormones occurs.A A  Most of the mineral ions and water are also reabsorbed here. It is important to keep the volume and salt concentration of blood at a constant level.A  The hormones aldosterone and ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) control blood volume and salt concentration.
You will know that tea and coffee increase the amount of urine produced - they are diuretics.A  ADH and aldosterone do the opposite - they reduce the volume of urine produced by the kidney. 2.Do the same amount of work as usual and keep up your social life but tolerate the lower assessment ranking and criticisms you are bound to get?
Organisms that live in aquatic environments have the same a€?choicea€?.A A  If the water becomes more or less salty than usual, they can either work hard to maintain homeostasis or they can tolerate the change (and compensate in some way - just like you might keep a low profile). Freshwater fish have the opposite problem - water tends to move into their cells by osmosis and minerals tend to diffuse out.A  As a result, to help overcome these problems, freshwater fish produce large volumes of very dilute urine. This dot point will be (has been) covered in practical lessons.A A  Refer to your Practical Record Book. The leaves of Banksia serrata have a thick cuticle (Cu), tough sclerencyma (tough support tissue Sl) and most obviously, stomates in deep pits which have many hairs.A A  The hairs slow the movement of air and hence reduce the rate of water loss from the pits and hence from the stomates.
You can drink plenty of water and try to keep your skin moisturized, but they’re hard to avoid entirely, especially if your mother had them. I recommend using aloe vera for pretty much any and everything skin condition, and stretch marks are no exception.
Sugar is terrible for your health, so hopefully you don’t have any in your home, but if you do, it can make for a good exfoliant.
Again after a few minutes rinse it off with warm water and repeat regularly for best results.
One study has found that using a combination of onion extract and hyaluronic acid can make stretch marks fade in just 12 weeks. Extra virgin olive oil is something you should definitely already have in your home because it is great to cook with and has many health benefits.
All of the nutrients and antioxidants are great for your skin, and if you warm it up a little bit before applying, it can help increase your circulation. Some other remedies worth trying include castor oil, lemon juice, egg whites, and cocoa butter. If any of the above remedies happen to irritate your skin be sure to stop using them immediately. About Latest Posts Steele RoddickSteele Roddick worked in the gardens of a hospice for three years and saw good people pass away every day. This site is designed for educational purposes only and is not engaged in rendering medical advice, legal advice, or professional services.
The skin consists of three main layers: Epidermis (the outer layer), Dermis (the middle layer) and Subcutaneous or Hypodermic (the deepest layer).
As skin is stretched, the collagen is weakened and its normal production cycle is interrupted and damaged.


Stretch marks appear on the skin surface when someone grows quickly, or puts on weight quickly. Castor oil, which is used in the treatment of a number of skin problems such as wrinkles, age spots, moles, dark spots, fine lines and pimples, can also be used to get rid of stretch marks.
Apply some castor oil to the stretch marks and gently massage the area in circular motions for 5 to 10 minutes.
You can directly rub aloe vera gel on the affected skin area, leave it on for 15 minutes and then rinse the skin with lukewarm water. Another option is to make a mixture with one-fourth cup of aloe vera gel, oil from 10 vitamin E capsules and oil from five vitamin A capsules. Another option is to mix equal quantities of cucumber juice and lemon juice and apply the mixture on the stretch marks. Potato juice contains vitamins and minerals that foster growth and restoration of skin cells. I am ex teacher from High School in Balik Pulau, Pulau Pinang, and I am also a wife and mother of 5 children that 3 sons and 2 daughters..
She is a speaker, writer, and provides nutritional consulting services to local and international clients.
When your skin gets stretched too tightly, fibers beneath the surface break, and you get left with those unsightly red and dark purple marks. Over time the purple and red will fade to silver or grey, which may be less noticeable, but are also much harder to get rid of. You can apply leaves directly to your marks, use aloe vera gel, or you can mix the gel with vitamin A and E and rub it on the area.
You can mix alfalfa powder with chamomile tea to form a paste and then massage it on your marks a few times each day.
If you feel that you have a medical problem, you should seek the advice of your physician or health care practitioner. Stretch marks are mainly found in the abdominal wall, but can also occur over the thighs, upper arms, buttocks and breasts. While pregnancy is the main cause behind stretch marks, other reasons can be sudden gain or loss in weight, rapid growth, heredity factors, stress and changes in physical conditions. Using a hot water bottle or a heating pad, apply some heat to the affected area for at least a half an hour. For stretch marks, you want to use only the egg whites, which contain amino acids and proteins. Clean the affected skin area with water and then apply a thick layer of egg whites with a makeup brush. Lemon juice is naturally acidic which helps heal and reduce stretch marks, acne, and other scars. Allow the lemon juice to soak into your skin for at least 10 minutes before rinsing it off with warm water. I love blogging and having friends from Social network such as facebook,twitter,for sharing lots of different stories.
Initially the marks look pink or red, but over time a thin, silvery line appears on the skin surface and a stretch mark is born. Working with a horticultural therapist, he learned everything he could about what nature has to offer. Interacting with personal trainers, yoga instructors, and other fitness professionals he gained a better understanding of the role of fitness. He now enjoys early morning jogs, cooking healthy meals, and living each day not as if it was his last, but as if it was his first.



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