How to treat a cat eye injury,home remedies to treat cat eye infection yellow,bacteria cause gingivitis yahoo,how to get rid of chicken skin wikihow - Videos Download

admin | What Treats Bv | 25.10.2013
Ask a Doctor Online Now!The cornea is composed of 5 layers – corneal epithelium (outer), bowman layer, corneal stroma, descemet membrane and corneal endothelium (inner).
The eye has several mechanisms to protect the delicate tissue of the eyeball like the eyelashes and eyelids, conjunctiva and tears. A corneal abrasion, commonly referred to as a scratched cornea, is the scraping away or wearing down of the outermost part of the cornea.
Most corneal abrasions are related to trauma (injury to the eye) and less commonly due to various syndromes that can allow for spontaneous abrasions. An uncommon cause of a corneal abrasion arises in the unconscious patient where the eyelids were open for along period of time thereby leading to eye dryness. The symptoms of a scratched cornea may vary depending on the degree of abrasion and even the causative factor. The preferred method of investigating a suspected corneal abrasion is by slit-lamp examination with fluorescein staining.
An ocular CT scan or ocular MRI may be necessary with high-velocity and penetrating injuries where the object has entered the eyeball. The treatment depends on the underlying cause and in most cases requires little more than anti-inflammatory eye drops to reduce the pain and inflammation. In the event of a foreign body that is still lying superficially, the eye is carefully irrigated to help wash away the object.
Ask a Doctor Online Now!Please note that any information or feedback on this website is not intended to replace a consultation with a health care professional and will not constitute a medical diagnosis.
Sometimes, however, kids lose large amounts of water and salts through fever (more water evaporates from the body when body temperature is increased), diarrhea, vomiting, or long periods of exercise with excessive sweating. The best way to prevent dehydration is to make sure kids get plenty of fluids when they're sick or physically active — they should consume more fluids than they lose (from vomiting, diarrhea, or sweating).
Kids with mild gastroenteritis (also called the "stomach flu," which can cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea) who aren't dehydrated should continue to eat normally but should be encouraged to drink additional fluid to replace fluid lost from vomiting and diarrhea. In fact, feeding a regular diet to kids who have diarrhea may even reduce the duration of diarrhea, while offering proper nutrition.
Foods that are usually well tolerated by kids with gastroenteritis who aren't dehydrated include: complex carbohydrates (such as rice, wheat, potatoes, bread, and cereals), lean meats, yogurt, fruits, and vegetables. It's important for parents to learn to recognize the early signs of dehydration and to respond quickly if they develop. The goal in treating dehydration is to replace fluids in order to restore the levels of body fluids to normal.
A child who's mildly dehydrated due to overexertion will probably be thirsty and should be allowed to drink as much as he or she wants.
Children with mild to moderate dehydration due to diarrhea from an illness (such as gastroenteritis) should have their lost fluids replaced with a special liquid called an oral rehydration solution (ORS).
The replacement of lost fluids is known as rehydration, which is achieved by replacing the lost fluids using an ORS over the course of 3 to 4 hours.
Even kids who are vomiting can usually be successfully rehydrated this way because the small frequent sips get absorbed in between the vomiting episodes.
In nursing infants, breastfeeding should be continued, even during the initial rehydration process unless they're vomiting repeatedly. Other "clear liquids" often used by parents or recommended by doctors in the past are no longer considered appropriate for use in dehydrated kids. Once your child is rehydrated, you can resume a normal unrestricted diet, including breast milk, formula, or milk. Some dehydrated kids do not improve when given an ORS, especially if they have very frequent bouts of explosive diarrhea or frequent vomiting. When examining the eye, it is important to know that cats have a third eyelid located in the corner of the eye nearest the nose. If you are unsure whether your cat has a scratched eye or an eye infection, some of the signs to look for include the cat squinting and rubbing or pawing at its eyes. Step 2: Flush the eye thoroughly (three or four times) with saline solution or plain water.
Step 3b: If the cat is scratching at the eye continuously, cut a large piece of cardboard into an Elizabethan-type collar.


It lacks blood vessels but receives nutrients from the tears at the front and the aqueous humor at the back.
However, these mechanisms are sometimes insufficient to shield the outer layers of the eye thereby leading to tissue injury. It is almost always limited to the corneal epithelium and does not penetrate the underlying Bowman layer. With regards to traumatic corneal abrasion it is more frequently as a result of foreign bodies like dust, dirt, sand and debris like wood shavings or metal filings. Spontaneous abrasions are uncommon but may be seen with recurrent corneal abrasions and Cogan’s (map-dot-fingerprint) dystrophy.
Most cases are mild and only cause minor eye irritation like a foreign body sensation or grittiness in the eyes. There is little more than minor discomfort of the eye and the symptoms may be so mild that it is ignored. While an impaled foreign body may be seen, in most cases the object is so small that it cannot be viewed with the naked eye and further opthalmic investigation is necessary. This is a simple procedure where anesthetic drops are first administered in the eye, the eyelids everted and the conjunctiva and cornea then examined.  Fluorescein staining involves placing a saline-moistened fluorescein strip on the everted eyelid and then asking the patient to blink in order to spread the dye over the corneal and conjunctival surface. An MRI is preferred over a CT scan in assessing injuries associated with non-metallic objects.
It will help identify the causative bacteria and  determine the selection of the appropriate antibiotic.
Antibiotic eye drops are particularly indicated for larger abrasions and contact lens wearers. If this is not sufficient a cotton wool applicator or even hypodermic needle may be used to remove the foreign object. For example, a child with a sore throat may become dehydrated due to difficulty drinking or eating. Although not all fevers need to be treated, if your child is uncomfortable and not drinking enough fluids you can use acetaminophen or ibuprofen to help control the fever. Those who participate in sports or strenuous activities should drink some extra fluid before the activity begins. Most kids with gastroenteritis can safely eat a regular age-appropriate diet while they're sick. Infants with mild gastroenteritis who aren't dehydrated should continue to receive breast milk or regular-strength formula. This is available in many grocery stores and pharmacies without a prescription and is designed for kids who are dehydrated. Start the rehydration process by giving your child 1 or 2 teaspoons (5 or 10 milliliters) of an ORS every few minutes. Drinks to avoid include: water, soda, ginger ale, tea, fruit juice, gelatin desserts, chicken broth, or sports drinks. Resuming an age-appropriate diet early is essential in supplying your child with necessary calories and nutrients and can even reduce the duration of gastroenteritis. For example, the practice of withholding food for more than 24 hours is inappropriate and can be unsafe. When fluid losses can't be replaced because of ongoing vomiting, difficulty swallowing, repeated episodes of diarrhea, or other reasons, a child might need to receive intravenous (IV) fluids in the hospital.
This third eyelid can completely cover the eyeball and sometimes gives the appearance that part of the eye is gone. An extensive nerve supply mainly from the opthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) makes it one the most sensitive tissues in the body. The constant replenishment of superficial corneal cells ensures that the epithelium is quickly repaired. This is a radiation injury caused by the UV rays and similar injuries may be seen with electric sparks, suntanning beds, halogen lamps and photographic flood lamps.
There may be some degree of excessive tearing and eye redness but this can be absent in very minor abrasions. There may be disturbances in vision from sensitivity to light (photophobia) to blurred vision particularly if there is irritation of the iris (iritis).


With cobalt illumination, the area of abrasion or ulceration will fluoresce green as is illustrated in the picture below.
We usually replace this body fluid and the salts it contains with the water and salts in our regular diet.
If they're unable to adequately replace the fluid that's been lost, kids can become dehydrated. Easing the pain with acetaminophen or ibuprofen may help, and cold drinks or popsicles can soothe a burning throat while also supplying fluids.
They should also drink at regular intervals (about every 20 minutes) during the course of the activity and after it ends. If the child is vomiting and isn't dehydrated, give fluids frequently, but in small amounts. Also, the child should rest in a cool, shaded environment until the lost fluid has been replaced. It contains just the right combination of sugar and salts to help the intestines absorb what the body needs.
For babies who are formula-fed, formula should be stopped during rehydration and restarted as soon as the child is able to keep fluids down and is no longer showing signs of dehydration.
Some cats also can experience eye irritation from viruses, allergies, dust and dirt, fights, etc. Light entering the eye through the cornea is bent (refracted) passes through the pupil to the lens where it is refracted further and then focused on the most sensitive part of the retina. The cornea, particularly the outer layer, is constantly replenishing itself – old cells are shed and passed out with the tear drainage while new cells move centrally from surrounding epithelium and frontwards from the underlying layers. Therefore the cornea is exposed to the external environment in much the same ways at the conjunctiva covering the whites of the eye (sclera).
Chemical injury may be due to any number of factors ranging from pepper sprays and ear drops in the eye to pool chlorine and deodorant. Corticosteroids should also be avoided as a means to reduce inflammation as it may increase the risk of fungal infections. Excessive washing of the eye in order to remove a foreign body can irritate the cornea and conjunctiva even further. Ideally, sports practices and competitions should be scheduled for the early morning or late afternoon to avoid the hottest part of the day. Although this may not seem like enough fluids to rehydrate your child, these small amounts can add up to more than a cup (237 milliliters) an hour. Also, over-the-counter medicines for diarrhea or vomiting are not recommended for kids, as they can have serious side effects.
An irritation can lead to a mild inflammation of the tissue around the eye (conjunctivitis) or severe damage to the cornea. Superficial injuries to the eyeball may therefore affect the conjunctiva and cornea simultaneously. However, it can be slower to heal and more likely to complicate if the abrasion is deeper and involves underlying layers beyond the corneal epithelium.
Other chemical injuries can also occur with exposure to alcohol from disinfected medical equipment as may occur with a tonometer plunger when measuring the intraocular pressure (IOP). Sometimes the injury can be deeper when the trauma is a result of a penetrating injury by small objects flying at high speed like shrapnel or glass during a motor vehicle accident. At other times the foreign body may be lodged in the inner eyelid and scratch the cornea during blinking. Contact lens related injuries are also not uncommon these days as more people use lenses to correct refractive errors of the eye or for cosmetic reasons.



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