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A team of researchers at the Croatian pharmaceutical company Pliva, Gabrijela Kobrehel, Gorjana Radobolja-Lazarevski and Zrinka Tamburasev led by Dr. A great profit was made by the merchant ships that returned to the Italian port cities of Venice, Pisa, and Genoa filled with the greatly sought-after goods from Asia.
In addition to Venice, Genoa developed into a major port city for ships that carried the new goods to the rest of Europe.
According to the accounts published years later by Marco Polo, son of Niccolo, arriving in China in 1265 A.D.
They also brought back from the Khan a request to the pope for 100 Christian missionaries to teach the Chinese the Christian faith. In their travels along the Silk Road, the Polos saw many strange animals, heard numerous strange languages, tasted exotic foods, and experienced other sights in a long and difficult three-year trip eastward. Whether or not Marco embellished his stories with exaggeration, he recorded that the Khan took a strong liking to the young Venetian and sent him on many official tours of his vast kingdom as his representative on commercial and political business.
They left China in an entourage of 14 ships and 600 people, most to serve the princess and to impress her new husband. While in prison Marco dictated to another prisoner an account of his travels and experiences in the advanced civilization of the Yuan Dynasty. The account, published under the title, Il Milione, was widely read in Europe and stimulated an even greater interest in the wonders of the Far East.
An extensive world of trade had existed in the Indian Ocean for centuries, to the virtual exclusion of Europe. Although trade and travel between China and Europe existed even during the Roman Empire, the rise in power of the Ottoman and Persian empires from the 12th century on made travel and trade increasingly difficult for the Europeans.
The Persians, as was the case also with the Ottomans, extracted heavy taxes from merchants traveling through their territories. The Ottoman interference in the Mediterranean threatened the commercial survival of Venice, Genoa, and Milan.
Of great concern was the increasing blockage of the important slave trade that existed between the Mongols in the Balkans and Eastern Europe who were shipping European slaves to Africa and the Middle East.
A new religious fervor spread throughout Europe in reaction to the rapid expansion of Islam into North Africa and the Christian Balkans.
A whole generation of young, highly trained soldiers in Spain, after the defeat of the Moors was completed in 1492, were looking for new campaigns.
New technology in ship building created faster, sleeker ships (the caravel), the sternpost rudder which made steering ships much more accurate and easy, arming of ships with the new canon, the magnetic compass, the astrolabe (which enabled captains to plot their travel using latitudinal and longitudinal readings), and more accurate charting methods drove the desire of Europeans to new areas of exploration.
The bankruptcy of Spain caused by the long campaign to drive the Moors from Spain, made exploration to find new routes to the Spice Islands and new deposits of gold and silver necessary. The loss of financial revenue in Portugal, the leading merchant fleet linking the Spice Islands to Europe, due to the new Ottoman dominance in the Indian Ocean forced new alternatives to be obtained. And when these factors resulted in two actual, successful trips to be achieved in 1429 A.D. They traded porcelain, lacquerware, silk, and cotton in exchange for gold, silver, and ivory.
Had the Chinese emperors in the 15th century continued in their quest to develop world trade, the history of the world would be radically different. However, increasing pressure from the Mongols to the north diverted the attention of the emperors away from trade expansion to defense of the dynasty, and Chinese naval explorations inexplicably ceased. The Ottoman Empire relied upon Greek sailors and captains from Ottoman-controlled Greece to conduct most of their sea trade during the 15th and 16th centuries. They found something other than shipping to be much more profitable -- the capture of ships, crews, captains and cargo. Their piracy continued on into the 18th century when the Barbary pirates were finally defeated by the fledgling navy of the United States under President Thomas Jefferson. From the 15th century onward ships sailed from Europe in search of not only new routes to Asia, but also to find the cities of gold that were featured in the fables of European sailors. The Dutch sailed successfully around the tip of Africa into Asian waters and there they competed with the Portuguese and English for control of the spice trade.
The Dutch also made a brief attempt to colonize North America where they founded New Amsterdam (now New York), but were soon driven out by the English. The Portuguese were the first to find a route around the tip of Africa to India and then to Asia. To settle the conflict between the two Catholic countries, Pope Alexander VI in May 1493 drew an imaginary line down the middle of the Atlantic Ocean 480 km (298.25 miles) west of the Cape Verde Islands.
At the time of Alexandera€™s initial intervention, little land in the Americas had been discovered or explored. The major sponsor and encourager of the Portuguese explorations was Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460), son of the Portuguese king. With Henrya€™s funding and encouragement over 50 expeditions were sent out, including Vasco da Gama, who in 1498 became the first European to sail around the tip of Africa to India. Several enduring Portuguese colonies were established in Brazil (where the national language is still Portuguese), the Spice Islands (Portuguese East Timor), Macao (a neighbor of Hong Kong), the Portuguese Azores, and the African colonies of Portuguese Angola and Mozambique.
England under Queen Elizabeth I developed an expansive trade and exploration campaign, supported by the worlda€™s largest and most powerful navy.
One of Elizabetha€™s favorites at the royal court was Sir Walter Raleigh, a daring sea captain who consistently thwarted and badgered the Spanish by seizing Spanish galleons filled with gold and silver on their way to Spain from the colonies in Peru and Bolivia. One hundred years earlier John Cabot, a Venetian seaman and explorer, sailed under the sponsorship of King Henry VII, Elizabetha€™s grandfather. His son, Sebastian Cabot, was later commissioned to find a Northwest Passage through present-day Canada to the Orient.
Sir Francis Drake (1545-1596) was selected by Queen Elizabeth to lead a sailing expedition around the world. John Cook was a late 18th century English explorer and navigator who sailed three times to the Orient, was the first European to touch Australiaa€™s eastern shore, discovered many Pacific islands, and was the first to sail around present-day New Zealand.
During his travels, Cook created the first accurate maps of the Pacific Ocean and the first accurate maps of the coastlands of Europe.
Under Queen Elizabeth I and James I, the first English colonies in the New World were established.
Queen Elizabeth I also founded the East India Company in 1600 for the purpose of developing trade with the Dutch East Indies.
The Italian, da Verrazano, sailing under the French flag was the first European to locate the bay of New York, reaching it in 1524.
In 1603 Samuel de Champlain explored the Saint Lawrence River, traveled south into New England, and in 1609 established the colony of Quebec in the newly formed New France. By the early 17th century French fur trappers and missionaries traveled as far west as Wyoming, established bases throughout the Great Lakes region, including present-day Chicago and Michigan, and conducted fur-trade along the Mississippi River as far south as present-day New Orleans, establishing there an important trade base and French colony. About a century later, France was defeated by Britain in the Seven Yearsa€™ War (1754-1763), known to Americans as the French and Indian War.
The last chapter of the Reconquista was written in 1492 when the last of the Moors were driven from Grenada in southern Spain. The article below, a€?Why Did Columbus Sail?,a€? further points out the major events of 1492 in Spain. In 1492, six years before Vasco da Gama of Portugal made his historic trip around the tip of Africa to India, opening up a new sea route to Asia, a sea captain from Genoa, Italy, Christopher Columbus, was commissioned by the king and queen of Spain to explore a new route westward to the Spice Islands. From childhood he was fascinated by the sea and dreamed of becoming a sailor--maybe even one day becoming the captain of his own ship! When he was about twenty years of age, his dream of going to sea was finally realized and saw many different peoples and lands on his voyages around the Mediterranean.
After escaping a pirate attack at sea, Columbus settled in the Portuguese city of Lisbon, Europe`s most important center of world navigation.
After his marriage to a Portuguese woman, and fathering several children, Columbus became convinced he could reach Asia by sailing westward from Europe across the Atlantic Ocean. A fervent Christian, Columbus also had a burning passion to evangelize peoples along his route to Asia. Columbus took his plan to Henry VII of England, Francis I of Spain, to the king of Portugal, and was turned down by all three monarchs.
Three swift ships were purchased and stocked with supplies for the voyage -- the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria. For the rest of his life Columbus believed that he had landed on perimeter islands of either India or a€?Cathaya€? (the 15th century name for China).
Columbus on this first trip to the New World visited numerous nearby islands, including Cuba, which he made his main base of operations and center of the new colony established. Why does history say that Columbus a€?discovereda€? the New World, when other peoples had already inhabited North and South America for thousands of years before his a€?discoverya€??
The a€?Ba€? people, however, came to South America probably from Japan and the South Pacific islands via boats. And to complicate the matter further, a fifth haplogroup, labeled a€?X,a€? has been identified, and a€?Xa€? is not found anywhere in Asia! Recent finds in Oregon (2012) also have located a distinct, heretofore unknown, people who migrated into North America along land bridges that connected Siberia to North America during the Ice Age. Other finds also point to early arrivals in Latin America that pre-date the arrival of migratory peoples from Asia. A skull was found in 1999 in South-Central Brazil by archeologists and numerous skeletons in a nearby burial site that seem to indicated that these were people with Negroid features. Therefore, the settling of North and South America probably was done in numerous waves of migration into the two continents and from different places in Asia and perhaps the South Pacific and even Europe.
If you are interested in DNA studies and current thinking about how and when the ancestors of the Native Americans came to the Americas, see the following articles and videos. If Columbus was a€?the first Europeana€? to have a€?discovereda€? the Americas, why are they called the a€?Americasa€? and not the a€?Columbiasa€?? Between 1497 and 1507 an Italian explorer, Amerigo Vespucci, made six trips to South America. Although his actually landings were few and brief, he later recounted his journeys to a friend, Lorenzo de Medici, who was so fascinated by the stories that he personally published what became very popular and widely-read accounts. The anti-Columbus authors point to the introduction of European diseases into the Americas that decimated whole populations of original inhabitants, that Columbus seized slaves, not only to work for the Spanish but were sent back to Spain for exhibit much as one would an animal, and that he ruled over the new colony as a despot. Political correctness tends to see any claims by any particular religion to be a€?the only waya€? to be absolutist and arrogant.
Furthermore, the argument goes, Columbus opened the door to centuries of ill-treatment of the Meso-Americans, as they were to be referred to rather than the supposedly demeaning term a€?Indian.a€? The ill-treatment continued not only through the later Spanish conquistadors, but also through the American settlement of the West and the disruption of the native American cultures. And so, his detractors maintain, Columbus stands for everything that went wrong as a result of the invasion by Europeans into the Americas. There were no existing university courses or books available on a€?how to best contact a foreign culturea€? or a€?how to best evangelize another people.a€? Columbus and the Spanish put into practice what was common to all European nations at the time. European diseases carried by explorers into the New World was hardly a planned attack on the native population, since there was no knowledge in that day about germs or how contagions developed.
The Spanish and Columbus viewed themselves as possessors of a superior Christian culture who had an obligation to treat the native inhabitants more as children to be protected and instructed than as slaves. Columbus showed a great compassion for the peoples he encountered and saw his trips as designed by God for their evangelism. Columbus did sign an agreement with the monarchs of Spain which guaranteed him 10% of the profits from not only his own trips but for all those that followed. The entry of Columbus into the New World opened two continents to European and Asian cultures, civilizations, technologies, medicine, trade, and eventually united an entire southern American continent with one language. The next morning, Friday, August 3, 1492, at dawn, the Santa MarA­a and its companion caravels caught the ebb tide and drifted toward the gulf. In that Ocean of Darkness, some feared, the water boiled and sea monsters gulped down sailors so foolish as to sail there. Commander Cristoforo Colombo (as he was known in his hometown of Genoa, Italy) was taller than most men; so tall, in fact, he couldna€™t stand inside his cabin on the Santa MarA­a. The textbook answer, as any schoolchild could recite, is that Columbus wanted to find a trade route to the Orient.
Columbus was visibly and verbally a€?an exceptionally pious man,a€? writes historian Delno C.
His son Ferdinand wrote, a€?He was so strict in matters of religion that for fasting and saying prayers he might have been taken for a member of a religious order.a€? He knew his Vulgate Bible thoroughly, and he probably took it (or a collection of Scriptures) on his voyages.
A main source for information about Columbus is his contemporary Bishop Bartolome de Las Casas. But only in the last 40 yearsa€”and particularly in the last 10 have scholars examined Columbusa€™s religious motivations.
But why explain away his intense religious devotion, when it was obvious to those who knew him and persistent throughout his writings? On September 23, the ship hit a calm, causing the seamen to complain theya€™d never be able to get back to Spain. At daylight, the wide-eyed Europeans saw people a€?as naked as their mother bore thema€? and many ponds, fruits, and green trees. Las Casas agreed that a€?Columbus showed the way to the discovery of immense territoriesa€? and many peoples a€?are now ready and prepared to be brought to the knowledge of their Creator and the faith.a€? As a sign of that work, on every island he explored, Columbus erected a large wooden cross. After ten weeks of exploring the coastline of Cuba and Hispaniola, continually trading trinkets for gold, Columbus and his men hit a problem. But what most would have viewed as a calamity, Columbus did not: a€?It was a great blessing and the express purpose of Goda€? that his ship ran aground so he would leave some of his men. Although the words are recorded only indirectly, God spoke to Columbus and assured him that God would take him to safety.
The next day Columbusa€™s men spotted an island in the Azores; less than three weeks later they landed triumphantly on the Iberian peninsula. When Columbus anchored the NiA±a in Palos, seven months after hea€™d left, shops closed and church bells rang. According to Las Casas, a€?The King and Queen heard [Columbusa€™s report] with profound attention and, raising their hands in prayer, sank to their knees in deep gratitude to God. Columbus thought that Ferdinand and Isabella were Goda€™s chosen instruments to recapture Jerusalem and place the Holy City under Christian control. As soon as Columbus had returned to Spain, he told Ferdinand and Isabella he would provide 50,000 soldiers and 4,000 horses for them to free Christa€™s Holy Tomb in Jerusalem.
But much to Columbusa€™s disappointment, the longed-for crusade to recapture the Holy City was never undertaken. In 1499, he said, a€?When all had abandoned me, I was assailed by the Indians and the wicked Christians the Spanish settlers who were rebelling against his inept administration]. In 1518 Carlos of Spain, who was to become Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire, signed an agreement to sponsor a journey by Magellan to seek a route around the world, but primarily a route to the Spice Islands in the East Indies from the Pacific side, so as to avoid the confrontations with Islamic pirates in the Mediterranean.
His journey around the tip of South America and across the uncharted Pacific Ocean included many dangerous and threatening situations and his crew threatened mutiny on numerous occasions. Several weeks later Magellana€™s crew continued their trip west, eventually visited the Spice Islands, and then continued their journey westward to Europe.
Ponce de Leon in 1513 explored the east coast of Florida for Spain in search for gold and what was rumored to be the fountain of youth. Vasco de Balboa in 1513 sailed along the northern coast of South America, and landed in present-day Central America. Hernan Cortes in 1519 landed on the coast of present-day Mexico with a small band of 600 men.
The introduction of European diseases whcih wiped out a vast majority of the native people, the introduction of guns, and mounted soldiers on horseback with their war dogs, resulted in a speedy and complete conquest of the Aztec Empire and surrounding tribes.
Francisco Pizarro in 1531 set out from Central America with only 200 soldiers to locate the rumored Inca Empire. The gold and silver from Peru and Bolivia filled the Spanish treasuries with immense wealth and created the numerous routes between South America and Spain. De Soto landed at present-day Bradenton, Florida, just south of Tampa, and began his journey northward. De Soto traveled up the present-day Route US 10 to Tallahassee, Florida where he made camp for about a year. The survivors eventually decided to attempt to reach Mexico City, first by foot, and then, returning to the shores of the Mississippi, to build rafts to sail down the river, into the Gulf , and on to Mexico City. He then continued to the west until he reached the Mississippi River, the first European to reach that river. Viceroys: Spanish elite who were appointed by the monarchy to run the five separate regions of New Spain.
Creoles: people born in the colonies to Spanish parents, and considered inferior or a€?hicksa€? by the colonists who came to the colonies from Spain. Native Americans: these people had little freedom or were forced into labor on plantations and in mines.
Their appeals for change were heard by many, but the change that was instituted was not a response of Christian compassion and love for those they sought to convert, but was rather the decision to ease their work load by bringing into the colonies a larger work force.
The clergy fired back with accusations against the viceroys and peninsulares--that they could not care less about the souls of the native Americans and threw them aside when ill or dead as one would trash.
Native Americans and African slaves both occupied the very bottom of the social chain in Spaina€™s Ecomienda. De Sotoa€™s expedition contributed to the founding of what became known as the Columbian Exchange, the exchange of people, animals, foods, plants, and technology between Europe and the New Spain (the Americas).
From Europe and Africa pigs, horses, goats, sugar cane, paper, guns, and technology crossed the Atlantic to the America. The introduction of corn and potatoes into Europe produced a fairly rapid growth in population, which had declined because of the a€?Little Ice Agea€? that began around 1350 A.D. Sugar beets and sugar cane that came to the America from India with Columbus, soon became a huge industry in the Americas, especially in the Caribbean. Beyond a new commercial exchange between Europe and Africa and the Americas, the gold and silver flowing to Spain opened up new and expanded doors for trade across the Pacific with the Ming Dynasty in China (whose economic system was based on gold and silver) and with the Spice Islands of the Philippines and Indonesia. In Africa the Portuguese had established economic ties with strong African kings who provided the Portuguese with large numbers of conquered slaves. As has been the case throughout human history, in general, the treatment of the native and African workers was brutal, harsh, and inhumane. And Islam was presented with a major problem in Africa in a dispute between the Muslim missionaries and Muslim slave traders. Therefore, Islamic trade traders justified their behavior in Africa by declaring the tribal groups living south of an arbitrary line drawn across the African continent as sub-humans, pagans eligible for death or slavery! For this reason, today the continent of Africa is composed of a solidly Islamic north and a majority Christian south where the conversion rate to Christianity is progressing faster than the birth rate. The system of joint stock companies emerged, in which merchants and investors pooled their resources, sold stock in the new companies, reduced the risk to individual investors, and made available vast amounts of working capital for investments in mining and agriculture, as well as the many ships required to transport goods. A new population of middle class merchants arose, acting as middle men in the new system of trade.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony, and the colonies planted at Plymouth and Jamestown were all made possible by joint stock companies, who expected a return on their investments through new trade for goods and natural resources with the native peoples and the colonists in those areas.
By 1510 50% of all silver from the mines in Bolivia were being shipped to India to purchase tea and cotton and to China for silk and porcelain. Contacts between Europe and Asia--especially China, the Spice Islands, and India--greatly increased in the late 13th century, producing important merchant cities in Venice, Milan, Genoa, Lisbon, and Madrid. Formerly most trade routes were overland, but beginning with the 13th century naval shipping became the major means of trade.
The Persians, Ottomans, and North African Muslims, through harassment, heavy import and export taxes, and seizing of cargo forced Europeans to find new routes to Asia.
Between 1450-1650 several countries became leaders in naval shipping: China, Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, England, and France, and others, like India and Italy, served as middle men in the expanded trade.
New technologies in the construction of ships and navigation instruments made long sea journeys possible.
The Treaty of Tordesilla in 1491 was negotiated by Pope Alexander VI between Portugal and Spain in an attempt to settle their growing dispute over creating trade routes to the Spice Islands.
Prince Henry the Navigator encouraged and funding trade between Portugal and others countries and continents, leading to new routes to India and the Spice Islands, as well as opening the door to trafficking in slaves from Africa. Queen Elizabeth and James I were English monarchs who sponsored a great growth in naval power, shipping, and establishing colonies in the New World. Christopher Columbus in 1492 was the first European to set foot in the New World since early attempts by the Norsemen in the 9th and 10th centuries. Columbus was commissioned by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella in 1492 to find a new sea route westward to the Spice Islands.
Columbus was a Christian who desired to reach unknown people groups with the Gospel of Christ. The Americas were named for Amerigo Vespucci, an Italian explorer who sailed six times to the east coast of South America and made fairly accurate maps of the coastline. Ferdinand Magella sailed for Portugal in 1519, successfully made his way around the tip of Africa, across the Pacific, and although he, himself, died in the Philippines, his crew continued the trip westward to Portugal, arriving in 1521, the first known humans to circle the earth by ship. Other Spanish explorers claimed vast areas of North and South America for Spain and established the Columbian Exchange between Europe, Africa, and New Spain. Large gold and silver deposits in New Spain created great wealth in Spain, but ultimately led to its economic decline. The rapid expansion of shipping, plantation building, and trade produced a new system of joint stock companies to fund the new ventures. Explain the reasons for and the success of the Ottoman Empire in restricting European trade with Asia. Describe the cultural and military collision between the Spanish and the Aztec and the Inca empires and analyze why these empires collapsed. Explain the founding and organization of Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires in the Americas and assess the role of the Catholic Church in the colonial administration and policies regarding indigenous populations. Assess ways in which the exchange of plants and animals around the world in the late 15th and the 16th centuries affected European, Asian, African, and American Indian societies and commerce. Analyze why the introduction of new diseases in the Americas after 1492 had such devastating demographic and social effects on American Indian populations, not only in South America but also in Florida and the Caribbean.
Assess the effects that knowledge of the peoples, cultures, geography, and natural environment of the Americas had on European religious and intellectual life. How did the Crusades and the Renaissance open up Europe for an awakened interest in other lands?
What light, fast vessel was popular with the early explorers of the late fifteenth century? What were maps and other navigational aids like during this period, and how did sailors find their way?
What is not found in the textbook: the motivation of Ferdinand and Isabella to fund the voyage by Columbus during the two years prior to 1492 Ferdinand and Isabella has used all their resources to drive the remaining Islamic forces and citizens from Spain.
According to the author of the textbook, why had Europeans not discovered the New World sooner? By the time Magellan was ready to begin his journey in 1519, what had everyone realized about Columbusa€™ earlier trip? Tell the story of what happened when Magellan with his remaining crew finally reached the Philippine Islands. Tell the story of the miraculous healing of the chief of the island on which Magellan landed. How Herbalists can Integrate with Integrity - Herbalists are one of the last health care modalities that remains unlicensed. Plant Walk -On this walk we would meet local plants and discuss the importance of botanical characteristics (an examination of their individual parts), the plantsa€™ relationships with other plants, ethical and practical ways of wildcrafting species we see, plants from other areas that have similar uses, and real-life clinical applications.
GI Tract Protocol - The GI tract protocol can be used for normalizing varied types of chronic digestive problems. Hispanic Herbalism - The Hispanic healing traditions of California, incorporating the herbal use of other cultures within the Latino experience. Guerilla Herbalism - Street herbalism through helping the homeless, impoverished, and under insured, often under dangerous conditions. Giving Back - Rosemary Gladstar, renowned herbalist and founder of United Plant Savers, talks at length about the importance of giving back to the natural world that provides the plants we use for medicine, and that imparts the wisdom needed now more than ever in these trying times. An Ecology of Healing: Health as Wholeness and Balance - Taught by Kiva Rose and Jesse Wolf Hardin, this class will be an in-depth exploration of healing as the bodya€™s natural effort to be whole and in balance.
Foundational Herbcraft & Talking With Plants (with Kiva Rose) - A common sense look at how plants speak to use through our senses, and what theya€™re communicating. Foundational Herbcraft & Talking With Plants (with Jim McDonald) - A common sense look at how plants speak to use through our senses, and what theya€™re communicating.
Clinical Skills - Learn to evaluate energetic conditions (hot, cold, damp, dry, tense, relaxed etc.,) by complexion, tongue and pulse examination and simple questions.
Herbs for the Muscular & Skeletal Systems - Herbal treatment of locomotor injuries, problems of aging, arthritis, gout, lyme disease and more.
I am so excited to be registered for the following course and thought I would share the information with readers. Join Herbalist, Nutritionist, and food lover, Darcey Blue French of Brighid’s Well Herbs for a 6 week online intensive course on the energetics of food, true nourishment, nutrition, relationship with place and food, nutritional healing and more. May 3, 2010 - June 21, 2010*Learn about the ways traditional healing systems such as Ayurveda and Chinese Medicine see food energetics, and use food as healing tools on a day to day basis. Darcey Blue French is an herbalist and food lover, who has over the years explored various ways of eating, interacting with food and preparing food. Due to the fact that I am working on my last three weeks of the semester while my husband is on a business trip,A  I have decided to re-post articles worthy of being passed along. For those who are not familiar with the name,A  Paul Bergner is the director of the North American Institute of Medical Herbalism in Boulder, Colorado whichA  offers introductory, advanced, and clinical training in medical herbalism and clinical nutrition in the vitalist tradition. For those interested in more information,A  please check out the websites above you will find a wealth of information. The process for making HFCS is to chemically strip the sugars off of the starch in corn, freeing them up.A The process of making of agave nectar is similar (this is not agave sap), but the sugars are chemically stripped off of inulin starch, inulin being a fructo-oligosaccharide, having fructose as the dominant sugar in the chain, so the agave nectar might be 80-90% free fructose instead of 55% like the HFCS in soft drinks. I like to think that my childhood was unique but honestly there are a great number of folk out there who grew up in a very similar manner to me. There is a point to all of this.A  Herbalism is newer to me than the natural family living. I honestly am not sure of the answers but I thought I would throw the question out there as it is rumbling around in the back of my brain.A  What have you been thinking about today? Nutrition plays a vital role in a healthy nervous system but before you even think about what foods to eat, you should look at your eating patterns.A A  Are you skipping meals while taking in large amounts of stimulants or sugars? B Vitamins are also important to a healthy nervous system but it is important to note that there is too much of a good thing.A  Taking large doses of B vitamins (specifically B12)A  can lead to anxiety attacks and panic disorders. As I examined the packets, I continued to like what I was reading and is there ever there a lot to read.A  These might be the most informative seed packets I have ever run across!
All-in-all it seems like a good company and I plan on spending a good share of my gardening budget at their website. A lot of herbalists talk of using herbal infusions to support your body during and illness or perhaps as an alternative to a nutritional supplement in the form of a nourishing infusion. They are quite useful; I have been making herbal preparations, for years now,A  with good results. You don’t hear many of them mentioningA  spaghetti sauce as an decoction although the acidic base of tomato sauce is wonderful for drawing minerals out of foods. Keep in mind I am not talking about the watered-down, additive-laden prepared foodstuff you buy at the the megamarket.A A  I am talking of preparations you make yourself. I don’t remember exactly when it occurred to me that soups and broths are really just giant pots of herbal goodness. I realized that I don’t know that I ever have put our spaghetti sauce recipe on the blog, so I though I would use it here as an example of the herb to food ratio that is health-producing. Beverages don’t have to be the boring preparations many people think of as medicinal infusions, either. There is an added benefit of incorporating these beverages into your daily diet.A  I have experimented with many different ways to get little ones to eat their herbs. I also dona€™t like using them from a sustainability standpoint.A  I dona€™t want my well-being to be dependent on any industry and it would be rather hypocritical of me to talk a good game about local sustainable food systems when half my nutrients are arriving on a boat from China. For the next couple of weeks, I am going to post about different ways eating and cooking with herbs can help to improve your health.
The proportions of cardiovascular deaths caused by ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, inflammatory heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, and other cardiovascular diseases in 2011. Figure 1: The proportions of cardiovascular deaths caused by ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, inflammatory heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, and other cardiovascular diseases in 2011. Heart Disease Prevention Program, Division of Cardiology, University of California, Irvine, C240 Medical Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA. In the days prior to the American Revolution, Pennsylvania, which was not only a Quaker, but also a pacifist, colony restricted her residents from crossing over the Susquehanna River and taking up Indian lands. Marylanders had no such compulsion and were more inclined to travel up a river, than to worry about where a rather arbitrary political boundary might cross through the woods. William grew up predominantly in York Co., PA where he met and married Catherine Houts on 27 Oct 1778, on his 21st birthday.
Whether William participated in the Revolutionary War as a soldier, or not, is unknown, but it seems highly likely that he would have. From subsequent US census records, John, at one point, stated that he was born in Pennsylvania, but in another census, he said he was born in Maryland. In the first US census taken in 1790, William Geery is found with his family in Baltimore Co., Maryland.
This last stay in Maryland was of a short duration and they were probably gone in the early 1790a€™s. They must have lived fairly close to one of the original settlements in that state, as Williama€™s oldest son, John Geery, soon met a young girl, by the name of Elizabeth Guthrie, who was about his same age, and who was born there in Madison Co. In the mean time, William Geery and the rest of his family remained, at least for the most part, in Madison Co., KY.
William remained for the rest of his life in Madison County, KY, passing away there on 14 Jan 1838 outliving his second wife by two years, as Hannah died there on 26 Oct 1835. William Geerya€™s older brother, John Geery, served in the Pennsylvania Militia during the War.
By the turn of the century (early 1800a€™s) the threat from the Shawnee Indians had subsided quite a bit in Kentucky, although the Creeks were still giving the settlers in Tennessee a lot of trouble. For several years they made their home next to his in-laws and seemed happy in this community.
Not too long after the death of little William, this family decided to pull up stakes and move to a new territory.
They traveled down the Cumberland River to where it meets the Ohio, and then, just a short distance further, it merges with the Mississippi. After marking off his farm ground, John built a large log cabin next to a perpetual spring of water. In the mean time, after Johna€™s move to Missouri, his younger brother, James Geery, who had still been living with their folks back in Kentucky, packed up his family and in the early 1830a€™s moved to Missouri too. Robert was born in Williamson County, TN on 1 Dec 1808, and was the second child in the family of John and Elizabeth Guthrie Geery.
Life was tough on the frontier for a young man, but his father needed him to help clear the land of most of the trees, and to plow and plant the crops.
In the community near where they lived was another family, who had been their friends in Williamson Co., TN, and who had moved to Missouri with them.
Robert and Sally were married in Ralls County, on 29 Sep 1831 and began building up their own farm ground in Pike County, next to the farm and home of William W. Robert was not only a farmer, but also followed the trade of being the local tanner of hides.
No out-right military conflict resulted, but more and more Mormons kept moving into the western counties of the state, north of Jackson County. In time, the Mormons were expelled from Missouri, and in the cold of winter, 1839, many of them migrated back across northern tier of counties, on their way to Illinois.
In 1860, following the election of Abraham Lincoln, from the neighboring state of Illinois, the Civil War broke out and Missouri was referred to as a a€?split statea€? meaning that it was both a a€?slavea€? state, as well as a a€?freea€? state, and the people could chose which way they wanted to be. Coming from Tennessee, the Geerys had southern inclinations, but not so much so that they wanted to kill anyone over it. At this time, Robert Geery was 52 years old when his wife, Sally Parks, became ill and passed away on 23 Oct. Eventually Robert died on 11 Jan 1899 and in Reading, MO; and his second wife, Catherine passed away some time after 1883. RR Geery, as he usually styled himself, was named after both his maternal Grandfather, Reuben Parks, and after his father, Robert Geery. After an appropriate sweetheart courtship of these teenagers, Reuben and Lucy were married on 25 Feb 1864 in Pike Co., MO.


Following the end of the Civil War, there was another huge explosion of the population moving west to occupy almost every piece of land that could be acquired. With the discovery of rich veins of gold, then silver, and then copper in a little known place that soon became the boom town of Butte, Montana, thousands of people from all over the world flocked to the newest strike zone to make themselves wealthy over-night. Reuben and Fanny had a young family at this time, but they were coming to the conclusion that their Missouri farm was not going to provide them with the life they wanted to live. At least with the railroad, their trip west was much less of a hardship than it had been for earlier travelers. Additionally some of Reubena€™s brothers and sisters came to Montana with him, or shortly thereafter. Reubena€™s mining efforts didna€™t pay off too well, and his farm, although pretty, didna€™t provide all that much either, but his freighting job supplied his family with their basic needs.
After his death, Fanny went to live primarily with her married daughter, Mildred Geery Travers, who had married Reuben Travers on 6 Jan 1892. The second daughter, and third child of Reuben and Fanny Geery was Cora Bell, born 30 Mar 1869 in Pike County, MO. Cora grew up in a loving home where she was very close to her parents and siblings, but most especially to her only sister, Mildred.
Sometime between 1881-84 a small group of people arrived from Vankleek Hill, Ontario, Canada. It wasna€™t long before big, tall Jim Fitzpatrick noticed the pretty Cora Bell Geery, and he began to court her. For her 17th birthday in 1886, Fanny Waddle Geery gave her daughter Cora an autograph book.
The thoughts of a loving and kindly father, who could see the hand writing on the wall and knew he would soon be giving his daughter away to another man. Jim Fitzpatricka€™s and Cora Bell Geerya€™s wedding was recorded in the new county courthouse located in Butte. The last two were twins, which were named after their mother, and her dear sister, who she sadly left behind near Butte. Cora Geery Fitzpatrick, and her family were very happy in their Montana home, even though she was separated from the rest of her Geery siblings. Soon the family doctor diagnosed her with colon cancer, and there was not much that could be done to help her. Left column is for John (himself), his first wife, Elizabeth Guthrie, and his mother Catherine Houts. Right column has: His Mother, Catherine Houts Geery (entered twice) followed by his Fathera€™s second wife, Hannah, and ending with his father, William Geery.
Whether William participated in the Revolutionary War as a soldier, or not, is unknown, but it seems highly likely that he would have.A  His older brother, John, was a soldier, and with the opposing British Army stationed in Philadelphia, a patriotic feeling filled the hearts of most able bodied Pennsylvanians, perhaps more so than from any other colony, outside of Massachusetts.
Reubena€™s mining efforts didna€™t pay off too well, and his farm, although pretty, didna€™t provide all that much either, but his freighting job supplied his family with their basic needs.A  With that being the case, he moved their residence from their Browns Gulch farm to the town of Rocker, about four miles west of Butte, where it was more convenient for him to spend time with his family.
It is very rare that we need to remove tonsils as most cases respond to antibiotics and rest. One of our clients was driving by, and picked her up and brought her straight to the surgery.
We packed the wound with a special cream for burn victims (Flamazine) and bandaged it for 3 days. We placed Bully on an IV drip and anesthetised him with IV Alfaxan, and then placed him on Isoflurane gas.
The bandage was changed every 4-5 days, and it did not take long for some nice healthy granulation tissue to fill in the gaps to give us a smooth surface for the surrounding skin to run along and close the gap. Granulation tissue is the cherry ripe looking tissue in the middle of the wound that you can see in the post op photos. Once it is laid down, the skin edges naturally creep along the top of it and new skin is formed. By 30 days, the wound had completely closed over with fresh skin and Bully was a much happier dog.
On examination, her vitals were all normal- good gum colour, heart and lungs ok, temperature normal and she was reasonably bright and alert. We suspected a nasty tumour in the abdomen and offered exploratory surgery just in case it was benign. Some cephalexin antibiotic powder was placed in the abdomen and we closed the wound using normal sutures.
On cutting the mass in half, we found large chunks of food in the middle mixed with lots of inflammatory scar tissue.
Over the weekend, she had to be force fed and given anti vomiting injections (Cerenia) and continued pain relief and antibiotic cover. We thought she may have developed fatty liver necrosis (damage to the liver) as a result of the major surgery. On Sunday morning, she looked a bit stronger and she even ate a tiny amount of cooked chicken brought in by her Mum.
She was given a nice low voltage heat mat to sleep on and her Mum kept up the nutrition, antibiotics and pain relief. This was one of our trickiest cases and just goes to show that even though I have been in practice since 1981, I still have not seen all the different possible medical and surgical cases that present themselves to vets.
In early December, late in the afternoon, we were presented with a 6 year old female kelpie, Molly who was slightly off colour and had a mild left head tilt and a throaty gag. All the symptoms suggest an issue with the nerves that supplied the left head and neck area.
Well, after several extensive tick searches and an after hours clip, we had not found a tick or crater. We immediately setup two IV drips with a bottle of snake anti-venom in one and fluids in the other.
While the fluids and anti venom were running in, we drew up some bloods and ran them on our in-house laboratory. At 11.00pm, I came in to check on Molly, and lo and behold, she was sitting up and wagging her tail.
On examination, his gums were nice and pink and filled up with blood quickly when pressed by a finger (capillary refill time). Mac was very uncomfortable when palpating his abdomen, even with a heavy pain killer sedation.
X-rays showed a lot of gas building up in his intestines but no real evidence of a solid foreign body. The fact that he had severe vomiting and marked pain in his abdomen and gas building up in his intestines was enough to warrant us having a look inside straight away.
Mac was placed on an IV drip and anaesthetised with IV Alfaxan before being placed on Isoflurane gas.
We removed the dead piece of small intestine and then joined (anastomosed) the 2 fresh edges together.
The whole area was flushed several tines with saline and then Cephalexin antibiotic was sprayed over the operating site. Chloe was placed on an IV fluid drip and anaesthetised with IV Alfaxan followed by Isoflurane gas. The tumour was sent for pathology testing and came back as a soft tissue sarcoma which was more likely to regrow in the same area rather than spread to other parts of the body. The plan is to monitor the area regularly and give Chloe regular health checks to pick up any signs of regrowth or spread of the tumour.
Victor, a 14 year old cat, was having a nice sleep on the front verandah when 2 stray dogs came along and tried to kill him. After 72 hours, we were not getting much fluid or air from the chest drain so it was removed.
On palpating his middle abdomen, a thick firm irreglaur shaped swelling approx the size of a plum, could be felt.
Xrays showed a lot of gas building up in his small intestines and some faeces in his colon and an indistinct swelling in the mid-abdomen. The fact he was in sudden discomfort from being a healthy happy cat, it was suspected he may have an acute intestinal blockage, intestinal thrombus or a tumour causing an acute abdomen.
Chester was placed on a IV drip and anaesthetised with IV Alfaxan followed by Isoflurane gas. Surgery was scheduled using a new technique to deepen the groove in which the patella slides up and down. The patella is attached to the big group of muscles at the top front of the leg- the quadriceps. In Hazmat's case, he had been born with a tibial crest that was off centre and was positioned too far medial (inside) which gave an unnatural "pull" on the patella tendon attached to it above. Using a small bone saw, 2 parallel cuts were made in this groove running form top to bottom. The next part of the operation was to move the tibial crest to a more outward (lateral) position in order to straighten up the pull of the quadriceps muscles on the patella. The final part of the operation was to overlap the tissues (lateral fascia lata) on the outside of the stifle thereby pulling the patella laterally and away from its tendency to want to dislocate medially. The stifle was irrigated with sterile saline and a soluble antibiotic was placed in the joint. Venice grew to become one of Europea€™s largest and most prosperous cities, largely as a result of its trade in luxury goods from the Far East. Milan became a major trade center for goods that were carried by land over the Alps into central Europe. Arriving in China, the Polos were welcomed back by the Mongol troops of their old friend, the Khan. Finally, after nearly two decades in the service of the Khan, the Polos were permitted by the Khan to return home, if they would agree to accompany a Yuan princess who had been promised in marriage to a Persian king (probably to create stronger trade ties between Persia and the Yuan Dynasty).
They traveled through Indonesia to Sri Lanka and India and then to their destination in the Persian Gulf. They arrived during a time of warfare between Genoa and Venice and, probably because they were viewed as possible spies, were imprisoned in Venice. In it he described such Chinese inventions as the magnetic compass, movable type printing, paper making, and the use of paper currency. Il Milione was translated into several European languages, including English (The Travels of Marco Polo). China, India, and the African kingdoms regularly trades silk, slaves, spices, gold, silver, metalwares, and ivory. The Ottomans controlled all trade in the Eastern Mediterranean Ocean, North Africa (most countries in North Africa by this time had converted to Islam), and the Spice Islands (Indonesia had also converted from Hinduism to Islam). The growing demand for silk, cotton, gold, silver, ivory, textiles, spices, and gun powder became a major concern for European rulers. The Mongol Empire traded European slaves and guns to Venice for trade with Africa for gold, silver, and ivory. A new passion to a€?get there before the Muslims doa€? motivated exploration and discovery of new peoples. The Chinese were poised technologically to sail around the tip of Africa and to sail westward in search of new trade centers. Trading partnerships between Venice and the Ottomans established shipping lanes across the Adriatic Sea from Greece to Italy. The semi-autonomous Ottoman states of Algiers, Morocco, Tunis, and Tripoli made sea traffic through the Mediterranean a dangerous business for European shipping. They also raided the coastal areas of Spain, Southern France, and East Africa to seize slaves for the slave markets in the Middle East. They colonized what became known as the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia) in the mid-16th century and held that colony until 1948. In 1609 an English explorer, Henry Hudson, who was under the employment of the Dutch Republic, reached the harbor of present-day New York, and sailed up the river that now bears his name.
Portugal was granted free access to all sea routes to Africa, India, and Asia east of that dividing line, and all previously unclaimed lands east of that line.
But when the Portuguese realized the great advantage Spain gained through Alexandera€™s arrangement in potential land in the Americas, they petitioned for an adjustment to Alexandera€™s solution. Because the boundaries of Brazil were poorly defined, the Portuguese pushed for expanded borders without significant opposition from the Spanish. Henry was the prime mover in developing trade between Portugal and other countries and continents.
By 1452 the Portuguese had so successfully developed trade routes circumventing the Ottoman-controlled trade routes, that Portugal became the European trade center for gold and slaves. They competed with the Dutch and the Portuguese for trade with the Orient, leading to their eventual colonization of India, and, in the 19th century, port cities in China.
Raleigh also forced Phillip II to postpone launching the Armada by raiding the coast of Spain and destroying the seasoned wood that was necessary to construct the water kegs needed by the sailors of the Armada. In 1497 his ships landed in North America, the first Europeans to do so since the Vikings. Setting sail from Plymouth, England in December 1577 with six ships, Drake sailed to Brazil, then through the dangerous Magellan Straits at the southern tip of South America, up the coast to Panama, then reached as far, possibly, as California, or even Vancouver Island. He later was the first European to discover Lake Champlain, Lake Huron, and Lake Ontario, all components of the Great Lakes. Although best known as the year in which Columbus sailed to the New World, several other events also made 1492 A.D.
In fact, Columbus had to use the port of Palos instead of the larger port of Cadiz because Cadiz was flooded with ships carrying thousands of Jewish refugees fleeing to the Middle East, North Africa, Italy, and Greece. And with that voyage Columbus changed the world -- as the Europeans had known it --for all time. It is perhaps no accident that some of the foremost explorers of the late 1400s and early 1500s were Italians, men who were exposed to the far-reaching cultural awakening that was the Renaissance. He listened eagerly to tales told by seafarers who had sailed the length and breadth of the Mediterranean Sea, bringing back rich cargoes for Genoa`s wealthy merchants.
At the age of twenty-five, he had the most exciting time of his life when he sailed aboard a ship that sailed out onto the immense Atlantic Ocean. Columbus spent eight years in Lisbon, working as a mapmaker and receiving the greater part of his education. Most with whom he shared his ideas dismissed him as an idle dreamer, but Columbus was determined and ambitious in his quest. His journals expressed his belief that God had chosen him to carry the Gospel of Christ to the people of Asia.
The royal riches had been depleted by the military efforts to drive the Muslim Moors from Spain. The next day, October 12, 1492, Columbus was the first European to set foot on an island in the present-day Bahamas. He immediately referred to the islandsa€™ inhabitants as a€?Indians.a€? However, he also sent men inland on one larger island to look for the capitol city of a€?the Khana€? (the term used in Spain for the Chinese emperor). We now know from DNA test results that the Siberian people who settled and today live in South America are distinct from the Siberian people who settled and live today in North America. The a€?Ba€? DNA is found today only in aboriginal people in Japan, Southeast Asia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. A trawler in the North Atlantic pulled up a mastedon skeleton, and with it a stone spear head or cutting tool probably used to butcher the mastedon.
Speculation is that they may have been related to the early Aborigines of Australia who traveled across the Pacific. And archeologists have long wondered at the great similarities between the pyramids of Egypt and those constructed in Central and South America. His major contribution to Europea€™s knowledge of the New World were his very accurate maps, primarily of the eastern South American coast.
A German mapmaker, Martin Waldseemuller, published Vespuccia€™s map of South America in 1507 and labeled it a€?Americaa€? in honor of Vespucci.
Is he a hero or a villain, a Christian missionary or a slave trader, an explorer in search of souls or a merchant in search of financial profits? Who is to say, they maintain, that the original inhabitants Columbus encountered were any less ignorant of a true God than he?
Columbus must be viewed, not through 20th century eyeglasses, but t as a man who lived in a 15th century culture.
In fact, on returning to Spain, the explorers, including Columbusa€™ crews and those that came after, carried back new diseases to Europe contracted in the Americas. His diaries and letters written both before and after his historic trips contain personal compassion for the natives he encountered and his zeal to seek their conversion to Christ. Such an agreement does not make him necessarily a despicable exploiter but a typical businessman. Hea€™d had a€?very reda€? hair in his younger years, but since hea€™d passed age 40, it had turned prematurely white.
He had sailed the Mediterranean and traveled to parts of Africa, to Ireland, and probably even to Iceland. Writer Robert Hughes expressed the conventional wisdom: a€?Sometime between 1478 and 1484, the full plan of self-aggrandizement and discovery took shape in his mind.
Whenever he faced a storm, a waterspout (tornado-like whirl of seawater), or rebellious crewmen, he made vows to God.
In 1501 Columbus wrote, a€?I am only a most unworthy sinner, but ever since I have cried out for grace and mercy from the Lord, they have covered me completely. He died more than a decade before Martin Luther would post his 95 Theses protesting the abuse of indulgences.
Not until last year was his most important religious writinga€”the Libro de las profecA­as, or Book of Propheciesa€”translated into English. Some scholars attribute his recurring encounters with a heavenly voice to mental instability, illness, or stress.
The voyage was immediately beset by calamities a broken rudder, leaks so bad they needed immediate repair, and threatened capture by the Portuguese.
But on October 11, the shipa€™s log records, they began seeing signs of shore: seabirds, bits of green plants, stacks that looked they had been carved, a small plank.
Columbus and his captains went ashore in an armed launch and unfurled the royal banner and two flags. As he wrote to Ferdinand and Isabella late in his life, a€?I spent six years here at your royal court, disputing the case with so many people of great authority, learned in all the arts. So he called the Taino-speaking peoples of the Arawak tribes a€?Indians.a€? The name, though flatly wrong, stuck. They had coarse black haira€”a€?almost like the tail of a horsea€?a€”with a€?handsome bodies and good facesa€? painted with black, red, or white paint. In the wee hours of Christmas morning, a sailor decided to catch some sleep and left the tiller in the hands of a boy.
Yes, the ship was wrecked beyond repair, but now he had lumbera€”lots of ita€”for building the necessary fort. On February 14th, Columbus gathered his crew on the heaving and rolling deck to pray and make vows. In his youth, he felt God had promised him that his name would be proclaimed throughout the world. Ferdinand and Isabella, who had just united their kingdoms, soundly defeated the Moors, signaling the end of an Islamic presence in Europe.
A new country, militantly united behind Christianity, had arisen and would dominate the world for a hundred years. Zion will come from Spain.a€? For hundreds of years, the holy sites of Jerusalem had been held captive by the infidel Muslims.
Augustinea€™s teaching, Columbus knew that all history fell into seven agesa€”and he was in the sixth, the next to last. When he says sincerely,a€?Our Lord in his goodness guides me so that I may find this gold,a€? we cringe. Although Ferdinand and Isabella made military strikes into Muslim-held North Africa, they never mounted a grand crusade. He took three more voyages across the Atlantic, each lasting several years and filled with harrowing storms, crew rebellions, illnesses (at one point his eyes bled), and encounters with native Americans.
In May 1493, he asked Ferdinand and Isabella to set aside 1 percent of all gold taken from the islands to pay for establishing churches and sending monks. Columbus became absolutely wealthy, a€?a millionaire by any standard.a€? But he had driven such a hard bargain with the crowna€”hereditary titles and a€?the tenth part of the wholea€? of gold he founda€”that the monarchs continually had to limit his power and wealth.
I found myself in such a pass that in an attempt to escape death I took to the sea in a small caravel.
Late in life, with the help of a friend, a monk, Columbus assembled excerpts from the Bible and medieval authors. But he wasna€™t the first or last Christian to read his personal destiny into a Scripture verse. It was the Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan who in 1519 embarked on a trip which would be the first to sail across the Pacific Ocean--and all the way around the world. He and his crew made a great friendship with their early contacts on the islands and were persuaded to stay several months to recuperate and replenish their supplies of food and water.
Whether urged on by the now Christian chief or due to a threatened invasion, Magellan set sail for their island with 40 of his men. They had completed their journey around the world, proving once and for all that the earth was a sphere and that trade with Asia was possible via a route across the Pacific. In 1539 De Soto returned to the New World, this time as leader of an expedition of nine ships, 620 men, 220 horses, and numerous priests, craftsmen, engineers, and farmers who came from Cuba and various sections of Spain.
Hearing of gold deposits in the north, in 1540 De Soto made his way north through Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Tennessee, seeking gold. They distributed land to the peninsulares, who, in turn, were expected to protect the native Americans as parents would their children, and instruct them in the Christian faith. Because not born in Spain, they were refused access to leadership positions in the government, but because born to Spanish parents, had full access to education and business. They were at the bottom of the pecking order, and were especially mistreated by the creoles, mestizos, and mulattos. In many cases they were treated worse than animals, because they were replaceable while animals like horses were less so. What they had in mind was not more colonists from Spain, but, rather, the introduction of slave workers from Africa! The clergy were accused of attempting to create a Church-dominated kingdom with the clergy in charge of the kingdom.
From the Americas corn, potatoes, yams, squash, beans, cocoa, peanuts, gold, and silver flowed to Europe.
The earlier supply of Islamic slaves from Spain and Christian slaves from Eastern Europe in the slave markets of Europe and the Middle East dried up after the fall of Constantinople in 1453 and the expulsion of the Moors from Spain in 1492. Up until this time slavery was identified with conquest and victory in war -- not ethnicity or skin color.
Increasingly African slaves were identified as descendants of Ham, one of the sons of Noah. In England the Muscovy Company for trade with Russia and the East India Company for trade with India were created. The easy acquisition of silver and gold from Peru and Bolivia resulted in a major miscalculation that severely damaged the economic future of Spain. What five groups of people from Europe gradually made their way along the coasts of Africa, Asia, and the New World? In the East Indies, now know as Indonesia, were spices, coffee, rubber and Portugal got there first. If you were looking t the map in 1493 instead of 2008, who would you have thought got the better of the deal, Spain or Portugal?
Why did he go to his death with only a few soldiers and refuse the help of the friendly chiefs?
Using your powers of concentration, visualize a white light flowing from the palms of your hands and from your heart center, which is situated just in front of your breastbone.
When you start to feel this power flowing in you, then say out loud the girls’ names.
This will be a combination storytelling class as well as practicalities of gathering plants. This will lead into Skullcap’s specific indications and contra-indications illustrated with colorful case histories, as well as the ecology and specifics of a number of western Scutellaria spp. Many clients have compromised GI tracts from a fast food vegan or other extended elimination diets, protein deficiencies, or multiple nutritional deficiencies.
California Hispanic herbalism differs from the Mexican or Tejano, or Southwest traditions due to the various native and foreign cultures which helped form it.
Special focus will be placed on of the body as a dynamic ecosystem instead of a battlefield.
Jim and Kiva will explore the underlying elements of traditional western herbalism, including sense-based herbal energetics, primary herbal actions and ways of integrating these essential components into an effective healing practice. Join Jim McDonald in an exploration of the fundamental role of diaphoretics in immunity, and how they can be used to support and enhance the body’s vital response to infections from influenza to the common cold. Although Mercola is a little distasteful in his sensationalism, what he says in this case is true. Even though digestion of the disaccharide to the monosaccharides take some time and acts as a partial brake, because the extracted sugar is very concentrated, compared to eating a naturally sugary food, the glucose and fructose surge in the system. A  So it is with a little bit of bemusement that I watch the latest explosion of the back-to-the land movement because I really never left it. A A  I giggle when we make homemade macaroni & cheese to take someplace and it is viewed as some sort of accomplishment because in my family that is pretty standard fare.
A  IA  suppose I started the path about fifteen years ago although I have only been studying seriously about six years (around the same time I started blogging).
A  How do we keep the message of the websites of today from being lost in a internet archive in the same way the poster above was lost in a file cabinet? Bring to a boil; then lower heat and simmer for about 30 minutes, until the broth is thick. A  I thought I might offer a bit of advice as to how to eat your way to a healthier nervous system. The fun doesn’t stop on the outside though, so be quite careful when opening your first Botanical Interests seed packet. A  My Trionfo Violetto Pole Beans outgrew and outproduced my Kentucky Wonder Beans.A A  I think my Dwarf Blue KaleA  might still be alive out there under the piles of snow. You also don’t hear hot sauceA  tossed around as an herbal preparation but these are both excellent examples of ways you can incorporate more herbs into your diet. A A  It was probablyA  have been shortly after Darian became a vegetarian and I made my first batch of homemade vegetable broth.A  I know I definitely had a handle on it by the time I was making garlic broth to use in soups. While I am sure that in cases where a blood test has shown there to be a deficiency, supplements can be useful to catch the body up.A A  I prefer to avoid the deficiency in the first place.
A This is one of the reasons that I tend to focus on using herbs and foods that I can grow or wild-craft in my area. A When you dona€™t eat properly, your body does not find the nutrition in the food you eat, it will find the nutrients someplace in your body such as your bones, muscles or brain matter.A  A This is especially true of protein which your body will leach from your muscles or brain matter and vitamins and calcium which your body will take from your bones.
A A  Neither should theA  mattress be be treated with any chemicals or fire retardants.A  Such mattresses are hard to find.
Next follows some case history examples then we'll talk about those other types of unseen energies;A  the man-made electromagnetic variety and how these can also affect a house or building and the well-being of those inside. Tomasz M Janowski concerning zones of geomagnetic field disturbances (magnetic anomalies) in Poland and the health of 309 cows kept in cow stalls in a buildingA  measuring 91 x 24 meters in area. 1816 a tragedy struck the family when their oldest little boy, ten year old William, suddenly died. 1822 just a copule years after their arrival, much like Roberta€™s mother; and she was raised by her widowed mother, who died about a month after Sally was married.
Waddle (sometimes spelled a€?Waddella€? especially in the earlier generations), as well as his son, George R. It contains a tetracycline which is renowned for its effectiveness in respiratory tract infections. X-rays showed she had fractured 5 ribs on the right side, and her right lungs had filled up with blood (pulmonary contusion).
A needle biopsy of the lump failed to show any malignant cells so we decided to have a go at removing the tumour from the toes. At the first bandage change, the wound was a bit messy so we cleaned it up with sterile saline and repacked it with Flamazine.
It been slowly growing for 2-3 years, but had reached the point where it was uncomfortable. We made a 1cm margin cut around the base of the tumour and, using blunt dissection, slowly peeled it away from the underlying tendons and bones. The wound was packed with Flamazine ointment (used for treating burn victims), covered with sterile gauze then bandaged. It is unusual to need skin grafts in dogs and cats as they are pretty good at this type of healing.
Priscilla had some bloods taken and all the biochemistry and haematology results came back normal.
She is eating 7-8 times a day, running around following her Mum everywhere she goes and demanding to be allowed on her lap at every opportunity. It was a great result and one where we just had to go with the flow and get on with the surgery and intensive care.
On my final tick search, I was running my fingers very tightly down the edges of Molly’s left ear flap and felt a tiny area of swelling and heat approx.
We ran the anti-venom in over 60 minutes and had adrenaline drawn up and ready to inject IV in case of an anaphylactic allergic reaction to it. The owners mentioned they had found some piles of vomit in the yard which I suspect was the dog’s initial response to the snake bite. We were concerned he may have a foreign body in his stomach or intestines or had some kind of blockage in his intestines. Upon opening the abdomen, there was fresh blood lying around and a very nasty looking section of bleeding and dying small intestine. 50cm of his small intestine had slipped through a naturally occurring small hole in some tissue called the mesentery, and then twisted around and cut its own blood supply off. Luckily, there was 1.5cm of normal small intestine to work with before the junction of small and large intestines was involved (where the appendix is).
We then wrapped the anastomosis in some tissue called omentum which has great at healing powers and is good at sealing any small leaks.
Each breath he took would result in air from outside his chest being sucked in then pushed out as the lungs inside his chest collapsed and expanded. Other drains that had been placed under the skin where the torn muscles were were removed on day 4. On examining his intestines,  we found a 10cm section of small intestine which was very inflamed, thickened and swollen. On examination, he had a dislocating kneecap (patella) which continually locked itself in an abnormal position on the inside (medial aspect) of his knee (stifle). In Hazmat's case, the inside (medial) ridge of this groove had flattened out due to the patella continually dislocating medially and wearing the ridge out. The patella is attached by a tendon on its lower edge to the tibial crest ( a ridge of bone on the top front of the tibia).This is the same tendon the doctors tap on to test your reflexes. The rectangular block was then replaced into the deepened groove giving a nice ridge to stop the patella from slipping out of the groove. It was patented in 1981, and was later found by Pfizer's scientists while going through patent documents. However, the ships traveled back and forth between Europe ferrying the Crusaders to the Holy Land brought back to Europe many new and exciting products from Asia through the Middle East.
Silk, porcelain, and metalware from China, spices and coffee from Indonesia and the Philippines, tea and spices from India, and a variety of rare new woods never seen before in Europe, were but some of the goods that excited Europe.
It was also a description of the cultural practices, the languages, and religious practices of China. It fueled the interest and imagination of soon-to-be explorers, including John Cabot of England and Christopher Columbus, a native of Genoa who would sail to the New World under the sponsorship of the king and queen of Spain. European industries that produced textiles, wool, and German metalware needed to find new routes to their customers in Africa and Asia.
Genoa dominated trade in the Black Sea and Western Mediterranean areas, but were increasingly harassed by the Ottomans.


Marco Polo described huge five-masted ships that regularly traded with Ceylon, India, the Philippines, and Indonesia. Because most of the raiders were from the Berber tribes of North Africa, the north coast of Africa was called the Barbary Coast and the Islamic raiders became known as the Barbary Pirates.
Their raids were so frequent that parts of the coastal areas of southern Spain were abandoned by their original inhabitants. This enabled them to control the production and trade of three crucial spices: nutmeg, cloves, and mace, as well as controlling the exporting of precious woods from Indonesia. Spain had free access to all routes to the Americas, Asia, and India, and all previously unclaimed lands west of that line. Thus, in June 1494 the line was re-negotiated westward to a new distance of 1,770 km (1,099.83 miles) through the Treaty of Tordesilla, so named for the Spanish town of Tordesilla where the treaty was signed. The company soon controlled the production and exportation of Indian cotton, indigo dye, saltpeter ( nitrate needed in the production of gunpowder), tea, and opium. In 1629 he persuaded Cardinal Richelieu, French regent who served the young king Louis XIII, to encourage French nobility to fund the new colony of Quebec. In 1803, France also lost its land possessions west of the Mississippi River through a sale made by Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte to the American President Thomas Jefferson.
Little by little the control of the Moors was eroding, beginning in the north of Spain where the Kingdom of Asturias was overthrown in 718 A.D.
So, there was evident confusion on Columbusa€™ part about where his ships had actually landed.
Original studies indicated that four distinct haplogroups migrated into North and Central America in waves across the Bering Sea bridge.
It has been found, for instance, in the ancient ancestors of the Basque people in northern Spain. It closely resembles tools made by a migratory group whose remain have been found in Spain and Portugal. The name stuck and the two continents have been known as the Americas from that point forward. He urged the king and queen of Spain to send priests to work with the people and to instruct them in the Christian faith.
After all, he was the one who took the greatest of risks in making his initial trips across the Atlantic.
Inside, in the cool quiet, knelt CristA?bal ColA?n, captain general of three small ships anchored in the towna€™s inlet below. Their missiona€”the wild-eyed idea of their foreigner captaina€”was to sail west, away from all visible landmarks.
There, in the land of the Great Khan, houses were roofed with gold, streets paved with marble. He boasted later in life, a€?I have gone to every place that has heretofore been navigated.a€? He knew the Atlantic as well or better than anyone, and he probably knew more about how to read currents, winds, and surfaces of the sea than do sailors today. He would win glory, riches, and a title of nobility by opening a trade route to the untapped wealth of the Orient. He saw them as the fulfillment of a divine plan for his lifea€”and for the soon-coming end of the world. I have found the most delightful comfort in making it my whole aim in life to enjoy his marvelous presence.a€? He constantly associated with reform minded Franciscans and spent perhaps five months at the white-walled monastery of Santa MarA­a de La Rabida. Others complain that Columbusa€™s biographers described him as more religious than he really was.
A week after losing sight of the Canary Islands, the pilots discovered to their consternation that the compasses no longer worked right. This a€?astonished them,a€? and Columbus compared it to the miracles that accompanied Moses.
Each was white with a central bright green cross flanked by a green F and Y for a€?Ferdinanda€? and a€?Isabella.a€? Columbus declared that these obviously inhabited lands now belonged to the Catholic sovereigns. In a sense, he would be like the legendary giant Christopher, who carried Christ on his back across a wide river. Waves broke over the ships, sails had to be lowered, and soon they were driven by the wind until they were wildly lost.
They put chick-peas in a cap and had sailors draw to see which one picked the chick-pea with a cross cut into it. And at age 25, he had survived a shipwreck and six-mile swima€”a sign, he told his son Ferdinand, that God had a plan for him.
Columbus had used the port of PalA?s, in fact, because the larger CA?diz was flooded with thousands of fleeing Jewish refugees. The Crusadersa€™ Book of Secrets, written in the early fourteenth century, said it would take 210,000 gold florins to mount a crusade. They instructed him a€?to win over the peoples of the said islands and mainland by all ways and means to our Holy Catholic Faitha€? and sent 13 religious workers on his second voyage. As a colonial governor, he ruled the farmers and settlers with such a heavy hand they rebelled.
Columbus spent his last years in legal battles and worries that his estate would be whitled away. Then the Lord came to help, saying, a€?O man of little faith, be not afraid, I am with thee.a€™ And he scattered my enemies and showed me the way to fulfill my promises. The unfinished work, titled Book of Prophecies, uses Scriptures to show that God had ordained his voyages of discovery and that God would be doing further wonderful things for the church. Although their commander, Magellan, died in battle in the Philippines, a handful of survivors of Magellan`s well-planned voyage returned home in 1522 after three grueling years at sea. The Christian chief pleaded with Magellan to accompany him with his warriors, but Magellan refused, stating that if God could raise one chief from the death bed, he could deliver Magellan and prove His power. The intention was to explore the west coast of Florida and the middle of the newly discovered continent.
De Soto took male slaves from each area and forced them to carry cargo until they could continue no longer.
Frustrated with the results, the expedition headed south to meet two supply ships in the Gulf of Mexico, but they were attacked by the Mobila tribe (present-day Mobile, Alabama). Those who did remain were introduced to European feudalism by means of the Spanish Encomienda System.
This caused Catholic missionaries to complain to the viceroys, the monarchy, and even to the Pope in Rome, requesting intervention to make life more humane for the native Americans. The viceroys and peninsulares dismissed the complaints brought by the clergy as coming from biased, self-seeking opponents.
Increasingly Spain depended on native American slaves to work the gold and silver mines and to serve on the sugar plantations. The Dutch East India Company funded and controlled shipping to the Spice Islands (Indonesia) and led to the colonization of Indonesia by the Dutch.
Because of the new wealth Spain did not engage in new methods of production as did other nations in Europe, relying instead on its wealth to purchase the goods demanded by its people. This class explores some of our options as herbalists to bring our unique set of skills and medicines to a wider audience. Symptom pictures range from full-blown chronic fatigue symptoms to multiple food sensitivities and brain fog. Included are foundational elements of working with the whole person and the whole plant rather than isolating or compartmentalizing either human or herb. Special attention will be paid to the differentiation and use of diaphoretics that stimulate, relax or do both at once. The four pillars of evaluation and treatment - 1) energetics, 2) organ systems, 3) action and 4) specific indications. In nature typically in a piece of fruit, the sugar is a mixture of sucrose (glucose bound to fructose), free glucose, and free fructose. The glucose enters the controlled glycolysis pathway, but the fructose bypasses it, and floods the Krebs cycle and the related fat-building pathway in large amounts, symbolically like a -flood- into those pathways below the control point in glycolysis. A  You need to eat enough to provide your body with the foods you need.A  It is almost impossible to do this with two meals a day so your body begins to crave foods that will give it that quick energy fix. There is nothing quite so satisfying as a healing soup simmering away slowly on the stovetop, while the flavors and properties of the herbs flow gently into the food. A Dona€™t fight with yourself (or your family) to entirely give up a questionable food substance, just dona€™t abuse your body with it and use the healthiest form of the substance possible. A A vast majority of health complaints in this country; fatigue, mental fogginess, depression, etca€¦ are caused by your bodies natural response to incomplete nutrition.
However in the UK a small specialist mattress companyA  in Mid Wales, 'Abaca Organic' make such a product. Cows kept in three of these stalls suffered ill health problems over and above a ratio that might be normally expected.
Wong is Professor and Director of the Heart Disease Prevention Program at the University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, USA and also holds PhD and MPH degrees in epidemiology from Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA. Geery, that to the best of their knowledge and belief, the names of the heirs of John Geery deceased, and their places of residence are as follows: Robert Geery and Catharine Shotwell formerly Catherine Geery of Pike County and John G.
Geery, that to the best of their knowledge and belief, the names of the heirs of John Geery deceased, and their places of residence are as follows:A  Robert Geery and Catharine Shotwell formerly Catherine Geery of Pike County and John G.
This had happened due to the whiplash effect of internal organs from direct blunt trauma to the body. The oxygen was continued, but the rate of IV fluids was lowered in case it had started to leak out of the damaged lungs.
It looked pretty nasty and we were worried it was malignant and may have spread to other parts of her body. At the second bandage change, it looked a lot healthier and the skin defect had filled in with granulation tissue. There were several tough adhesions that had to be cut, and numerous blood vessels had to be clamped and tied off to prevent bleeding.
Being a Friday evening, we decided to open her up just to check there were no adhesions or leaking for the stomach wall surgery site.
However, when we spun the blood down in our centrifuge, the serum (the watery part of the blood) was tinged red rather than being clear. It looks like she got just a small amount of venom when bitten and it only affected the local nerves near the bite wound, but the discoloured serum was a warning to more serious things on the way. Using blunt dissection and tying off blood vessels attached to the tumour, it was eventually removed after approx. We placed some sterile saline over the closure to check for leaks which would show up as bubbles. There was a lot of free clear watery fluid in the abdomen, possibly leaking from the swollen intestinal surface. If you feel that tendon, you can see how it is attached to the ridge of bone below your knee- the tibial crest. The constant "pulling" made the patella slide out of its groove and flatten the inside ridge. The chisel was then placed at the top and bottom of the block and the whole section was gently lifted ff the bone. It was moved approx 3-4mm laterally before it was pinned in its new position using 2 thin orthopaedic pins (K wires).
Genoa provided the sailors, ship captains, and the know-how for the later Portuguese and Spanish explorations. Food that was spoiled or even rotten became palatable when the rich spices of the Orient were added.
They were four to five times larger than European ships and possessed a technology not known to Europeans.
At other times they extorted large payments in order to allow merchant ships to pass through their waters. He was especially interested in exploring the west coast of Africa, which became the key area for providing African slaves to Portugal -- now the key European slave market. Some believe it was in Nova Scotia, others in Newfoundland, and some believe it might have been in Maine.
He then successfully sailed across the Pacific Ocean to the Indonesian islands, westward through the Indian Ocean to the tip of Africa, and then northward to England where he arrived in 1580. Later colonies were established at Plymouth (1620) by Pilgrim settlers, the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629, and the Connecticut Colony in 1636.
Because India had traditionally served as a middle man in trading Chinese products, especially porcelain and silk to Africa and Italy, the company gained control of that industry as well. Columbus seemed to them to be a means by which new wealth could be acquired from a new route to the Spice Islands as well as confiscation of the fabled gold deposits in the New World.
They were offered one alternative to emigration, and that was conversion to the Christian faith. He and the crew immediately gave thanks to God for a safe arrival in a worship service and he planted both the royal banner of Spain and a wooden cross on the beach of the island he named a€?San Salvadora€? -- Holy Savior. Walter Neves, an anthropologist at the University of Sao Paulo, who made the initial discovery along with an Argentine colleague, Hector Pucciarelli. Not to mention Egyptian mummies and German skeletons that show strong amounts of nicotine in their remains, people who died long before the European voyagers of the 16th century began shipping tobacco from the New World to Europe. But we do know that from the traditional European perspective, the explorer who first a€?discovereda€? the New World in modern times was Christopher Columbus.
However, towards the end of the 20th century other voices began to question and attack his motives and his treatment of the islandsa€™ original inhabitants.
Did not Christ die for their salvation as well as for the Spanish, Portuguese, and Italians? With Columbus saying confession and hearing mass, were some ninety pilots, seamen, and crown appointed officials. They would leave behind Spain and Portugal, the a€?end of the world,a€? and head straight into the Mare Oceanum, the Ocean Sea.
And most bizarre of all, we dona€™t knowa€”and will probably never knowa€”the spot where he came ashore. As he put it in 1500, a€?God made me the messenger of the new heaven and the new earth of which he spoke in the Apocalypse of St. He read from the Vulgate Bible and the church fathers but, typical for his era, mingled astrology, geography, and prophecy with his theology.
Some protest that Columbus was greedy and obsessively ambitious, so he couldna€™t have been truly religious, as if competing qualities cannot exist in one person. Few took it as a sign of land, but when the crew gathered to sing Salve Regina (a€?Hail, Queena€?), Columbus instructed his men to keep careful lookout. In spite of that it later came to pass as Jesus Christ our Savior had predicted and as he had previously announced through the mouths of His holy prophets.a€¦ I have already said that reason, mathematics, and maps of the world were of no use to me in the execution of the enterprise of the Indies.
He also, a Christopher, a a€?Christ-bearer,a€? would carry Christ across the wide Ocean Sea to peoples who had never heard the Christian message. That sailor would go on a holy pilgrimage to a shrine of the Virgin Mary if they landed safely. That was a mere 155 years away, and much had to happen: all peoples of the world would convert to Christianity, the Holy Land would be rescued from the infidels, the Antichrist would come.
If Columbus could find enough gold in the Indies especially if he could find the lost mines of Solomon, which were known to be in the Easta€”he could pay for a Holy Land crusade. Columbus wanted gold not only for himself, but also for a much larger reason: to pay for the medieval Christiana€™s dream, the retaking of the Holy Land. In his will, Columbus instructed his son Diego to support from his trust four theology professors to live on Hispaniola and convert the Indians. Some have criticized Columbus for the a€?providential and messianic delusions that would come to grip him later in lifea€? and accused him of megalomania. Magellan spent several days with the man and prayed for him, asking God to heal him and to show the islanders His power. He then had them killed and took slaves from the other peoples through whose territories he passed. Rather than covering him and hiding the event, Ham told his brothers, who then went in to cover their father. The steady use of silver and gold by Spain greatly increased the amount available in Europe, drove the value of silver and gold down, and resulted in Spain becoming one of the least financially healthy nations in Europe. It will draw heavily from my 5 years working at a mixed modality (conventional and holistic) free clinic in my hometown as well as other places I have volunteered. Humans have no natural mechanism to deal with this, so the liver does 3 things, start making a lot of of fat and, if chronic, increasing the enzymes that manufacture fat, reduce the production of ATP via the Krebs cycle, and become resistant to the effects of insulin which would otherwise tell the liver to stop releasing glucose into the system. A A  EvenA  though that changed a bit when my parents moved us to town, my family hung on to a great deal of that lifestyle. Unfortunately in our society,A  candy bars and coffee are far more available than a leafy green salad or a whole-grain snack.A  You have to plan a bit more to provide yourself with healthy alternative but it is completely worth the effort. The problem was initially resolved by moving these unhealthy cows to other cow stalls in the complex where they recovered. He is a fellow of the ACC and the AHA Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, immediate past president of the American Society for Preventive Cardiology, and currently chairs the AHA Prevention Science committee.
As a precaution, we gave an IV injection of a diuretic to try and shift some of the bloody fluids inside her lungs. We flushed the abdomen with sterile saline several ties, and placed more antibiotics inside. On shaving the area very closely, we found 2 tiny snake bite marks surrounded by some bruising.
This was due to the snake toxin damaging red blood cells and causing them to leak their contents into the blood stream. Once it slips through, the intestine twists around on itself and cuts its own blood supply off. At stitches out 10 days post-op, he was bouncing up our stairs eager to get his special treat before having his stitches removed. There was also a smaller soft mobile lump just in front of the bigger one, which on examination of a needle biopsy turned out to be fatty in content (lipoma). We opened up the skin wound on his chest to find a large hole looking straight in at his lungs and beating heart. The incision was closed using a soluble suture in an inverting continuos pattern (Connell Cushing). In other words, the whole patella apparatus was out of alignment with a natural tendency to pull the patella out of its groove in a medial direction.
The largest ships were over 400 feet long and 150 wide and were protected by a fleet of military vessels manned by over 20,000 soldiers. A second exploratory journey in 1498 was ill-fated and probably returned to England by 1500. Drake was the second European to successfully sail around the world, and achieved what Magellan did not -- he personally completed the entire trip (Magellan died in the Philippines).
The establishment of these colonies resulted in a great wave of English settlers arriving in North America during the decade 1630-1640.
Quebec remained the only significant French land holding in North America, which was quickly engulfed by large numbers of English who founded and settled British Canada.
Thus, in seventy days Columbus completed an historic transatlantic voyage that eventually led to European settlement in what would later be called the New World.
The term a€?Indiana€? was decried as a demeaning term, and Columbus was described as a slave trading, gold seeking, ego-maniac. Later that day they would row to their ships, ColA?n taking his place on the Santa MarA­a, a slow but sturdy flagship no longer than five canoes. But even if they reached the Indies, how would they get back, since currents and winds all seemed to go one way? At least once he appeared in public wearing a Franciscan habit and the ordera€™s distinctive cord. Even when Columbus forcibly subjugated Hispaniola in 1495, he believed he was fulfilling a divine destiny for himself and for Aragon and Castile and for the holy church. Feverish and in deep despair, he wrote, a€?I dragged myself up the rigging to the height of the crowa€™s nest.a€¦ Still groaning, I lost consciousness.
Fearing his men would tell the story of the Spanish losses to the Spanish ships, in 1541 he turned westward into Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas, then to the banks of the Mississippi River in present-day Mississippi where De Soto died if a high fever. A large piece of this class will be devoted to answering attendeea€™s practical questions about their personal situations and how they can bring their skills forward. If we would fill our bellies with fruit we would still only get a relatively small amount of free fructose. Current scientific A thinking on the adverse metabolic effects of sugar, the cluster of diseases that appear when the sugar trade emerges in a region, is that the overfeeding of the fructose pathway and the resulting consequences are responsible for the insulin resistance and obesity.
Most of it seems much like sucrose, 45 percent glucose and 55 percent fructose, not all that different.
A  Once you address your eating patterns, you can begin to look at the nutrients your body needs to properly support your nervous system.
Bee pollen is an amazing nutrient which I should devote a whole blog entry to, but I do worry about our dwindling bee population and the availability of this nutrient.A A  Consequently,A  I use it sparingly and with a great deal of respect for the creatures who created it in mind.
However the healthy cows that were placed in these three cow stalls soon succumbed to ill health problems.
Dr Wong has authored four textbooks and over 200 manuscripts, and serves on the editorial boards of several cardiology and diabetes journals.
An incision was made in the stomach wall around the attachment’s base and the hole that was left was closed using a double layer of inverting dissolving Monosyn 3-0 sutures. This is very painful, and it is not long before the intestine dies and leaks all the food and bacteria it contains into the abdomen causing sudden death.
One of the nurses did his breathing for him by filling and gently squeezing his breathing bag on the anesthetic machine in time with his own breathing. The area was washed in sterile saline several times then a soluble antibiotic (Cephalexin) was applied to the area.
Four priests eventually volunteered to travel to China but soon returned to Rome after experiencing culture-shock along the Silk Road. Drake was also a major participant in the active slave trade in which England was a main competitor with the Spanish and Portuguese in the lucrative slave trade which dealt with not only African slaves, but also slaves taken from the Caribbean Islands.
This is considered to be the first Christian victory over the Islamic Moors in Spain, in the long struggle called the Reconquista. How could the Spanish Catholic determine who truly converted and who did so outwardly simply to avoid emigration? I heard a voice in pious accents saying, a€?O foolish man and slow to serve your God, the God of all! Church leaders began to identify this curse with skin color -- dark slaves taken from Africa.
She was very interested in early explorers and told her children many of these stories over and over again.
Hence, with rumors of vast supplies of gold and silver in the New World, and even the possibility of reaching the Spice Islands from the opposite direction taken by the Portuguese had great promise.
If we digest starch that has fructose in the chain of sugars in the starch, that is really slow. The problem is that in HFCS, the fructose is -free- it does not have to be split from sucrose, and is not bound to fiber.
He has participated as an investigator on many large-scale research studies and clinical trials. The incision was covered by omentum (fatty tissue in the abdomen), which provided an extra seal to the wound. The continents of North and South America were so large almost anyone could land there sailing from Europe. The result is that in the Krebs Cycle, the entrance of glucose into the cycle is highly regulated by enzymes, when ATP is adequate to high, if forms a brake on the glycolysis pathway, but fructose, on the one hand, enters the cycle one step below the control point.
The bottom line is that nature neverA  intended us to sleep on such a disturbed site as shown in figure G2 which has been artificially produced by the bed being placed near to a radiator ( causing the high spike to the right of the graph)A  and the springs causing the rest of the disturbed site.
Dr Wong also has received from the International Academy of Cardiology in 2011 the Jan Kellerman Memorial Award in Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases.Contact Nathan D.
But to find his way back again to his home port in Spain -- that was a demonstration of his advanced sailing skills. From the hour of your birth he has always had a special care of you.a€™ a€? The voice continued at length and closed with a€?Be not afraid, but of good courage. He was nicknamed Henry the Navigator because when he became an influential prince, he spear headed the drive for Portugal to hit the seas and travel to Asia. Historically, anthropologically, evolutionarily, we didn’t need to evolve a control on the fructose metabolic pathway.
A few years ago, the lead article in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition proposed the introduction of unbound liquid fructose into the food supply as -the- cause of the epidemic of obesity and diabetes that began to manifest around 1980 and continues to expand today.A Free liquid fructose appears to be benign or even beneficial because there is no spike of glucose, or even of insulin after ingesting it. It accumulates in the body and combines permanently with tissues, and inhibits activity of some enzymes. Louis Missouri children and heirs of Mary Copelin formerly Mary Geery, and Jane Geery widow of the deceased. If the natural pathway for glycolysis is like water rushing down a white water canyon, with a dam at the bottom to prevent flooding, the natural fructose pathway is like a small stream that enters -below- the dam with no control on it. There is instead a spike of fat in the form of triglycerides, but no one notices that (only fasting TG are even measured in routine lab tests). The Spanish take credit for naming the Philippine Islands for Philip II of Spain, but their competitor, Portugal, claimed that they named the islands for Philippa, the mother of Henry the Navigator.
And as the liver adapts to habitual use of sugar or fructose, -then- insulin resistance is increased and insulin and glucose rise to higher levels than before and the individual becomes pre- or full blown diabetic. As you can see the magnetic contours of this bed size area (6a€™x4a€™) are very gentle and slightly undulating showing an overall geomagnetic anomaly of 582 nT (nano Tesla). The report concluded that the micro element disorders in the animals staying in the geopathic stalls was the primary cause of the many diseases and even death of the organism.
Blood tests especially leukocyte count and the amount of toxic metal found in hair analysis were also indications that the animals were suffering from the detrimental affects of long term exposure to these geopathogenic sites. Within our evolutionary history our bodies own magnetic field has integrated with this magnetic field which is responsible for controlling amongst other things, circadian rhythms, mood changes and certain hormone production such as melatonin and serotonin. At our current stage of knowledge it is difficult to explain the mechanism these geomagnetic disturbances have on living organisms.
The second geomagnetogram (G2) was taken above a sprung mattress from a lady suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome and severe depression, and has a magnetic anomaly of 22,435.4 nT. The sprung mattresses I have measured so far over the past two years have had magnetic anomalies between 4,000 and 61,000 nT. The reason for these abnormally high magnetic abnormalities is a result of the bed springs intensifying the magnetic flux of these fields, made worse by the interaction of high magnetic fields around the bed and house from numerous electrical appliances, extension cables running under the bed and transformers placed near to the bed. Our forefathers sleeping on straw or feathered mattresses in houses devoid of any electrical fields or microwave energy would not have experienced such geomagnetic disturbances. Polish Academy of Sciences June 1996 Studies conducted using various methods, are evidence that the earth's magnetic field plays an important role in the activity of living organisms as it affects the course of Physico-chemical reactions in the organism. Each static magnetic field bump or sink on geomagnetogram (G2) may speed up or slow down body fluids (blood and lymphatic) in exposed areas such as the brain, heart, lung, liver, legs etc. A disturbed geomagnetic field alters, among other things, the evolutionary shaped permeability of cell membranes and the magnetic orientation of micro elements. Sleep time exposure to the same sharp variations of magnetic fields for years may induce some chronic health effect. This can affect the whole plant or animal organism and thus the physiological status of the organism, the central nervous system and neuro-psychical phenomena.
The World Health Organization in a health criteria report recognizes interactions between variations in static magnetic fields in cellular tissues to include an induction of electrical potentials and magneto hydrodynamic effects in the circulatory systems and by direct stimulation of nerve and muscle cells even under extremely weak thresholds. The influence of a disturbed geomagnetic field on the living organism is slow and cumulative in time and can cause dysfunction of the organism, but after it stops the dysfunction can regress.
The Cliff of Tears It is important not to underestimate the value of the earth's natural geomagnetic field (DC Field) which interacts with our bodies in many positive waysA  This DC field rarely shows an anomaly above or below 2% of its normal strength which differs according to the latitude in which you live. After several months the healthy cows were moved in to the geopathogenic stalls and were observed to undergo a reverse process as their hair turned gray, matted, and became poorly rooted in the skin. However there are instances in nature where abnormal magnetic anomalies exist usually due to a sudden change in mineralogy or geological structure over a short distance. My Own Research Many of the readings I have taken from mattresses slept on byA  people suffering from frequent miscarriage and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) showed similar readings to the anomalies in the polish cow stalls. One instance of this is in the USA, at a place called Gyngywamp, near Croton, Connecticut knownA  as 'The Cliff of Tears' where visitors to this site very frequently become depressed, gums start to bleed and nose bleeds occur.
The geomagnetic field is an important regulating factor for the whole organism of the human being. Indeed, in the town nearby, doctors and nurses are familiar with this sudden onset of illness in visitors to this old Indian sacred site. Many biochemical reactions, the oxidation process, the efficiency of the immune system and the regulation of the hormone system, are dependent on the surrounding condition of the geomagnetic field. The causation seems to be that within a few meters the geomagnetic DC field varies from 330 milligauss at an 80 degree dip to 700 milligauss at a 59 degree dip. A so called disturbed zone, or geomagnetic anomaly, exists as part of the constant flux of the eartha€™sA  field, producing in its natural state localized areas where homogeneous and inhomogeneous fields meet. Should the human body especially during sleep, be exposed to an inhomogeneous geomagnetic field over an extended time, then a great health risk is introduced every day to the body.
To varying degrees the health consequences of staying above one of these geopathically stressed locations can be replicatedA  in our own homes by the choice of mattresses we use.A  The bottom line is, if you suspect your sleeping site is being disturbed by an unusually high magnetic anomaly then buy a bed that has a wooden base and place there upon a mattress that has no springs and make sure it is not placed near a radiator or other heavy metal object.
This presents a measurable stress to the immune system especially during sleep when the body needs to relax.
Unnatural Alterations in the Earth's Geomagnetic Field A second and equally important influence on the sequence of mitosis is the role in which the normal earth's geomagnetic field (DC field) influences the formation and production of a healthy pregnancy. It appears that the exposure of a dividing cell to an inhomogeneous DC magnetic field causes a physical force to be exerted on the chromosomes or on one of the other microscopic structures associated with mitosis, resulting in structural abnormalities in the chromosomes. The degree of how extreme these geomagnetic anomalies are, whether increasing or decreasing, coincide with the degree of risk to the health. It is important, therefore, to know what the actual situation is concerning the sleeping and working pace.
To measure the geomagnetic field over the sleeping place is the best way to be informed about any health risk factors.
The first symptoms are vegetative syndromes, drowsiness, waking up, feeling a€?offa€™ , chronic aches and pains, headaches and depression. Ferro-magnetism and Dia-magnetism Geomagnetic effects are created depending on whether a material repulses, attracts or is neutral to the eartha€™s magnetic lines of force. These are the highly magnetic materials: iron, magnetite (found in blood), nickel, and cobalt. Also some minerals are affected such as: manganosite, pyrite, basalt, platinum and aluminium. Today houses have wires, metal conduit, and heating piping all with local and specific magnetic permeability properties.
The geomagnetograms I produce can show a very disturbed sleeping site according to the density of a metal object placed near to or under the bed. Other structures I have found such as a metal girder from a room conversion below the bedroom and a bed placed above a large metal boiler in the kitchen below have also influenced a high magnetic anomaly. Also springs during manufacture can become highly magnetized if they come into close contact with other magnetic objects or electric fields.
Biological Effects Most of the research in to the biological effects of sleeping above an abnormally disturbed geomagnetic field (could be your mattress) has been carried out in Germany by Dr.
Ludger Mersmann who is a bio-physicist at the Technical and Medical Research Centre Wassenach Germany.
Studies with mice remaining in geopathogenic places are observed to have smaller litters, decreased weight and try to escape from the geopathic zones.
Other German studies of animals kept in geopathogenic zones showed adverse effects on health and sudden death.The proportion of lymphocytes in the total white blood cell count dropped sharply as the animals stayed in geopathogenic stalls.
Possible to prove hypothesis that cows staying in geopathogenic stalls area was a factor that caused ill health.According to a hypothesis of Krzywda et al.



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