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admin | What Treats Bv | 11.11.2013
It was on a short-cut through the hospital kitchens that Albert was first approached by a member of the Antibiotic Resistance.
At the very heart of the growing MRSA crisis in North America is the concept of bacterial resistance to antibiotic therapies.
I’m going to try not to get too technical in discussing a subject that is inherently technical and scientific in nature. When a living cell replicates its genetic code in preparation for division, there is the possibility of mistakes occurring that will lead to the formation of abnormal proteins. So, through the process of genetic mutations forming proteins that cannot be attacked by antibiotics, a single bacterial cell is able to survive while all others around it are destroyed. Hopefully this very general explanation will help in the understanding of how a single random genetic mutation can create a worldwide healthcare concern. We have a 12 yr old family friend who has gone through countless tests and surgeries and has been on and off IV antibiotics now since early summer 2011.
After over 12 years as a medical practitioner, I suddenly found myself an avid consumer, rather than a provider, of medical care.
While in intensive care, I became infected with one of the varieties of so-called ‘supergerms’, which are the scourge of modern hospitals. Several others in the same unit with me died as a result of infection by the same bacterial strain. Evolution is basically the belief that everything has made itself—that natural processes (over millions of years, without miraculous, divine input of intelligence) have created an increasingly complex array of creatures.
So if new information, new functional complexity, can be shown to be arising by itself where previously there was none, this would give some credibility to the idea of molecules-to-man evolution, although it would not strictly prove that it had occurred. If out of a million bacteria, five already have a feature which makes them resistant (however that arose) to, say, penicillin, then soaking them in penicillin will kill all of them except for the five.
In an amazing process, the closest thing to sex in bacteria, one germ inserts a tiny tube into another, and a little loop of DNA called a ‘plasmid’ transfers from one to another.
Notice, again, that the information for the resistance must already exist in nature before it can be passed on. However, what if one of these bacteria inherits a defective gene, by way of a DNA copying mistake (mutation) which will interfere with the efficiency of this chemical pumping mechanism? It is precisely because the mutations which give rise to resistance are in some form or another defects, that so-called supergerms are not really ‘super’ at all—they are actually rather ‘wimpy’ compared to their close cousins.
This is why more than one microbiologist concerned about these super-infections has mused (only partly tongue in cheek) that the best thing to happen in major hospitals might be to dump truckloads of germ-laden dirt into the corridors, rather than keep on applying more and more chemicals in a never-ending ‘arms race’ against the bacteria.
This past March, Margaret Chan, director-general of the World Health Organization warned that life as we know it may soon be over. There is an increasing resistance of bacteria to antibiotics, the infection-battling drugs that have reinforced every single of aspect of medicine. If there really is an evolving resistance to antibiotics it means every medical procedure that depends on antibiotics to fight attendant infections could become compromised, from hip replacements to chemotherapy, organ transplants to neo-natal care. Some scientists claim a post-antibiotic era will mean an end to modern medicine as we know it. FDA stands accused of regularly raising the bar that antibiotics must cross to get approved.
The antibiotic resistance problem is caused by too many people demanding antibiotics for a common cold.
It is also worth nothing that if we take the wrong drug or too little of it, allows bacteria to hone its defence mechanisms. I think in order to fight the antibiotic resistance problem, it is imperative for physicians and patients to play a role in decreasing the misuse of antibiotics. A It definitely struck me to learn that we are losing the battle against antibiotic resistance.
Inflammation and congestion of the sinuses – known collectively as a sinus infection – can have a wide variety of causes including indoor and outdoor airborne allergens, as well as dietary irritants like dairy, gluten, and artificial additives.
Spicy foods such as cayenne pepper or horseradish can be mixed with apple cider vinegar and lemon juice to create a mucus dissolving elixir. For temporary relief of closed nasal passages when none of these other options are available to you, try a quick face massage.  These five quick steps take less than two minutes to perform and, when done correctly, will allow you to breath more easily. Break up thick mucus with a few drops of Eucalyptus or Peppermint oil in hot water.  With your face down over the water, drape a towel over the back of your head and inhale the steam. This also works with a few drops of either oil added to the water in a humidifier.  Some of these machines actually have a small tank included for just such a thing.
Grapefruit seed extract (GSE) is a natural antibiotic made from grinding dried grapefruit seeds and pulp into a fine powder.  When administered in nasal spray form (such as this one), GSE helps to clear out mucus and may prevent other microbial contaminants from taking root in weakened and inflamed sinus tissues. Two or three tablespoons of raw, unfiltered Apple Cider Vinegar added to a cup of hot water or tea taken three times daily will help thin out excessive mucus relieving congestion an sinus pressure.  Mix with lemon and honey or Stevia to taste. Apple cider vinegar is a wonderful natural ingredient with a huge array of health benefits. Once you have alleviated some of the pain and congestion, you will want to focus on bolstering your immune system to help your body fight off the infection. If you experience frequent sinus infections or nasal irritation, there may be underlying environmental or dietary factors at work.  Here are a few possible culprits and the simple solutions to eliminate them.
Food allergies and sensitivities such as those to gluten, dairy, and sugar can cause sinus infections.  Try eliminating these foods from your diet if you experience frequent sinus problems.
Whether you’re adding decadent-yet-mild flavor to your favorite recipes, reducing inflammation, or moisturizing your hair and skin, coconut oil is the ultimate culinary and beauty multitasker.
MRSA has found its way into the popular media, and people are becoming accustomed to reading stories about bacterial infections that can’t be treated with standard antibiotics.

Many clinicians and researchers dedicate entire careers to studying mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, and the detail of understanding now goes right down to the molecular level.
The original question was not how bacteria transfer resistance, but how they develop it in the first place. These mistakes are called mutations, and in humans mutations are the basis for cancers and other diseases as well as the mechanism by which we evolve as a species over time. There are four primary ways in which this new resistant bacterium will deal with antibiotic treatments, all related to protein changes. One surviving bacterium on its own with a mutation that gives it resistance to an antibiotic doesn’t sound like much of a problem, does it? The key is that bacteria can grow and divide so quickly, achieving in a short time what would take humans a thousand years or more. Involved in a serious road accident in 1986, I spent many months in hospital, including weeks in an intensive care unit. These are strains of bacteria which are resistant to almost every (and in some cases every) type of antibiotic known to man. The germs overwhelmed their immune systems and invaded their bloodstream, untouched by the most expensive and sophisticated antibiotics available. It strikes precisely those hospitals which are more ‘high-tech’, and handle more serious illnesses. According to evolution, there was once a time when none of the creatures in the world had lungs. Some features could be lost subsequently, of course, so there will not always be a gain, but if microbes turned into magpies, maple trees and musicians, there must have been a massive net increase in information.
However, it can be shown that in every situation where populations of living things change, they do so without increase (and often with a decrease) of information.
Now the body’s natural defenses will often ‘mop up’ such a small population before it can multiply and cause harm, so resistance will not become a problem. This sort of gene transfer, which can obviously pass on information for resistance to a drug, can even happen between different species of bacteria. Evolutionists would claim, of course, that such resistance evolved originally in the (unobservable) past. There are sophisticated chemical pumps in bacteria which can actively pump nutrients from the outside through the cell wall into the germ’s interior. When I was finally discharged from hospital, I still had a strain of supergerm colonizing my body. These bacteria are not more aggressive than their colleagues, it is only that doctors have less power to stop them. In other words, stop using the antibiotics (which of course is hardly feasible), and all this ‘evolution’ will reverse itself, as the bacterial populations shift back again to favour the more hardy, less resistant varieties. There are many instances in which germs become resistant by simple selection of resistance which already existed (including that ‘imported’ from other bacteria). Where a mutational defect causes resistance, the survival advantage is almost always caused by a loss of information. In the past 25 years bacteria have become increasingly immune to the antibiotics in our medical arsenal. These hurdles mean that if new antibiotics do eventually reach the market, they may have cost between $500 million and $1 billion to develop. The downside is that every time we use them, we expose bacteria to the drugs, potentially allowing them to develop immunity. This is why we are always advised to complete a course of antibiotics, even when we feel better. Antibiotics should only be prescribed when a test shows that there is a bacterial infection present.
I remember Professor Read talking about this in the beginning of the semester, how eventually all the antibiotics out there will be deemed worthless because of the constant mutations and new resistant strains. These stories, however, often gloss over or completely skip one important part – how did these bacteria become impervious to our best medicines in the first place? Firstly, it must be understood that in many ways a bacterial cell looks and works differently than a cell from our bodies. It may now be able to produce enzymes (a type of protein molecule) that actually destroy the antibiotic molecule before it has any effect. However, imagine that this single cell now has all the room and nutrients that it needs to grow and divide, without any competition from its recently deceased brothers. Applying more disinfectant is not the answer; some strains of germs have actually been found thriving in bottles of hospital disinfectant!
This means that there was no genetic information (the ‘blueprint’ for living things, carried on the molecule DNA) for lungs—anywhere. This is not just any jumble of chemical sequences, but meaningful information, since it codes for complex structures which have purposeful functions.
Thus, it is completely illegitimate for anyone to claim that such changes show ‘evolution happening’.
It may have become resistant to antibiotic A in one way, to antibiotic B in a completely different way, and to antibiotic C in another way again. However, if that doesn’t happen, then those five germs can multiply, and their offspring will obviously also be resistant. However, if observed changes in the present do not show us new information, what support is there for the idea that such information arose in the past?
Those germs which do this efficiently, when in the presence of one of these antibiotics, will therefore efficiently pump into themselves their own executioner.

Also, those environments which will tend to ‘select’ such resistant germs, like intensive care units, are precisely the places where there will be critically injured people, physically weakened and often with open wounds.
They are generally less hardy, and less fit to survive outside of the special conditions in hospitals. At the same time, we have developed only a trickle of new drugs to take the place of those that have become useless. Regardless, patients often demand that their physicians prescribe antibiotics when they are not needed.
So, if it is in my understanding, there could be a different strain of the same bacteria that does not show up in tests because the new strain lacks an enzyme? However, the past … [read more]11 Time Wasting Things You Are Doing In The Garden That You Should Stop Right NowDo you indulge in a lot of unnecessary gardening chores by force of habit or even ignorance? I’m not talking now about why or how antibiotic overuse and improper use has increased the number of resistant bacterial strains in recent years.
Bacteria still have a genetic code contained within DNA, but in bacteria some of this DNA floats freely inside the cell, often in circular structures called plasmids. Since bacteria can multiply in hours as opposed to years, genetic mutations are passed on so quickly that an entire population of bacterial cells with the same mutation can be created in the span of a couple days.
Alternatively, the actual protein binding site that an antibiotic molecule previously recognized might by changed such that the antibiotic can no longer associate with it.
In a matter of hours or days a whole new population of bacteria can be grown from this one parent cell. The more antibacterial chemical ‘weapons’ are being used, the more bacteria are becoming resistant to them. Then, at a later time, ‘lung information’ arose and was added to the world, but no ‘feather information’ as yet—feathers evolved later. Let’s look at what is known about how the ‘superbugs’ became resistant, and ask—did any new structures or functions arise in the process (which is another way of asking whether there was any evidence of evolution)? So if we look at all the known ways of resistance arising in a population of germs, we will see if any of them are uphill, information-adding processes. The mechanism that is put forward for this past evolution is invariably mutation—a copying mistake, an accidental change in the DNA code passed on to the offspring. However, I was told that all I had to do on going home was to ‘get outdoors a lot, occasionally even roll in the dirt, and wait.’ In less than two weeks of this advice, the supergerms were gone. Taking antibiotics when you have a viral infection not only wastes your time and money, but also contributes to increasing antibiotic resistance. The time wasted in such activities could be gainfully … [read more]7 Expert Hacks To Double Your Tomato HarvestA bumper crop of vine-ripened luscious tomatoes is every veggie gardener’s dream.
The interesting thing about bacteria is that they can pass plasmids (and thus, genetic code information) amongst each other through a process called plasmid transfer. Another possibility is that the bacterium now uses alternate metabolic pathways for survival, abandoning the one that the antibiotic was interfering with.
Because the genetic code is passed on, all of these millions of descendants will have the same mutation that made the original parent resistant to a specific antibiotic. Pylori and took two rounds of antibiotics to clear it out, which took a lot out of her as the antibiotics were very strong. The success of this warm season vegetable depends on the length of … [read more]Do Not Kill This Weed!
No, I’m talking about how, down at the nitty-grittiest level, one little bacterial cell decides one day that it will no longer be affected by the very poison that was designed specifically to kill it?
This process allows certain traits that a single bacterial cell might possess to be shared with nearby bacteria quickly.
In fact, proteins are so integral to life as a bacteria knows it that just interfering with the creation or function of one key protein can mean sure death.
Other times the mutation results in a protein that is changed just enough to remain functional for survival, but is no longer recognizable as an antibiotic target. Finally, the bacterial cell may now be able to produce protein channels and pumps in it that help to get rid of antibiotic molecules.
You now have a strain of antibiotic resistant bacteria, and enough of them to potentially cause a serious infection. A second key difference is that a single bacterium can divide into two new cells on its own, without the need for sexual reproduction between two parent cells.
When this one in a million event occurs, you now have a bacterial cell that can no longer be killed by antibiotic treatment. If this wasn’t bad enough, because bacteria can also transfer plasmid DNA amongst themselves that mutation may also be passed to non-descendant bacteria.
Therefore, when they are forced to compete with the ordinary bacteria which normally thrive on our skin, they do not have a chance. The original prototype antibiotic, penicillin, for example works by interfering with a specific protein that helps bacteria to build a strong cell wall.
This is the basic concept behind why regular Staph infections can be easily treated with a course of antibiotics, while MRSA infections can be life-threatening. This process will also contribute to resistance, and may even allow the creation of totally different resistant strains.

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