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Mary Osinibi is an artist based in London who uses photography, acrylic paint, and digital art to create portraits that tell the stories of real people, especially those that can inspire audiences to speak up and pursue justice and social change in the world. For her current project, The Aftermath Passage, Mary creates portraits of people who have experienced war and conflict in order to highlight their stories and make people aware of the impact of such events. Mary, who has been working professionally as an artist since 2009, tends to work with the same palette of colors in her work because of the underlying messages they portray. The topic of war and conflict, and ultimately migration is so topical right now and Mary chose this topic for her current Aftermath Passage project because she wanted to offer a new perspective on these issues. Even the people Mary portrays who have not personally experienced war and conflict often have a connection – like the Portuguese filmmaker who had visited Rwanda and noted the contrast between a woman who had forgiven the people who had hurt her and another who was still disturbed by her experiences. Mary plans to exhibit around London, to gather more stories for the Aftermath Passage, and to produce a book containing all the stories and portraits in order to maximize their impact. Migrant Voice are deeply concerned at the argument made by the UK government that bringing in some of these children may result in more children being sent on a risky journey into Europe. The Director of Migrant Voice Nazek Ramadan saw first hand on a recent trip to Calais how dangerous the current situation is for vulnerable young people. It is not enough for the UK to give financial support to the countries in the Middle East that are housing most Syrian refugees.
It seems that public opinion may be pushing politicians to allow young people in who have family links to the UK. Although construction is hard work, Maciek has deeply enjoyed being a part of London’s change over time. As cameras became incorporated in phones, Maciek was inspired to take pictures of the projects that he worked on.
With strongly worded criticisms of the government’s decisions nearly universal, one might assume that the public attitude toward this decision may reflect similar attitudes.
As such, many seem to worry that in addition to standing by while children fall prey to human traffickers, Great Britain is also ruining its history of supporting refugees. The European Council president Donald Tusk has openly praised Turkey for its treatment of Syrian refugees in a press statement while visiting the Turkish camp of Gaziantep, with German chancellor Angela Merkel. Turkey currently hosts over 2.5 million Syrian refugees, but independent reports from human rights organisations including Amnesty International have condemned Turkey for its treatment of Syrian refugee.
As was reported in the Independent newspaper, Amnesty International has continually expressed its fears over the treatment of Syrian refugees, especially after the EU-Turkey one for one deal on refugees.
Moreover, there are assertions that Turkish officials have been illegally deporting Syrian refugees back to Syria without allowing them to apply for asylum.
However, while the number of migrants has been very high in 2015, as a proportion of world population, migrants still account for about 3% of the world population as they consistently have over the past few decades.
Often overlooked in the migration discourse in the west, the number of South-South migrants (i.e.
Arriving in London at the age of 24 to take a course on postcolonial culture and global policy, Fernando found the reality of the city to be very different than what he expected.
Seeing this sort of disconnection and miscommunication between the Latin American community and the English community, Fernando was inspired to start working on a piece that could bridge the gap between the two. The documentary focuses on the lives of the Latin American cleaners who are subcontracted to work in several London universities, and the difficulties they face as well as the campaigns they are running to improve their wages and working conditions, and to be hired directly by the universities rather than by profit-led outsourcing companies. At first, it was difficult for Fernando to find workers who wanted to get involved in the film.
Once filming began, Fernando could see participants getting more and more excited about the film project. Limpiadores is adding up to the discussion about workers’ rights as well as the difficult transitions migrants go through when living in a different country.
Fernando wants to continue making films and documentaries about migration and culture in the future.
My first destination was the Piraeus seaport, 20 minutes by train on the Green Line from Monastiraki station in Athens city centre. A restaurant with signs in Greek and Arabic is located at the entrance close to the E2 Gate. At Pireaus, I met Mohamad, a man in his late twenties, clutching his four-month-old baby girl Fatima. I asked Mohamad if the smugglers were Turkish, he confirmed this but said they were also working with Syrians, Iraqis and others. Two young Syrian men joined us in the conversation and expressed their doubt about the relocation scheme. Back to Athens I arranged to meet with Yonous Mohammadi, the Director of the Greek Refugee Forum and his colleagues from the migrant led sector with a colleague from PICUM (Platform for International Cooperation on Undocumented Migrants). Yonous told me that the Forum’s member organisations are currently prioritising and focusing on helping with interpreting and cultural mediation.
Yonous was keen to mention the positive developments as well as the difficulties facing migrants and refugees. It felt to me then that the deal between Europe and Turkey is already being implemented before being officially finalised, approved and signed. The UN relocation process is not properly functioning yet as many European countries are not cooperating, and many migrants do not want to go to certain countries. My final evening was to be spent with Dina Vardaramatou from Praksis who brought to life the trauma and the daily experiences of the Greek NGOs working with refugees. As the EU-Turkey deal comes into effect there are many unanswered questions, but most importantly: What will happen to the human beings at the centre of all this. The controversial EU-Turkey refugee one for one deal began in the early hours of Monday 4th of April. The EU –Turkey deal stipulates that the EU will receive one Syrian refugee for every Syrian refugee deported from Greece.
However, reports from Turkish authorities have stated that no Syrians have been sent to Turkey as of yet. Greek authorities have also stated that there are no Syrians amongst the 202 refugees being loaded onto the boats, the majority were either from central Asia or North Africans; with Turkish officials declaring that all non-Syrian refugees will be deported. According to Associated Press, Frontex, the EU border agency has been overwhelmed by the deal and understaffed with only 10% of the staff available to carry out procedures.
The deal has come under heavy criticism from many charities, head of Amnesty International in Greece, Giorgos Kosmopoulos, speaking to the Associated Press, said, "This is the first day of a very difficult time for refugee rights. The research by the MEDMIG project launched in March 2016 has helped us to understand the reasons that in 2015 made over 1 million cross the Mediterranean in search of a more secure and promising life.
One of the key areas of the study was the investigation of the journeys and routes taken as the situation rapidly unfolded last year. The study found significant differences in the numbers and identity of those who take the different routes to Europe.
Whereas it is predominantly individuals who travel through the Central Mediterranean route, the number of people travelling with their children is significantly higher on the Eastern Mediterranean route.
The researchers also found that the migrants and refugees arriving in Greece are better educated than the ones who choose the Italy route. In terms of age, gender and whether people are travelling with their children the study also found differences in each of the case study countries. 84% of sea arrivals in Europe in 2015 came from the world's top 10 refuge producing countries, with Syrian nationals representing just over 50% of these.
DESCRIPTION: This is the largest map of its kind to have survived in tact and in good condition from such an early period of cartography. These place names are in Lincolnshire (Holdingham and Sleaford are the modern forms), and this Richard has been identified as one Richard de Bello, prebend of Lafford in Lincoln Cathedral about the year 1283, who later became an official of the Bishop of Hereford, and in 1305 was appointed prebend of Norton in Hereford Cathedral.
While the map was compiled in England, names and descriptions were written in Latin, with the Norman dialect of old French used for special entries. Here, my dear Son, my bosom is whence you took flesh Here are my breasts from which you sought a Virgina€™s milk.
The other three figures consist of a woman placing a crown on the Virgin Mary and two angels on their knees in supplication. Still within this decorative border, in the left-hand bottom corner, the Roman Emperor Caesar Augustus is enthroned and crowned with a papal triple tiara and delivers a mandate with his seal attached, to three named commissioners. In the right-hand bottom corner an unidentified rider parades with a following forester holding a pair of greyhounds on a leash.
The geographical form and content of the Hereford map is derived from the writings of Pliny, Solinus, Augustine, Strabo, Jerome, the Antonine Itinerary, St. As is traditional with the T-O design, there is the tripartite division of the known world into three continents: Europe, Asia, and Africa. EUROPE: When we turn to this area of the Hereford map we would expect to find some evidence of more contemporary 13th century knowledge and geographic accuracy than was seen in Africa or Asia, and, to some limited extent, this theory is true. France, with the bordering regions of Holland and Belgium is called Gallia, and includes all of the land between the Rhine and the Pyrenees. Norway and Sweden are shown as a peninsula, divided by an arm of the sea, though their size and position are misrepresented. On the other side of Europe, Iceland, the Faeroes, and Ultima Tile are shown grouped together north of Norway, perhaps because the restricting circular limits of the map did not permit them to be shown at a more correct distance. The British Isles are drawn on a larger scale than the neighboring parts of the continent, and this representation is of special interest on account of its early date. On the Hereford map, the areas retain their Latin names, Britannia insula and Hibernia, Scotia, Wallia, and Cornubia, and are neatly divided, usually by rivers, into compartments, North and South Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, England, and Scotland. THE MEDITERRANEAN: The Mediterranean, conveniently separating the three continents of Asia, Africa and Europe, teems with islands associated with legends of Greece and Rome.
Mythical fire-breathing creature with wings, scales and claws; malevolent in west, benevolent in east. 4.A A  For bibliographical information on these and other (including lost) cartographical exemplars, see Westrem, The Hereford Map, p. 10.A A  For bibliographical information for editions and translations of the source texts, see Westrem, The Hereford Map, p. 11.A A  More detailed analysis of these data can be found in my a€?Lessons from Legends on the Hereford Mappa Mundi,a€? Hereford Mappa Mundi Conference proceedings volume being edited by Barber and Harvey (see n. 16.A A  Danubius oritur ab orientali parte Reni fluminis sub quadam ecclesia, et progressus ad orientem, .
23.A A  The a€?standarda€? Latin forms of these place-names and the modern English equivalents are those recorded in the Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, ed. From the time when it was first mentioned as being in Hereford Cathedral in 1682, until a relatively short time ago, the Hereford Mappamundi was almost entirely the preserve of antiquaries, clergymen with an interest in the middle ages and some historians of cartography. FROM THE TIME when it was first mentioned as being in Hereford Cathedral in 1682, until a relatively short time ago, the Hereford Mappamundi was almost entirely the preserve of antiquaries, clergymen with an interest in the middle ages and some historians of cartography.
Details from the Hereford map of the Blemyae and the Psilli.a€? Typical of the strange creatures or 'Wonders of the East' derived by Richard of Haldingham from classical sources and placed in Ethiopia. Equally important work was also being done on medieval and Renaissance world maps as a genre, particularly by medievalists such as Anna-Dorothee von den Brincken and Jorg-Geerd Arentzen in Germany and by Juergen Schulz, primarily an art historian, and David Woodward, a leading historian of cartography, in the United States. The Hereford World Map is the only complete surviving English example of a type of map which was primarily a visualization of all branches of knowledge in a Christian framework and only secondly a geographical object. After the fall of the Roman empire in the 5th century, monks and scholars struggled desperately to preserve from destruction by pagan barbarians the flotsam and jetsam of classical history and learning; to consolidate them and to reconcile them with Christian teaching and biblical history. There would have been several models to choose from, corresponding to the widely differing cartographic traditions inside the Roman Empire, but it seems that the commonest image descended from a large map of the known world that was created for a portico lining the Via Flaminia near the Capitol in Rome during Christ's lifetime. Recent writers such as Arentzen have suggested that, simply because of their sheer availability, from an early date different versions of this map may have been used to illustrate texts by scholars such as St. Eventually some of the information from the texts became incorporated into the maps themselves, though only sparingly at first. A broad similarity in coastlines with the Hereford map is clear in the Anglo-Saxon [Cottonian] World Map, c.1000 (#210), but there are no illustrations of animals other than the lion (top left).
The resulting maps ranged widely in shape and appearance, some being circular, others square. A few maps of the inhabited world were much more detailed, though keeping to the same broad structure and symbolism. Most of these earlier maps were book illustrations, none were particularly big and the maps were always considered to need textual amplification. From about 1100, however, we know from contemporary descriptions in chronicles and from the few surviving inventories that larger world maps were produced on parchment, cloth and as wall paintings for the adornment of audience chambers in palaces and castles as well as, probably, of altars in the side chapels of religious buildings. A separate written text of an encyclopedic nature, probably written by the map's intellectual creator, however, was still intended to accompany many if not all these large maps and one may originally have accompanied the Hereford world map.
These maps seem largely to have been inspired by English scholars working at home or in Europe.
The most striking novelty, however, was the vastly increased number of depictions of peoples, animals, and plants of the world copied from illustrations in contemporary handbooks on wildlife, commonly called bestiaries and herbals. Mentions in contemporary records and chronicles, such as those of Matthew Paris, make it plain that these large world maps were once relatively common. At about the same time that this map was being created, Henry III, perhaps after consultation with Gervase, who had visited him in 1229, commissioned wall maps to hang in the audience chambers of his palaces in Winchester and Westminster. The Hereford Mappamundi is the only full size survivor of these magnificent, encyclopedic English-inspired maps. An inscription in Norman-French at the bottom left attributes the map to Richard of Haldingham and Sleaford. 20121 Kings 8:28 -- But please listen to my prayer and my request, because I am your servant.
She usually takes time getting to know them, asks how they want to be portrayed and then takes their photo. We can’t let children die or fall into the worst kinds of exploitation just so that we can send a message back to others.
Let us hope this is the start of a more compassionate approach to supporting the unaccompanied children of Europe.
During this time, he explains, London has grown to be a part of him, as he’s learned a great deal about himself and the city over the years. Throughout the years these photos amassed into a collection that shows London from his unique perspective at the top of London’s new buildings. He greatly enjoys this work, as he feels that it is a way to be involved with aspects of London life that are often overlooked. This would be somewhat surprising given the strong anti-migration attitudes that have been expressed throughout the United Kingdom, especially during Brexit discussions. It is yet to be seen what the longer term public attitudes and pressure on the government may lead to, but on Monday, the situation for refugee children looked dire.
Tusk stated that, ‘Turkey is the best example for the whole world how we should treat refugees.
Comparing 2014-15 we see taht fatalities during migrants' journeys to Europe have increased by 15%, with at least 3,770 deaths.


He has since then become a filmmaker and currently works on raising awareness of the issues many Latin American people face when they move to London.
Latin American media had portrayed the UK to be an Olympus full of opportunity and acceptance. His documentary film, Limpiadores, explores the lives of Latin American cleaners who are being subcontracted to work for universities around London. It shows how the workers are being taken advantage of due to the communication barriers they face and their inability to access further information about their employment rights. Those more actively involved in the campaigns face the constant risk of being the target of disciplinary actions by managers and thus most were worried about being filmed and that this would put them in the public eye. He especially felt like he was making a difference when he travelled to countries in Latin America to talk to those who had been deported as a result of an immigration raid in one of the universities. It is bound to inspire, touch us, provoke thought, and be a call to action just like Limpiadores. A thin and orderly row of tents lines up on the pavement leading to the main gathering area where the Red Cross and other NGOs are present. She was born in Turkey, he tells me, while showing me around one of the main big halls at the port, housing over three hundred refugees. The main problem is the lack of warm water to wash or bathe, but an NGO was trying to solve this issue and the refugees were told to except hot water in the next couple of days. They crossed to Turkey where Fatima was born, and spent a whole month trekking up and down the western Turkish coast until they succeeded in getting on a small boat and making their way to the Greek Island of Kos 3 days ago. I asked him if the small boat they took from Turkey was a rubber one and he said no, it was a normal wooden small boat, which is designed to carry no more than twenty people. His wife threw her life jacket shortly after she got on the boat as there was no room due to the large number of people cramped on the boat.
He said that there is a lot of fear and mistrust among the refugees towards authorities and official bodies.
The latter group are not in employment and live in dire situations, especially those who have been in Greece for 10-15 years and still haven’t had an answer on their asylum applications. At the time of my visit, only up to 700 refugees were relocated, and only 1300 pledges were available from EU countries but these have conditions attached such as health checks. To put me in the picture, she told me the story of a Syrian family with a 3-5-day old baby. There was nothing they could do to stop the family from moving on in order to help the sick baby. Presenting at the Epim (European Platform for Integration and Migration) meeting I was attending with colleagues from the UK and a number of European countries, the MSF colleagues explained that babies who have died during the journey are left behind.
Those to be deported are asylum seekers and refugees who have either been refused or have not applied for asylum or those who entered the region illegally. Who are the migrants and refugees that arrive through the Central and Eastern Mediterranean; why did they use those routes and what motived them to leave their homes? While there has been little change in the numbers of people moving to Italy and Malta, there was a dramatic increase in the numbers of people taking the Eastern Mediterranean route.
Just over two thirds (65%) of those interviewed were aged 18-29 but the proportion was higher in Italy (76%) than in Greece (55%), reflecting the fact that those arriving in Greece were more likely to be older and travelling in family groups.
It found that changes to migration policies and increased border controls have led to protracted and fragmented journeys and make it increasingly difficult for people to safely and legally access protection and employment. The circle of the world is set in a somewhat rectangular frame background with a pointed top, and an ornamented border of a zig-zag pattern often found in psalter-maps of the period (#223). Show pity, as you said you would, on all Who their devotion paid to me for you made me Savioress. Olympus and such cities as Athens and Corinth; the Delphic oracle, misnamed Delos, is represented by a hideous head.
James (Roxburghe Club) 1929, with representations from manuscripts in the British Library and the Bodleian Library, and a€?Marvels of the Easta€?, by R. The upper-left corner of the Hereford Map, showing north and east Asia (compare to the contents on Chart 3).
1), however, call attention to a remarkable degree of accuracy in the relationship of toponymsa€”for cities, rivers, and mountainsa€”both in EMM and in Hereford Map legends.A  On the Asia Minor littoral, for example, one passage in EMM links 39 place-names in a running series, 23 of which are found in Chart 4 (and visible, in almost exactly parallel order, on Fig. 5, above).A  Treating islands separately from the eartha€™s three a€?partsa€? follows the organizational style adopted by Isidore of Seville, Honorius Augustodunensis, and other medieval geographical authorities.
Note Lincoln on its hill and Snowdon ('Snawdon'), Caernarvon and Conway in Wales, referring to the castles Edward I was building there when the map was being created.
In England, a detailed study of its less obvious features, such as the sequences of its place names and some of its coastal outlines by G. The Psilli reputedly tested the virtue of their wives by exposing their children to serpents. The cumulative effect has been to enable us at last to evaluate the map in terms of its actual (largely non-geographical and not exclusively religious) purpose, the age in which it was created and in the context of the general development of European cartography. The Old and New Testaments contained few doctrinal implications for geography, other than a bias in favor of an inhabited world consisting of three interlinked continents containing descendants of Noah's three sons.
This now-lost map was referred to in some detail by a number of classical writers and it seems to have been created under the direction of Emperor Augustus's son-in-law, Vipsanius Agrippa (63-12 BC) for official purposes. As the centuries went by, more and more was included with references to places associated with events in classical history and legend (particularly fictionalized tales about Alexander the Great) and from biblical history with brief notes on and the very occasional illustration of natural history. Note also the Roman provincial boundaries, the relative accuracy of the British coastlines (lower left) and the attention paid to the Balkans and Denmark, with which Saxon England had close contacts. Some, often oriented to the north, attempted to show the whole world in zones, with the inhabited earth occupying the zone between the equator and the frozen north. They were never intended to convey purely geographical information or to stand alone without explanatory text.
Often a 'context' for them would have been provided by the other secular as well as religious surrounding decorations. For many maps continued to be used primarily for educational, including theological, purposes. They reached their fullest development in the thirteenth century when Englishmen like Roger Bacon, John of Holywood (Sacrobosco), Robert Grosseteste and Matthew Paris were playing an inordinately large part in creative geographical thinking in Europe. In most, if not all of these maps, the strange peoples or 'Marvels of the East' are shown occupying Ethiopia on the right (southern) edge, as on the Hereford map. Exposure to light, fire, water, and religious bigotry or indifference over the centuries has, however, led to the destruction of most of them. Both are now lost but it seems quite likely that the so-called 'Psalter Map', produced in London in the early 1260s and now owned by the British Library, is a much reduced copy of the map that hung in Westminster Palace.
Despite some broad similarities in arrangement and content, however, there are very considerable differences from the Ebstorf and the 'Westminster Palace' maps in details - like the precise location of wildlife, the portrayal of some coastlines and islands, or in the recent information incorporated.
She also gets them to write their own version of their experiences to be shown with the final portrait. So a lot of people I’ve interviewed have been people who have been through it but have come out of it, basically, and they start a family.
How some people have moved on from it and some people have not moved on from it and are still sort of recovering from it I suppose.
One boy stood up to explain that he wanted to reach the UK so he could continue his education. Maciek and his wife have been dreaming of moving to Brazil for a long time, and they hope that the political situation in Brazil will calm down in the near future, enabling them to fulfil their dream. Through the work he has attained a greater appreciation of the effort taken to shape London.
He saw that many of these had vast departments dedicated to the study of Latin American cultures and languages, however, right under their noses, Latin American workers were being mistreated and longing for equality. But once Fernando managed to get the first people involved it was easier to motivate other workers and carry the filmmaking process onward. When he originally came to the UK, post-study work visas allowed for students to stay and work for two years after completing their degrees. The majority of them are women and children crouching around their small overcrowded tents, their home for the time being. They were among the new arrivals brought to Piraeus from there on a large ship by the Greek authorities. I asked them to get in touch and let me know about their journey and their new life once they reached their final destination.
This is why their role is important; there is a great knowledge in the community of how to deal with the situation faced by the refugees and more trust than of the authorities. A further 360 Moroccan and Algerian nationals were taken from detention centres and were also deported to Turkey.
Pakistanis, Moroccans and Algerians are detained immediately, while Eritreans, Sudanese and Somalis are still covered under the refugee category. Many do not say their real age and claim to be older, and the Greek authorities are also turning a blind eye.
He also acknowledged that the Greek language, the lack of support and the financial crisis are among the reasons why refugees do not want to stay in Greece.
The family was referred to her from one of the reception centres for medical assessment and hospital referral. Dina wrote a few words in German on a sheet of paper explaining that the baby is very ill and needed urgent hospital treatment.
Their parents feel they have no choice but to move on in order to save the rest of the family. It does nothing to address the root causes and or offer legal routes for people to take instead. Media coverage described it as one of the biggest immigration crises in the continent, with few people questioning the real reasons that make people risk their life in the sea. The nationality of those travelling has also changed, in particular the number of Syrians travelling to Italy went from  24% of arrivals in 2014 to just 5% in 2015 whereas in Greece, Syrians make up 56% of all sea arrivals.
For those arriving in Greece the level rose to 78%, a third of who have a university education.
It also found that refugees and migrants have only partial information about migration policies in particular countries and decisions about where to go are usually made ad hoc, along the route. In Phrygia there is born an animal called bonnacon; it has a bulla€™s head, horsea€™s mane and curling horns, when chased it discharges dung over an extent of three acres which burns whatever it touches. India also has the largest elephants, whose teeth are supposed to be of ivory; the Indians use them in war with turrets (howdahs) set on them. The linx sees through walls and produces a black stonea€” a valuable carbuncle in its secret parts.
A tiger when it sees its cub has been stolen chases the thief at full speed; the thief in full flight on a fast horse drops a mirror in the track of the tiger and so escapes unharmed. Agriophani Ethiopes eat only the flesh of panthers and lions they have a king with only one eye in his forehead. Men with doga€™s heads in Norway; perhaps heads protected with furs made them resemble dogs. Essendones live in Scythia it is their custom to carry out the funeral of their parents with singing and collecting a company of friends to devour the actual corpses with their teeth and make a banquet mingled with the flesh of animals counting it more glorious to be consumed by them than by worms. Solinus: they occupy the source of the Ganges and live only on the scent of apples of the forest if they should perceive any smell they die instantly. Himantopodes; they creep with crawling legs rather than walk they try to proceed by sliding rather than by taking steps. The Monocoli in India are one-legged and swift when they want to be protected from the heat of the sun they are shaded by the size of their foot. Flint, a€?The Hereford Map:A  Its Author(s), Two Scenes and a Border,a€? Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th ser. Nevertheless, it placed a somewhat misleading emphasis on the map's geographical 'inaccuracies', its depiction of fabulous creatures and supposedly religious purpose, all clothed in what for the layman must have seemed an air of wildly esoteric learning and near-impenetrable medieval mystery. Recent research suggests this is a reference to African traders in medicinal drugs who visited ancient Rome. Today, with the map in the headlines of the popular press, it may be time to give a brief resume of what is currently known about it and to attempt to explain some of its more important features in the light of recent research. In the eyes of some (but by no means all) theologians, a fourth inhabited continent, the Antipodes, would implicitly have denied the descent of mankind from Noah, and the depiction of such a continent was deemed to be heretical by them.
It was based on survey and on military itineraries and reflected the political and administrative realities of the time.
Where space allowed, reference was also made to important contemporary towns, regions, and geographical features such as freshly-opened mountain passes. Most of the maps, however, like the Hereford Mappamundi, depicted only that part of the world that was known in classical times to be inhabited and they were oriented with east at the top.
Traces of the maps' classical origins could regularly be seen in, for instance, the continued depiction of the provincial boundaries of the Roman Empire (which are partly visible on the Hereford map) and for many centuries by the island of Delos which had been sacred to the early Greeks being the centre of the inhabited world. They and the texts that they adorned continued to be copied by hand until late in the 15th century and are to be found in early printed books. God dominates the world and the 'Marvels of the East' occupy the lower right edge of the map, as they do on the Hereford map.
Together they would have provided a propaganda backdrop for the public appearances of the ruler, ruling body, noble or cleric who had commissioned them, and some may have been able to stand alone as visual histories. The Hereford map, as an inscription at the lower left corner tells us, was certainly intended for use as a visual encyclopedia, to be 'heard, read and seen' by onlookers.
Because of the maps' size, they were able to include far more information and illustration than their predecessors. More space was also found for current political references and information derived from contemporary military, religious and commercial itineraries.
Today, the earliest survivor, dating from the beginning of the thirteenth century, is a badly damaged example now in Vercelli Cathedral, probably having been brought to Italy in about 1219 by a papal legate returning from England.
We know from Matthew Paris that the Westminster map was copied by others, and it is likely to have had a lasting influence even though the original was destroyed in 1265. A Latin legend in the bottom right corner of the Hereford map refers to the 5th century Christian propagandist Orosius as the main source for the map, but as we have already seen, it incorporates information from numerous ancient and thirteenth century sources and adds its own interpretations of them.
The map is an outstanding example of a map type that had evolved over the preceding eight centuries. In a way that sort of works with the Aftermath Passage in terms of, do we learn from our past, do we forget about it, or do we just move on?
I have done it myself, you know, I have come to a place and I have put my name down for a cleaning position and somebody calls me literally at 8 at night and tells me to come right now and clean from 12 at night to 6 in the morning.
But after changes to the student visa rules, this opportunity no longer exists and Fernando now had to pay £2,000 to apply for a new Visa with his partner.
The refugees at the Piraeus reception centre are brought there by ships from the five Greek islands they have arrived at by sea from Turkey: Lesvos, Kos, Chios, Samos and Leros.


Mohamad’s wife Hanna joins us having given up queuing for food after waiting for almost half an hour. Many of the passengers were Syrians, but there were also Afghanis, Iraqis and other nationalities. The mother had given birth to the baby four days earlier and hours before getting on a rubber boat to make the perilous journey from Turkey to one of the Greek islands. This was to help the baby access the urgent healthcare she needed, if she made it alive, when her parents arrived to their final destination, Germany. Sometimes they leave one family member behind as the legal process of identifying the cause of death takes its course.
Nearly three quarters (72%) of people were in employment before making the journey to Europe, though the proportion is significantly higher among those arriving in Greece (87%) than those arriving in Italy (60%)”. From its literal meaning in Greek it also signifies the plant ox-tongue, so called from its shape and roughness of its leaves. Conventionally holds a mirror in one hand, combing lovely hair with the other According to myth created by Ea, Babylonian water god.
The large city at the top edge is Babylon (its description is the map's longest legend [A§181).
12-30.A  The conservator Christopher Clarkson drew my attention to the gouge in the Mapa€™s former frame. Talbert (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), which I employ throughout my book, but with the caution that in dealing with the manuscript culture of medieval Europe, it is misleading and anachronistic to speak of a€?standarda€? or a€?correcta€? spellings, especially of geographical words. Casual visitors to the dark aisle where it hung could see only a dark, dirty image which they were encouraged to view in a pious, but also rather condescending manner.
Crone of the Royal Geographical Society, revealed that despite the antiquity of many of the map's sources much was almost contemporary with the map's creation and was secular.
Much of the text that follows is an amplification of information panels and leaflets prepared for the British Library's current display of the map.
Most medieval mapmakers seem to have accepted this constraint, but world maps showing four continents are not uncommon: notably the world maps created by Beatus of Liebana (#207) in the late 8th century to illustrate his Commentary on the Apocalypse of St. It may have incorporated information from an earlier survey commissioned by Julius Caesar and, to judge from some early references, it may originally have shown four continents.
These texts owed much to classical writers, particularly Pliny the Elder (23-79), who himself derived much of his information from still earlier writers such as the fifth century BC Greek historian Herodotus. As befitted the encyclopedic texts that they illustrated, the maps became visual encyclopedias of human and divine knowledge and not mere geographical maps. Many were purely schematic and symbolic, showing a T, representing the Mediterranean, the Don and the Nile, surrounded by an 0, for the great ocean encircling the world, sometimes with a fourth continent being added. It was only from about 1120 that Jerusalem took Oclos' place as the focal point of the map, as it does on the Hereford Mappamundi.
They retained and expanded the geographical and historical elements of the older maps - coastlines, layout and place names on the maps frequently reveal their ancestry - but to them they added several novel features. Inscriptions of varying lengths amplified the pictures and sometimes contained references to their sources. Much better preserved, until its destruction in 1943, was the famous Ebstorf world map of about 1235. It is difficult to account otherwise for the striking similarities in detailed arrangement and content between the Psalter world map, the recently discovered 'Duchy of Cornwall' fragment (probably commissioned in about 1285 by a cousin of Edward I for his foundation, Ashridge College in Hertfordshire) and the Aslake world map fragments of about 1360. In many of its details it particularly resembles the Anglo-Saxon World Map of about 1000 and the twelfth century Henry of Mainz world map in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.
We carried it proudly all the way back to one of their houses and proceeded to patch the hole with a piece of plywood and tar.
I found it incredibly upsetting that he felt he had to stand in front of a group of adults and justify his own existence. One said that he is going to join friends in Luxemburg and the other said that he did not mind as long as it is a good country. The family spent a day or two on the Island before been assessed and transported on a ferry to the mainland by the Greek authorities.
Dina’s colleagues informed her later that the baby was still alive when the family crossed the border from Greece. Crone points out that this reference has special significance because Augustus had also entrusted his son-in-law, M. Sometimes identified with Sirens, the mythical enchantresses along coasts of the Mediterranean, who lured sailors to destruction by their singing. Amazon means a€?without a breast,a€? according to tradition these women removed the right breast to use the bow.
At the right edge, a looping line shows the route of the wandering Israelites in their Exodus from Egypt; it crosses the Jordan to the left of a naked woman who looks over her shoulder at the sinking cities of Sodom and Gomorrah in the Dead Sea (she is Lot's wife, turned into a pillar of salt [A§254]. 400), a text that was often attended during the Middle Ages by diagrammatic a€?mapsa€? illustrating the concept.A  See also David Woodward. Others delved into the question of its authorship, which had previously been assumed to be obvious from the wording on the map itself. The medievalized depiction on the bottom left corner of the Hereford world map of 'Caesar Augustus' commissioning a survey of the world from three surveyors representing the three corners of the world may be based on a muddled - and religiously acceptable - memory of these classical events. Even though the inscriptions on the maps gradually became more and more garbled and the information more and more embellished, distorted, and misunderstood, they nevertheless retained their tenuous links with ancient learning. More than simple geographical shorthand, such maps were also meant to symbolize the crucifixion, the descent of man from Noah's three sons and the ultimate triumph of Christianity. Palestine itself was usually enlarged far beyond what, on a modern map, would have been its actual proportions. A note on one of the most famous of them, the Ebstorf, says that it could be used for route planning.
Although the maps were still dominated by biblical and classical history and legend, most other information seems to have been acceptable and was accommodated within the traditional framework. Far larger than the Hereford Word Map and much more colorful, it was probably created under the guidance of the itinerant English lawyer, teacher and diplomat, Gervase of Tilbury. In transmission some facts and text became garbled and some inscriptions are gobbled gook or wrong. And obviously when they hear their story they’re more compassionate towards them as well and they feel that they know that person.
Not only did he have to learn English upon his arrival in London but he also had to learn all these cultural codes.
He, like many other volunteers were worried about the risks the refugees are taking and were very keen to pass on the right information to the new arrivals to stop them risking their lives. There is a climate of solidarity as opposed to earlier hate speech, which was used by both the government and the media, explains Yonous. The circle one-third of the way from the bottom is Jerusalem, the Map's central point, with a crucifixion scene above it ([A§387-89]). Its images and decoration have been examined from a stylistic standpoint by Nigel Morgan and put into the context of their time, while the late Wilma George examined the animals in the light of her own zoological knowledge [2] The chance discoveries of fragments of other English medieval world maps in recent years [3] have expanded the context within which the Hereford World Map can be examined, and the Royal Academy exhibition, 'The Age of Chivalry' of 1987 enabled the map to be displayed in the company of other non-cartographic artifacts of its own time. Generally, though, it was not difficult to adapt surviving copies of existing, secular world maps to suit the purposes of Christian writers from the 5th century onwards.
This was in order to match its historical importance and to accommodate all the information that had to be conveyed.
Christ would, for instance, be shown dominating the world, or the world might even be depicted as the actual body of Christ.
The world was shown as the body of Christ and much space was devoted to the political situation in northern Germany: an area of particular concern to the Duke who may have commissioned it.
Many workers have to take public transportation or even walk to work, taking even more time out of their day just to have the opportunity to make money. They felt thankful and grateful that somebody went there and somebody made an effort to rescue this episode and what this meant to their lives!” People want to be able to tell the world about their struggle so that no one else has to go through the same thing in the future. All this money that we earn with our work needs to be going to these bureaucratic processes. They have spent a couple of days at Idomeni but could not stay there or cope with the dire conditions after Macedonia closed its border.
When she arrived at Dina’s centre, the baby was very ill with a high temperature and needed to be hospitalised. Carte marine et portulan au XIIe siA?cle:A  Le Liber de existencia riveriarum et forma maris nostri Mediterranei.
The amount of space dedicated to the other parts of the world varied according to their traditional historical or biblical importance and the preoccupations of the author of the text that the map illustrated.
The father who was carrying his baby looked at Dina in despair and told her that the family has to keep moving and they cannot send the baby to hospital. Behind the blue band of the river is a grim array of grotesque figures to indicate the existence of primitive peoples. There may be significance in the soulless mermaid placed in the map close to the unattainable Holy Land, or she may be a possible temptation to sea-faring pilgrims.
Phillott, wrote that it shows a a€?rejection of all that savoured of scientific geography, . Because of this, space devoted to the author or patron's homeland was often much exaggerated when judged by modern standards, as in the case of England, Wales and Ireland on the Hereford Mappa Mundi. Crone demonstrated, the Hereford also contains sequences of the more important place names along some major thirteenth century commercial and pilgrimage routes.
On a world map, though, as opposed to the strip itinerary maps produced by Matthew Paris in about 1250, the route planning could only have been very approximate and very much incidental to the main purposes. One of the boys found a canoe paddle in the weeds and we three got into the boat and started to paddle out. The two young men told me they will wait until the Macedonian border opens or explore another route.
Greek celebrities are coming out to support refugees and the Greek people are showing great solidarity with the refugees. There is still some hostility, but this is too small compared with the level of solidarity shown by the public. The father said that he had paid all his money to the smuggler who was expecting him to move on today or he would lose everything. 14), which may have resulted from the survey of the provinces ascribed by tradition to Julius Caesar.
In the Hereford map they could revel in this pictorial description of the outside world, which taught natural history, classical legends, explained the winds and reinforced their religious beliefs.
The big concern is the long-term impact if there is no solution or cooperation between EU countries. We feverishly paddled with that one oar and bailed out the water with our hands and an old can. Barely we made it to shore and got out just before the boat sank below the water and headed downstream.
The two upright fingers branching up from the Mediterranean are the Aegean and the Black Sea with the Golden Fleece at its extremity.
Wet, cold and shaking the three of us headed home knowing we would never tell our parents of this stupid adventure.
He also said that one of the people on board, a young Algerian man, would sail us through to Greece”. We were lucky to be alive and it was only by Goda€™s grace that I can live to tell about it. Mohamad discovered that the smugglers had trained the Algerian man to sail the boat in return for a free ride. Sometimes that other road will bring you back to your original path and sometimes it will take you farther away from it. But God used him to gather and lead his people out of Pharaoha€™s slavery and split the Red Sea in two.A  Joseph was sold into slavery by his brothers and was cast into prison but became the second most powerful person inEgypt. Or, maybe just maybe a smile or a kind word from you to a stranger may just prevent them from going home and ending their own life and their grandson will some day save the world.
He will bring to light things that are now hidden in darkness, and will make known the secret purposes of people's hearts. Throw your troubled waters out of your boat and paddle on down that river of life with Him at your side. You have ears, but you don't really listen.Psalm 13:2 -- How long must I worry and feel sad in my heart all day? I have been praying for something to happen for 4A? years now and what I prayed for was not granted.
Leta€™s speak of reality a€“ He is God and He can do what He wants to or not do what He doesna€™t want to. We cannot command the Lord to do anything whether we do it in pleading, tears, anger, or desperation. If God has the will, He may answer our prayers about life but nothing says that He absolutely has to.
All we have is the hope that he will hear us, see what we are going through, and grant us a little drop of His mercy in this life.
He will cure a cancer, heal the deaf, grow an arm back or bring someone back to life but that does not mean He will do it all the time. He has given us guidance through His word (the Bible) and occasionally gives us a nudge or lesson to learn from but basically kicks us out of the nest like the mother bird does to face the challenges of life. I get so frustrated at times that my prayers are not answered and I have to keep reminding myself that this is my life and I need to deal with it on my own sometimes. Their job is to preach the message to inspire, encourage, and give hope to their congregations. If we are to be an example of His mercy to others, it can only be done with people of lesser stature than us. He wants us to spread the Gospel and not make up stories of what He has done for us personally in life. Just show others how you believe in His salvation and forgiveness and tell them of His Word. He has promised everything in His kingdom of Heaven to those who accept His Son as Lord and Savior. Life here is just a temporary setback, trial and test to see if we are worthy of everlasting life sharing in His love -- or without it in a very dark place. So accept His Son as your Lord and claim the only real promise that He made to us --- Forgiveness and Salvation.



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