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Produced Water may contain high concentrations of suspended solids, organic compounds and heavy metals, which require reduction to very low levels before discharge to a water course. Our Produced Water Treatment systems enable plants to function reliably, even with wide ranging variations in feed quality.
Conventional pre-treatment, such as corrugated plate separation, hydrocyclones, air flotation or sand filtration is used to remove the bulk of the oil and suspended solids. The oil and suspended solid free water is treated using membrane Nanofiltration, which removes the bulk of heavy metals and organic compounds. Trace organics and heavy metals in the Nanofiltration permeate are removed by Activated Carbon absorbers and selective Ion-Exchange resin. Ultrafiltration reject is recycled to the front end of the process and the concentrated oil is reclaimed on site. Over 25 years experience in the design and installation of Produced Water Treatment systems. Unique design philosophy combining conventional treatment stages supplemented by membrane treatments. For more information regarding our Produced Water Treatment systems contact our specialists today.
Best Waterworks Ltd in Sherwood Park is your best source for water treatment, water filtration, and reverse osmosis products and services.
Copper silver ionization water purification chemical alternative to salt chlorine generator.
KDF 55 is a municipal water treatment media used for removing chlorine from water, up to 99%. Our river water treatment systems are ideal for the treatment of non-hygienic water that is murky, has a muddy sediment and reveals an unacceptable odour and taste, as is often the case with water coming from rivers, dams, canals, boreholes, etc.
Chlorine tablets are supplied in containers of 10 tablets each (only 1 tablet and 100 ml of sudfloc will treat about 10 000 liter of water). The maintenance cost for domestic purposes amounts to approximately R10.00 per week for the chemicals.
It is advisable to give the water in the reservoir or tank at least one hour’s rest before use. A combination of a silica sand filter and an activated carbon filter is installed on the outlet of the reservoir or tank in the pipeline that supplies the end user with water. The activated carbon filter not only improves clarity, but also removes undesirable odour and taste from the water, as well as excess chlorine. Standard filters have 40mm delivery pipes and supply 9 000 litres per hour at a pressure of 1 Bar. Where a large volume of water is required, filters can be adapted up to the required volume, while banks of filters are also supplied for large volumes.
Chlorine tablets to purifying drinking water are not the same type as those used in swimming pools. At least 1 Bar of water pressure is required to obtain sufficient backwash on filters, otherwise a pressure pump needs to be installed ahead of the filter. Our river water treatment systems can be used successfully by farmers, small towns, industries and mines.
UV ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT WATER TREATMENT - CONTENTS: Water treatment for bacteria using UV Lights - ultraviolet light sterilizers on water systems. Here we explain procedures & reasons for using permanantly-installed UV light (ultra violet light) treatment systems to address bacterial contamination in drinking water or well water - one of the options for correcting unsanitary or unsatisfactory drinking water. This series of articles explains many common water contamination tests for bacteria and other contaminants in water samples.
For the UV treatment system illustrated in most of the photographs in this article, we installed a Siemens Ultraviolet Water Disinfection System (formerly produced under the name Sunlight systems) shown in the photograph at left. The UV disinfection system is installed either in a kitchen or point of use, or when protecting a whole building it is installed where water leaves the well pump and pressure tank and enters the building, so that water flowing through the disinfection system is exposed to a UV lamp to carry out the water disinfection process. The "UV" light can indeed kill bacteria in water, provided that the flow rate of water through the device is not too fast (needs exposure time) and provided that the water is not too obstructed with sediment and provided that the light source is cleaned - the bulb needs to be changed periodically. Proper UV Disinfection System Installation: How do we know the UV light is properly installed and effective in treating drinking water? Proper UV light selection for water treatment: The UV light must have been properly selected to handle the volume and flow rate of the water supply where it is installed. Turn off water at the point of entry into the whole house water filter; leave the water filter bypass loop closed as well. Drain building piping: connect a garden hose to the UV disinfection system drain or another convenient piping drain point, and drain water out of the building piping. Remove the whole house filter canister and set the filter aside on a clean surface (paper towels are fine).
Turn on water: Slowly open the water supply into the bleach-filled canister and into the building, first making sure that building faucets have been turned OFF. Fill building piping with bleach solution: By opening building faucets (photo above, right), re-fill the UV disinfection device and house piping with the bleach solution.
We used chlorine test strips (photo at left) to confirm that we had adequate bleach solution in the piping by testing at each faucet. A low-tech method often used is to run water at each fixture until you smell bleach, then turn the fixture off. Replace water filter cartridge: Turn off water at the point of entry to the whole house water filter, remove the water filter canister and replace the filter cartridge. The water flow rate must match the UV light specifications - the manufacturer of the UV light for water treatment will specify the maximum permitted water flow rate through the light fixture. The UV light kit will probably include a flow control device (or one is purchased at a local plumbing supplier) that is installed at the inlet side of the fixture - a small disc that is inserted into the plumbing connection on the light fixture. The UV light water treatment system must be properly maintained - follow the manufacturer's instructions for periodic inspection and maintenance. Some UV solenoid switches include a manual override (look for a white toggle switch on Siemens units) that can be used in emergency to deliver water even though the disinfection system has stopped working. See No Water Pressure for a detailed procedure for diagnosing loss of water pressure, since there are other possible causes of that problem.

How to tell if the UV light is on: even with the cover installed, on some UV disinfection systems you may see a small amount of purple or violet light shining on a nearby wall or leaking out of the cover (photo above-left). UV Bulb light: As we show in our photo at above-left with the UV disinfection system cover in place, look for visible UV light from the UV bulb itself.
UV Shutoff valve: If an automatic UV disinfection system shutoff solenoid valve is installed, review our description of that device at Automatic shutoff valve above.
UV Monitoring: UV disinfection systems that include an indicator light or alarm also include circuitry that monitors the effectiveness of the bulb disinfection system. How to tell if the UV disinfection system is working effectively: periodic water testing for bacteria is recommended when relying on a UV light to handle bacteria in the water supply.
OPINION: It is uncertain how one knows that a UV light water sterilizer system is working without periodic testing and when necessary, UV bulb replacement.
Periodic changeout of the whole house water filter cartridge will be necessary, depending on the level of sediment and debris in the water supply.
Periodic changeout of the UV light bulb: the manufacturer recommends that the bulb be changed annually and that the quartz sleeve is cleaned regularly. Otherwise, if the quartz sleeve becomes soiled with sediment you will need to turn off power to the unit, remove the cover, carefully remove and set aside the UV quartz bulb, shut off water to the disinfection unit, drain the unit, and remove the quartz sleeve for cleaning.
Since one of the most common ways that bacteria enters a well is through a defect at the pitless adapter (joining the water pipe to the well casing) or at a buried well cap that is leaky or open.
In such cases the presence of bacteria in water is really an indicator of ground water leakage into the well. Spiders living in the top of a well casing: the spiders eat insects, dropping flies or other insects into the well casing, a possible source of un-wanted bacteria. Well contamination sources such as these are easily corrected by sterilizing the well and its casing interior. In particular, if the well is located at a property where chemicals are likely to have been applied nearby, such as near an orchard, farm property, animal barns or pens, or where pesticides have been in use, or close to a gas station, or where other contaminants are known to have been in local ground water, tests for those specific contaminants are a good idea. If a property is in a residential neighborhood that has not included farms, orchards, barns, gas stations, or nearby industrial processes, the chance of finding these other contaminants in a well is certainly much less. See WATER TESTING ADVICE for an outline of when to test for what contaminants in well water.
See WATER TESTS for CONTAMINANTS for a list of articles on water contaminants and water tests.
Often conditions cause for follow-up water testing after a UV water treatment light has been installed.
If the water flow rate through the UV treatment device is higher than the device manufacturer specifies, then that condition can also interfere with and reduce the effectiveness of the UV light in killing bacteria in the incoming water. If the installer did not install a whole house filter upstream (before) the UV light, if there is debris and sediment in the water, that material can obscure the UV bulb and interfere with its effectiveness. A reader recently asked for advice for a case in which the UV installer forgot to install the water filter. Actually, flushing out the plumbing system before re-installing the cartridge in the water filter is not a bad idea because often during plumbing work lots of extra debris is stirred up or even introduced into the system. When we recently installed a UV light water treatment system, preceded by a whole house filter (which is important for UV effectiveness as it keeps debris off of the bulb), we also sterilized all of the house piping using the well shock procedure at WELL CHLORINATION & SHOCKING. In the particular case under discussion, the water test for a home buyer was planned for the day after the water filter was to be installed.
If it does not, then go through the well shock procedure as described and things will either be just fine, or the UV system is not properly installed or not properly working. Qualls (2008), in a study discussing the advantages of UV light as an alternative to chlorination, point out that filtration is often necessary to reduce the level of suspended particles in water for UV treatment to be effective. It is well known that aggregation of bacteria and viruses provides some degree of protection from halogen and ozone disinfection. Clays do little to inhibit UV disinfection because they tend to scatter UV light rather than absorb it. Continue reading at WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT DISINFECTION or select a topic from the More Reading links or topic ARTICLE INDEX shown below. Try the search box below or CONTACT US by email if you cannot find the answer you need at InspectApedia. This well-focused, up-to-date reference details the current medical uses of antiseptics and disinfectants -- particularly in the control of hospital-acquired infections -- presenting methods for evaluating products to obtain regulatory approval and examining chemical, physical, and microbiological properties as well as the toxicology of the most widely used commercial chemicals. WATER PUMP LIFE EXPECTANCY - Well Pumps: Life Expectancy of Water Pumps, how long should a water pump last? WELL LIFE EXPECTANCY - Life Expectancy of Wells & Water Tanks, how long should a water well and its components last?
Water pressure tanks - how to diagnose the need for air, how to add air, stop water pump short cycling to avoid damage - water storage water pressure tank safety. Water Supply & Drain Piping, water and drain pipe types, inspection, diagnosis, repairs, problem materials, clogging, etc.
The purpose of this manual is to assist individual soldiers, unit commanders, leaders and field sanitation teams in preventing disease and environmental injuries. Our recommended books about building & mechanical systems design, inspection, problem diagnosis, and repair, and about indoor environment and IAQ testing, diagnosis, and cleanup are at the InspectAPedia Bookstore. The Illustrated Home illustrates construction details and building components, a reference for owners & inspectors. Our Produced Water Treatment systems utilise the conventional separation processes for the removal of bulk contaminants, followed by state of the art membrane separation and absorption processes to achieve very low levels of contaminants in the treated effluent (Figure 1). The Ultrafiltration membranes utilise a modified polyacrylonitrile chemistry, which has been developed to be extremely oleo phobic and thus resistant to free-oil fouling. Nanofiltration provides negligible resistance to the passage of monovalent ions such as chlorides, so it is able to operate on high salinity waters where the inefficient productivity of Reverse Osmosis would render it uneconomical. The pre-treatment by Nanofiltration significantly increases the bed life of these two media. Call us direct on 01494 526 155 or fill out our online enquiry form and we'll get back to you. The quest for the disinfectant replacement of chlorine resulted in several possible candidates.

Systems of this nature are excellent at removing organic and bacterial contamination, iron and manganese and many have already been installed for clients all over South Africa, as well as in Lesotho, the Kongo and Angola. Where the reservoir or tank is not high enough to render adequate pressure to backwash efficiently, a pressure booster pump can be installed before the filters to give the proper backwash results. We include water testing and water correction measures warnings for home owners and especially for home buyers when certain conditions are encountered, with advice about what to do when these circumstances are encountered. If ultra violet light is not of sufficient capacity to treat water flowing past its bulb it will not be effective. We add a few ounces of bleach again into the canister to disinfect the filter cartridge after touching it, then we flush this water out of the system as described below. If water flow rate exceeds that number (7 gpm, for example), the light might not be fully effective in killing all bacteria in the water. If the bulb becomes dirty or is in fact not operating (burned out) it may not be obvious without inspecting the unit. When a UV-light water treatment system is installed on a water supply that contains high levels of sediment or iron, those particles can settle on the UV bulb surface, ultimately blocking light and interfering with the UV water treatment system's effectiveness.
For the UV treatment system illustrated in most of the photographs in this article, we installed an Aqua-Pure whole house filter. It may be necessary to loosen or remove the cover to see light from the bulb (photo above-right) but be sure to see our safety warning just below - do not look directly at the bulb and do not pull the UV bulb out of its quartz tube when power is on to the unit. UV light may be difficult or impossible to see when the UV disinfection system is operating - by design. If your filter becomes visibly dirty, if the building water pressure drops, or if the water pump begins rapid short-cycling on and off, a clogged water filter could be the cause.
Some UV light disinfection systems include a quartz tube cleaning system that permits the owner to clean the quartz sleeve without having to disassemble the disinfection chamber. If you do break the UV light disinfection system quartz sleeve, don't panic: order a new sleeve from the manufacturer.
The dead bacteria, along with other water contaminants (if there are other contaminants in the drinking water) are not removed by the light. When a UV light has been installed on a water supply, our recommendations for further diagnostic testing are outlined just below.
On occasion a mouse or other small rodent falls into a well casing, causing temporary contamination.
For example a property owner may discover bacterial contamination in the water supply when a home is being sold. The water filter was to be re-installed the next day, but the homeowner had already observed a lot of debris coming out of faucets in the building after the new UV light was installed. The reasoning is that having been running a building plumbing system with bacteria in the water supply, there might be pockets of bacteria in debris trapped in the system. Thus the home owner would not have time to go through the well shocking procedure in time for the water test.
As the starting bacteria level was in this case reported to be low, in this case it's likely the test will produce acceptable results.
Oilver and Cosgrove attributed the difference between microbial survival in irradiated raw wastewter and secondary effluent to differences in particle sizes. It deals comprehensively and authoritatively with its subject with contributions from 31 distinguished specialists. The manual provides information on preventive medicine measures (PMM) to the individual soldier as well as essential information for the unit commander, unit leaders, and the unit field sanitation team on applying unit level PMM.
The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively.
The degree of treatment is designed to meet client specified limits such that the treated water is suitable for re-use on site or discharge to water course.
Average costs and comments from CostHelper’s team of professional journalists and community of users.
Further testing for other contaminants would be appropriate if a well fails a bacteria test. That high level of debris may have been due to disturbances of piping and water tank during the plumbing work, or the incoming water supply might simply be high in debris and sediment. However, organic particles can protect organisms from disinfectants and can become a major limiting factor in disinfection. They believed that bacteria inside aggregates of particulate matter were at least partially protected from UV light. Provides an historical overview, descriptions of the types of antimicrobial agents, factors affecting efficacy, evaluation methods, and types of resistance.
If a cover has been removed from a UV disinfection system that is operating, do not look directly into the light. They found that a sample dispersed by ultrasonication was more sensitive to UV disinfection. Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order.
Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home.
Cryptosporidium parvum, which is resistant to chlorine concentrations typically used in water treatment, is recognized as a significant waterborne pathogen.
Carson Dunlop Associates' provides extensive home inspection education and report writing material.
Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference eBook purchased as a single order.

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