List common bacterial and viral infections in humans,how to get rid of skin discoloration on face naturally,how to get rid of yeast infection without treatment,how to get rid of white sweat stains - Tips For You

admin | Bv Homeopathic Treatment | 09.04.2016
Bacterial Skin Infections are due to the presence and growth of microorganisms that damage host tissue. It is a bacterial infection of the deeper layers of the skin, the dermis and the subcutaneous tissue. The skin becomes red, swollen and you can see a clear border between normal and infected skin. A bacterial skin infection that occurs in areas where skin touches skin, like between toes, in armpits, or groin. If you have a fungal infection that isn’t getting cured with an anti-fungal treatment, it could be erythrasma. A bacterial infection of certain sweat glands found in the armpits, groin, buttocks, scalp, and under the female breast. Pregnant women may suffer from occasional bouts of cough and congestion associated with flu or common cold. Hormonal changes during pregnancy often lead to several types of skin changes in pregnant women, including darkening of skin, reddening of face and palms, and development of stretch marks in the lower parts of the belly. The most common problem is the tendency to vomit that is caused by excessive discharge of some hormones, which can lead to dehydration and weight loss, if not checked in time. Due to the increased blood volume and blood flow in the body during pregnancy, the blood pressure of a pregnant woman rises above normal. Though being pregnant is one of the happiest moments for a women, some may suffer from depression due to various reasons ranging from loss in appetite, sleep and energy to problems in concentrating and making decisions. Women are often found to exhibit signs of carbohydrate intolerance in the presence of pregnancy. Pregnant women often suffer from urinary disorders ranging from an urge to urinate more frequently to urinary tract infections.
Anaemia is a condition when the Red-blood cell count is lower than the normal levels in a healthy human body. We will be provided with an authorization token (please note: passwords are not shared with us) and will sync your accounts for you.
Since ancient times, even in today’s modern world, infectious diseases cause lots of people to die. According to a report of World Health Organization (WHO), more than 20% of total deaths in the world are due to infectious diseases (World Health Organization, 2008).
A major step toward a complete picture of the pathogenesis of infectious diseases and consequently identifying drug targets is the cataloging of large-scale PHIs. We have developed PHISTO that presents experimentally verified pathogen–human protein interaction data in the most comprehensive and updated manner. A total of 10 sets of human proteins interacting with pathogens were constructed from PHI data to analyze the properties of targeted human proteins as follows: The sets targeted by bacterial pathogens (bacteria-targeted set), fungal pathogens (fungi-targeted set), protozoan pathogens (protozoa-targeted set), and viral pathogens (virus-targeted set) were analyzed for specific infection strategies of these different pathogen types. The undirected human PPI network was represented as an adjacency matrix, and the degree and centrality values of each protein in the network were calculated in MATLAB environment. Gene Ontology (Ashburner et al., 2000) enrichments of all 82 human protein sets were performed using BiNGO plugin (ver. The distribution of 5,210 human proteins on their targeting pathogens are shown in the Venn diagram (Figure 1). Figure 2 displays the comparison between the degree distributions of non-targeted proteins in the human PPI network and bacteria and virus-targeted sets. All enriched GO terms for each human protein set are available in Data Sheets 6–10 in Supplementary Material for further detailed analyses. In this study, we aim to provide a general overview of infection strategies used by different pathogens based on the comprehensive PHI data in PHISTO. In our PHI data, some pathogen groups are overrepresented with their larger number of reported interactions with human (Table 1).
The extent of infection is generally determined by the number of organisms and the toxins they release.
The mother may suffer from backache as the body tries to balance the added weight of the foetus.
Due to increased body activity, breathlessness and fatigue is a common problem, because, as the foetus grows, it can become more difficult to breathe as the lungs are pressed upward into the chest cavity. It may result in irritation when urinating, fever and fatigue, pressure in lower belly, nausea and back pain. Generally, a haemoglobin value of less than 11 g per decilitre defines anaemia during pregnancy. This means that you will not need to remember your user name and password in the future and you will be able to login with the account you choose to sync, with the click of a button. This page doesn't support Internet Explorer 6, 7 and 8.Please upgrade your browser or activate Google Chrome Frame to improve your experience. Infectious organisms, pathogens, cause diseases by physical interactions with human proteins. Different types of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses) act as pathogens for such diseases. We have enough bacterial PHIs to get statistically meaningful results, providing a good opportunity to get a systemic picture of the pathogenesis of bacterial infections. The database provides the entirety of relevant information about the physical PHIs in a single non-redundant resource to researchers.
The data cover 23,435 physical interactions occurring between 5,210 human proteins and 3,419 proteins of 257 pathogen strains of 72 pathogen groups (24 bacterial groups, 3 fungal groups, 2 protozoan groups, and 43 viral groups; Table 1). For a deeper comparison between bacterial and viral infections, human proteins interacting with at least two bacterial groups (two-bacteria-targeted set) and two viral groups (two-viruses-targeted set) and also human proteins interacting with at least three bacterial groups (three-bacteria-targeted set) and three viral groups (three-viruses-targeted set) were used. Betweenness centrality of a protein is equal to the number of shortest paths between any pairs passing through that protein.
Betweenness centrality calculations were performed by freely available MATLAB BGL package developed by David Gleich2. Detailed properties of all pathogen-targeted human proteins including number and types of targeting pathogens together with degree and betweenness centrality values in the human PPI network are given in Data Sheet 5 in Supplementary Material.


For both cases of bacteria and virus-targeted sets, it is observed that pathogen-targeted human proteins have generally higher degree values than non-targeted ones. The cumulative distributions of degree and betweenness centrality of human proteins excluding Yersinia and HIV data.
Special attention should be paid to the results of sets of human proteins interacting with three and more bacterial groups and three and more viral groups for a comparison between their infection strategies.
First 20 enriched GO process terms in human proteins targeted by at least three bacterial groups (three-bacteria-targeted set). Although large-scale pathogen–human protein interaction data have been identified in the last few years, the data for fungal and protozoan systems are still scarce (Table 1) to extract significant conclusions about their infection mechanisms.
The degree and betweenness centrality distributions of the bacteria-targeted and virus-targeted human protein sets are displayed in comparison with non-targeted proteins in the human PPI network in Figures 2 and 3.
Asian countries,[18] United States (including Hawaii), Canada ,[19] and Scotland)[20] due to bacterial resistance. Problems like indigestion, constipation, nausea, muscle cramps and contractions, dehydration, incontinence, swollen ankles, feet and fingers, headache, pelvic pain, and tiredness are common among pregnant women due to the hormonal changes occurring in the body during pregnancy. Hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy may affect both the nose and sinuses, as well as the lungs. Improper bowel movement is another problem, which can be taken care of by a balanced intake of food and fluids. Elevated blood pressure, generalised oedema and high levels of urea in blood may be symptoms of Preeclampsia, a multi-organ disease unique to pregnancy.
Numbness and tingling of the fingers, thighs, and toes are quite common in pregnancy and usually result from retention of water and swelling. In some women, these hormones work against their bodies, making them less able to make the insulin needed to get energy from body cells, leading to higher blood sugar levels, which may tend to become permanent if not controlled at early stages.
The increased blood filtration rate, combined with the high blood pressure of blood causes increase in urinal frequency.
Due to increase in blood volume during pregnancy, the haemoglobin content may fall to as low as 35% by the third trimester. A thorough analysis of these interspecies interactions is required to provide insights about infection strategies of pathogens. The mechanism of infection is based on the interactions between the proteins of pathogen and host.
Nevertheless these databases have not been updated since their first release, and miss lots of recently reported PHIs. In this work, we studied up-to-date PHI data reported in PHISTO with a specific focus on comparison between bacterial and viral infections of human.
It offers access via a user-friendly and functional web interface (see text footnote 1) with various searching, filtering, browsing, and extraction options.
In PHISTO, pathogen strains are grouped to provide an option to present PHI results together for related strains. To obtain common infection strategies of pathogens, sets of human proteins targeted by all types of pathogens (pathogen-targeted set) and by both bacteria and viruses (bacteria–virus-targeted set) were also analyzed.
The degree and centrality values of proteins in interaction networks provide valuable information about the role of corresponding proteins in the network’s functional organization using the topology of the interconnections.
However a difference is observed in trends of degree distributions of multibacteria and multiviruses targeted sets. The distribution of all proteins in the PPI network is given in comparison with (A) the bacteria-targeted sets, and (B) the virus-targeted sets.
The human proteins targeted by more pathogen groups reflect more specificity to infection mechanism of the corresponding pathogen (bacteria or virus).
On the other hand, interspecies protein interaction networks for bacterial and viral pathogens with human have been identified, enough to provide some insights about their strategies to subvert human cellular processes during infection.
We observe that the degree and centrality values of human proteins increase with increasing number of targeting bacterial and viral groups, confirming the previous results with the most comprehensive PHI data.
Hence, we performed the above-mentioned analyses with human protein sets excluding these major pathogen groups. Due to the increased blood supply, women generally tend to feel hotter than normal temperature and consequently sweat more. Asthma is found to occur in quite a percentage of women during pregnancy, characterised by symptoms like frequent shortness of breath, accompanied by coughing, chest tightness and wheezing.
Gestational diabetes can complicate childbirth and can also lead to diabetic problems in the child. However, amount of fluid intake should be kept normal for normal functioning of both the mother and the foetus. Here we analyzed the most comprehensive available pathogen–human protein interaction data including 23,435 interactions, targeting 5,210 human proteins.
Therefore, we have recently developed a pathogen–host interaction search tool (PHISTO), which serves as a centralized and up-to-date source for the entire available PHI data between various pathogen strains and human via a user-friendly and functional interface1.
We constructed various sets of human proteins targeted by bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses to pick out specific infection strategies of different pathogen types. Bacterial groups are sets of strains of the same genus as the names of the groups are the names of the genuses. Finally, 72 sets of human proteins each targeted by a pathogen group reported in Table 1 were additionally used in GO enrichment analysis to investigate the human mechanisms attacked by each pathogen group in the PHI data.
The top of this list, P53 (Tumor suppressor), DRA (HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR alpha chain), SUMO1 (Small ubiquitin-related modifier 1), JUN (Transcription factor AP-1), NPM (Nucleophosmin), ROA1 (Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1), and UBC9 (SUMO-conjugating enzyme) and the following proteins have potential to give important insights about infections.
For bacteria-targeted cases, the increase in degree values of human proteins with increasing number of targeting pathogen groups is not as clear as those of virus-targeted cases (Figure 2).
The enriched GO terms in human proteins interacting with both bacterial and viral pathogens are also important to highlight common infection mechanisms. A novel finding by our comparative analysis is that the increase in degree and centrality values with increasing number of pathogen groups is much more pronounced in virus-targeted cases than bacteria-targeted cases (Figures 2 and 3). Drinking adequate amounts of fluids, mild exercises and a balanced diet help in comforting the mother though these problems.


Pregnant women are more prone to contract yeast infections that affect the reproductive tract, urinary infections causing pain in the loin and other bacterial and viral infections that can even harm the foetus. Liver problems like elevated liver enzymes and lowered platelet count are also seen in pregnant women, which can be combatted with proper medications.
It is very important to keep pregnant women under proper rest and avoid involving them in serious issues that might lead to depression.
Women with pregnancy-induced diabetes are generally treated with a special diet that restricts their intake of sugar and carbohydrates, along with moderate exercise.
Extra iron is needed not only for the extra haemoglobin requirements of the maternal blood, but also for the growing baby and placenta. The data were obtained from the newly developed pathogen–host interaction search tool, PHISTO.
On the other hand, the set of human proteins targeted by both bacteria and viruses were used to obtain common infection strategies of these pathogens.
PHISTO enables the users to reach additional information easily by providing links in the search results to external databases. All three GO terms (biological process, molecular function, and cellular component) were scanned to identify the terms having significant association with each human protein set studied. Very similar trends are obtained for centrality distributions of human proteins (Figure 3). The fraction of proteins at a particular value of degree is the number of proteins having that value and greater divided by the number of proteins in the set. The fraction of proteins at a particular value of betweenness centrality is the number of proteins having that value and greater divided by the number of proteins in the set. Therefore we can conclude that attacking to hub and bottleneck proteins in the human interaction network is more specific to viral infections. No amount of words can describe the beauty and divinity of the relationship between a mother and her child. Growth of hair and nails also increases during pregnancy which may lead to infections in the scalp and feet as well.
So, it is advisable to undergo urine tests periodically to ensure normal levels of sodium, potassium, urea and body hormones.
One can also develop anaemia from not getting enough Vitamin B12, by losing a lot of blood, or from certain diseases or inherited blood disorders such as sickle cell disease.
This is the first comprehensive attempt to get a comparison between bacterial and viral infections. Notwithstanding these, a general overview of infection mechanisms of different types of pathogens is missing since there has been a lack of interspecies interactome data until very recent years.
We computed degree (connectivity) and betweenness centrality distributions of the human protein sets targeted by bacteria and viruses to observe the network properties of targeted human proteins. Proteins, pathogens, and publications listed in the search results are linked to UniProt, NCBI Taxonomy, and PubMed, respectively, offering users quick navigation in these informative databases. Our findings should be interpreted with caution since the protein interaction networks between pathogens and human are not complete yet. Of course it has elements like love, care and compassion, but it is the pain that the mother undergoes and selfless sacrifices she makes to nurture her child, is what makes this relation stand up above all! If left uncontrolled, asthma may decrease the amount of oxygen the foetus receives, which can then negatively affect the foetus’s growth, weight and overall development.
The mother should be well vaccinated against all types of communicable diseases and also take proper care of personal hygiene to prevent complications. Doctors generally prescribe a daily supplement of 30 mg of elemental iron as a preventive dose. We investigated human proteins that are targeted by bacteria and viruses to provide an overview of common and special infection strategies used by these pathogen types. It is perhaps one of the happiest moments in a woman’s life, when she knows she is pregnant. We observed that in the human protein interaction network the proteins targeted by pathogens have higher connectivity and betweenness centrality values than those proteins not interacting with pathogens.
GO enrichment analysis was also performed for sets of human proteins targeted by each pathogen group included in our PHI data to decipher the pathogen group(s) manipulating specific processes in human.
Detailed PHI data for 72 groups are given in Data Sheets 1–4 in Supplementary Material. The preference of interacting with hub and bottleneck proteins is found to be a common infection strategy of all types of pathogens to manipulate essential mechanisms in human.
With a new life form, preparing for its stay for nine months, certain physical and chemical changes occur in the body of the mother, so as to accommodate the baby. Compared to bacteria, viruses tend to interact with human proteins of much higher connectivity and centrality values in the human network.
It started with a simple vomiting tendency and nausea, which perhaps got her diagnosed with the pregnancy! Gene Ontology enrichment analysis of the human proteins targeted by pathogens indicates crucial clues about the infection mechanisms of bacteria and viruses.
As the feeding and other life habits of the mother undergo alterations, it is quite natural for her body to face some problems during the pregnancy. As the main infection strategy, bacteria interact with human proteins that function in immune response to disrupt human defense mechanisms. Everything that the mother does henceforth needs to be carefully monitored because it affects the baby directly.
Indispensable viral strategy, on the other hand, is the manipulation of human cellular processes in order to use that transcriptional machinery for their own genetic material transcription. A novel observation about pathogen–human systems is that the human proteins targeted by both pathogens are enriched in the regulation of metabolic processes.



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