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admin | Herbal Remedies For Bv | 15.01.2015
The degree of eyeball recession into the orbit provides an indicator of severity of dehydration. Neonatal diarrhea is a significant economic loss to the cattle industry and continues to be the most common cause of mortality in calves.
Calf assessmentFirst and foremost, a clinician must be able to appropriately estimate the degree of dehydration of an ill calf during the physical examination. Once the degrees of dehydration and acidosis have been estimated, an appropriate fluid therapy plan can be created for the individual calf.
In order for sodium to be systemically absorbed from the lumen of the small intestines it must be coupled with glucose or amino acids. Oral electrolytes are not intended to replace milk replacer and are intended to be administered as an extra meal between feedings. Initial approach to IV fluid therapy for any species begins with calculation of fluid deficit using the following formula: replacement fluid (L) = dehydration (%) X bodyweight (kg).
In general, calves with diarrhea likely have metabolic acidosis, and isotonic bicarbonate solutions are generally a good first-choice fluid replacement therapy for their ability to rapidly correct dehydration and acidosis. Bicarbonate requirements can be administered as isotonic bicarbonate in conjunction with fluid expansion, or bicarbonate can be administered via hypertonic sodium bicarbonate preparations.
It is also important to consider potassium concentrations once bicarbonate therapy has been administered. To ensure a sustainable water supply and protect water resources, water utilities need to adopt and promote a Reduce, Reuse, Recover methodology.
Customers must understand the value and costs associated with providing a safe and reliable water supply. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Many women with BV symptoms are often embarrassed to ask and discuss their problems with doctors. Recognition of proper use and application of oral and intravenous (IV) fluid therapy is essential to decreasing calf mortality. The most accurate estimations of hydration status based on physical exam parameters are eyeball recession into the orbit (degree of enophthalmos) and skin tent duration, summarized in Table 1.
Therefore, it is also important to determine if metabolic acidosis exists and to assess the degree of severity based on clinical signs. Calves with a hydration status less than 8 percent dehydrated and normal CNS can be treated with oral fluid therapy. I will attempt to summarize the aspect of oral electrolyte products that are important and what you should consider when choosing an electrolyte product and recommending electrolyte products for your clients.
Sodium is an important component of extracellular fluid and vital to restoring hydration status. If the additional electrolyte feeding is not possible, then the electrolytes can be added to the milk replacer (ideally use a solution with acetate or low concentrations of bicarbonate). Goals of IV fluid therapy include: restoring the calf to normovolemia, correcting metabolic acidosis, correcting mental depression, restoring suckle reflex, correcting electrolyte abnormalities and correcting energy deficit.


Potential fluid choices for diarrheic calves include: isotonic and hypertonic saline (NaCl), isotonic and hypertonic sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), lactated Ringer’s solution, and dextrose.
Base deficits can be estimated from clinical signs, as previously mentioned in Table 2, or through measurement of base excess from blood gas analysis or plasma total carbon dioxide concentration. Antiinflammatory administration will aid with intestinal cramping and discomfort, as well as decreasing inflammation in the gastrointestinal cramp and decreasing effects of endotoxemia and septicemia. Doing so can help utilities overcome challenges with water scarcity, reduce operational costs, meet environmental regulations and potentially generate a new source of revenue.
At the same time, utilities must work to reduce water losses within the distribution system. Nearly one-third of utilities have water reuse programs in place for non-potable applications.
Some of them would choose to treat the condition by applying natural cures or prefer to wait till the problems go away without any treatment. Additionally, use of ancillary treatments is also important in complete therapy for neonatal diarrhea. Ancillary diagnostics such as measurement of packed cell volume and plasma protein concentration are also useful for estimation of hydration status, but this isn’t always possible in field situations. Goals of oral electrolyte fluid therapy include: supply sufficient sodium to normalize the extracellular fluid volume, provide agents that facilitate absorption of sodium and water from the intestines, provide an alkalinizing agent and provide energy. Use caution with electrolyte products high in sodium because excessive use can result in hypernatremia. All of these solutions can be commercially purchased or be prepared very inexpensively with supplies in your clinic or truck (see Table 3).
Solutions of 4.2 percent and 5 percent can be rapidly administered undiluted to comatose calves prior to volume expansion therapy. Technology solutions, such as water smart grid and distribution automation programs, can provide both the utility and customer with necessary information to reduce water usage and water loss. However, whenever BV symptoms appear, it is essential for any woman to get their health check to find the cause of the vaginal infection. Eyeball recession is estimated by inverting the lower eyelid and assessing the degree of recession of the globe into the orbit.
However, it has now been proven that degree of acidosis is correlated with suckle presence and vigor, degree of weakness and age of calf.
An additional benefit of glucose in oral electrolytes is an immediate energy source for the calf.
Acetate and propionate are considered far superior alkalinizing agents than bicarbonate for several reasons. Saline solutions are good choices for rehydration but fail to address metabolic acidosis likely occurring in diarrheic calves. We use potassium chloride salt which equals approximately 18 mEq of potassium per milliliter of salt.
Positioning of the eyeball is also dependent on body fat stores and may be inaccurate in cases of chronic cachexia.


Signs of central nervous system (CNS) depression, decreased suckle response, weakness and ability to stand are all strongly correlated with acidosis. Acetate and propionate facilitate sodium and water absorption and are both metabolized into energy. Use caution with hypertonic saline; many calves with chronic diarrhea may have pre-existing hypernatremia due to severe dehydration or due to excessive administration of oral electrolyte solutions.
Generally, I administer 8.4 percent undiluted sodium bicarbonate when an animal is in a severely acidemic state with normal sodium levels. Therefore, antimicrobials should be administered to any calf exhibiting systemic signs of illness or calves showing a breakdown in the blood mucosal barrier.
At a bare minimum, 10 percent of the calf’s bodyweight should be fed daily to a diarrheic calf. Additionally, calves with diarrhea that are less than 8 days of age have less severe metabolic acidosis. Despite often having normal to elevated serum potassium levels, diarrheic calves are usually hypokalemic through fecal loss.
Additionally, acetate and propionate do not alkalinize the abomasums, thus not interfering with mechanisms preventing bacterial proliferations, and they do not interfere with milk clotting.
Lactated Ringer’s produces an alkalinizing effect but does not alkalinize as quickly as sodium bicarbonate.
Antibiotics should not be administered to calves with a normal hydration status, activity, appetite and temperature, and no evidence of concurrent disease. If the calf is unwilling to suckle despite therapy, then esophageal intubation should be performed to ensure adequate intestinal nutrition is obtained. Skin tent is best measured on the lateral aspect of the cervical region by pinching the skin and measuring the amount of time it takes for the skinfold to return to normal position. Calves that are greater than 8 days of age will have a more severe acidosis (almost double the base deficit of calves less than 8 days of age). Additionally, lactated Ringer’s should be avoided in extremely acidemic calves because D-lactate concentrations are likely already elevated and lactated Ringer’s is composed of L-lactate and D-lactate.  extrose is indicated in calves with prolonged anorexia or calves diagnosed with hypoglycemia via glucometer.
Hypertonic bicarbonate should not be used in calves with respiratory disease due to inability to appropriately exhale excessive CO2.
It is also important to mention that calves can have diarrhea and normal hydration status with clinical signs of metabolic acidosis (weakness, ataxia and decreased suckle, menance and panniculus reflex). This CNS depression is likely a result of D-lactate acidosis and will need to be treated with IV bicarbonate therapy. Estimations of severity of metabolic acidosis with base deficits are summarized in Table 2.



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