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26.03.2014, admin
An infection is an invasion and multiplying of pathogenic microbes in the body tissues in which they are not usually present (1).
Ask a Doctor Online Now!A colonization is the usual presence of non-pathogenic and even potentially pathogenic microbes on the skin, in the nose, mouth, bowel, penile or vaginal mucosa, as a part of normal human flora, in the amount not harmful for the body – this is not an infection.
A contamination is the presence of germs which do not multiply, for example, in a contaminated (not infected)wound. A carrier state is the non-usual presence of pathogenic microbes in the body, in the way not harmful for the carrier, but potentially dangerous for others, since the carrier is usually contagious. An overgrowth of microbes, non-pathogenic in small amount, but pathogenic in large amount, for example, an overgrowth of Clostridium difficile bacteria in the colon can cause life threatening pseudomembranous colitis. Re-activation of an infection may occur; for example, a Varicella zoster virus, which has remained dormant in the roots of the spinal nerves after successfully healed chicken pox, may be re-activated during stress or certain disease, and can cause shingles. Bacteremia, viremia, fungemia and parasitemia (the presence of microbes in the blood) may result in an infection of other organs, or sepsis. Systemic infection, like influenza, affects the whole body and causes systemic symptoms, like general malaise, muscle pains, fever, nausea, etc.
Localized infection, like cellulitis, is limited to one or few body parts and presents with localized symptoms, like redness, swelling, pain or localized (nasal, ear, etc.) discharge.
Chronic infection, like tuberculosis or AIDS, may last from several weeks to several years. Recurrent infection is one that frequently affects a person, like folliculitis in those who share the same sport equipment, or fungal infections  in those with lowered immunity. Invasion of multi-cellular parasites, like intestinal worms or head lice, into the body is called infestation. Viral infections are often systemic and may cause fever, headache, runny nose, sore throat, muscle and joint pains, diarrhea, skin rash, etc. Fungal (yeast) infections in a person with a healthy immune system usually affect only the skin. In a person with a weak immune system, fungal infections, commonly caused by a yeast Candida albicans, may appear in the mouth (oral thrush), esophagus, rectum or vagina; systemic candidiasis is severe and commonly fatal infection. Parasitic infections cause different symptoms, depending on the type of parasite and organ affected. Infestation (Latin infestare = to attack, disturb) is an invasion of multi-cellular parasites, like intestinal worms (helminths) or head lice to the body. In medical terms, the incubation period is the time from when a person is exposed to an infectious agent (pathogenic microorganism) till the onset of signs and symptoms.
Fever in localized skin infections or food poisoning may be absent, in tuberculosis or viral pneumonia it is usually low-grade, in influenza moderate, and in bacterial pneumonia or sepsis high. Pain in childhood viral infections and flu is usually general and vague, and in localized bacterial infections, like bacterial prostatitis, localized and intense. Discharge from the nose, eyes, ears, trachea, bronchi and lungs (phlegm, sputum), nipples, bowel (mucus in the stool), urethra, vagina and wounds may appear in all types of infections. An incubation period is the time elapsed between exposure to pathogenic microbes and symptoms appearance. An autoinfection – the spread of an infection from one body part to another, usually by hands or clothes (folliculitis, impetigo). By drinking contaminated water, one can contract stomach flu, cholera, dysentery, typhoid fever, amebiasis, etc. By swimming in contaminated swimming or spa pools, or lakes, one can contract hot tub folliculitis, intestinal parasite Cryptosporidium, eye and middle ear infections. Industrial cooling or hot water systems, air condition and room-air humidifiers can be a source of Legionella.
During walking barefoot, Clostridium tetani, sandworms, or intestinal parasites, like Strongyloides stercoralis or hookworms can be contacted. Infections acquired in hospitals can be dangerous, since causing microbes are often resistant to regular antibiotics, and patients infected are often already seriously ill. Legionella may be sometimes found in the tap water in newly opened or poorly maintained hospitals. A fomite is an inanimate object or substance capable of transmitting infectious agents (microorganisms) from one object to another.
Ask a Doctor Online Now!Microbes may make harm by releasing toxins, for example, in food poisoning, a parasite Entameba hystolytica can release toxins, which can destroy colonic mucosa, resulting in bleeding ulcers and diarrhea. Invasion of microbes triggers immune response of the body and attracts inflammatory cells, like leukocytes, and substances, like cytokines, which attack the microbes.
Effective anti-microbial medications for most infections, except viral ones, are available. Ask a Doctor Online Now!Please note that any information or feedback on this website is not intended to replace a consultation with a health care professional and will not constitute a medical diagnosis. Amir, the base of infection is an invasion of microorganism into your body what results in inflammation.
It also provides protection from adverse environmental conditions such as the digestive system of the host (important for Enterobacteriaceae organisms). Transmission electrom micrographs of Porphyromonas (formerly Bacteroides) gingivalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa revealing the surface associated capsule. Bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics, viruses to antivirals and parasites to drugs like antimalarials. The World Health Organization says 150,000 deaths a year are caused by multi-drug resistant tuberculosis.
Dame Sally said: "If we don't take action, then we may all be back in an almost 19th Century environment where infections kill us as a result of routine operations. She said pharmaceutical companies needed to be encouraged to develop new drugs, because the manufacture of antibiotics was not viewed as profitable. Bacterial species are divided into two large groups based on the structure of their cell wall and their response to staining with a dye.


In particular, cases of E.coli and Klebsiella bacteria have increased by two-thirds in recent years and are now the most frequent cause of hospital acquired infection.
Both types of bacteria - known as Gram negative - are commonly found in the gut but can cause blood infections. Approval for fracking in North Yorkshire raises the prospect of the controversial technique being allowed at other sites and restarts an intense debate.
For example, if you have Staphylococcus aureus bacteria (a common cause of skin infections) in your nose, you may infect others, even if you alone never develop an infection. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth due to invasion of otherwise non-harmful colonic bacteria into the small intestine can cause bloating and diarrhea. Example: infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which can cause infectious mononucleosis, often triggers no symptoms in small children.
Examples of bacterial infections: staphylococcal skin infections, pseudomonas folliculitis, streptococcal pharyngitis, osteomyelitis, pneumococcal pneumonia, bacterial meningitis, etc. Patchy areas with a brownish or reddish scaly rash on the scalp (scalp ringworm), trunk, limbs or groin (jock itch), peeled skin on the hands or feet (athlete’s foot), or discolored or cracked nails are typical symptoms of a skin fungal infection.
Intestinal parasites cause bloating, diarrhea, mucus in the stool and eventual weight loss.
Not every person who comes into contact with an infectious agent will become infected but once the infection is acquired, the micoorganism will take a period of time during which it multiplies and spreads within the body until the point that signs and symptoms become evident. There is no single specific symptom but a combination of symptoms and signs that speak for an infection. In everyday speech, only infections transmitted directly from person to person (like flu) are considered as contagious.
Once contaminated, fomites may carry microbes for few minutes or several weeks, depending on the type of the microbe and certain circumstances, like air humidity and temperature. Such a defense reaction regularly results in an inflammation of infected tissue, which can be observed, for example, as purulent discharge in common cold or swollen joint in bacterial arthritis. For example, Streptococcus pneumoniae , causing pneumonia, can trigger fluid collection in the lungs, impeding oxygen exchange between the air and the blood and thus reducing the oxygen supply to the tissues, what may result in death. When in doubt, a doctor can take a sample of blood, urine, stool, sputum, nasal or other discharge and send it to laboratory, where microbes can be determined by serologic tests or a culture. A doctor can often make a diagnosis from symptoms and physical examination, but in doubtfull or severe cases, lab tests has to be done to determine the causing microbe.
The cytoplasm of the bacterial cell contains the DNA chromosome, the mRNA, ribosomes, proteins, and metabolites). Without a nuclear membrane, transcription and translation are coupled; in other words, ribosomes can bind to the mRNA, and protein can be made as the mRNA is being synthesized and still attached to the DNA. The cytoplasmic membrane is responsible for many of the functions attributable to organelles in eukaryotes. The peptidoglycan is a meshlike exoskeleton similar in function to the exoskeleton of an insect. Lysozyme, an enzyme in human tears and mucus, is also produced by bacteria and other organisms. Proteins such as the M protein of streptococci and R protein of staphylococci also associate with the peptidoglycan. Structurally, a Gram negative cell wall contains two layers external to the cytoplasmic membrane. A, a Gram positive bacterium has a thick peptidoglycan layer that contains teichoic and lipoteichoic acids. The outer membrane has an asymmetric bilayer structure that differs from any other biologic membrane in the structure of the outer leaflet of the membrane. LPS activates B cells and induces macrophage and other cells to release interleukin-I and interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor, and other factors. Many of the proteins traverse the entire lipid bilayer and are thus transmembrane proteins.
The outer membrane is connected to the cytoplasmic membrane at adhesion sites and is tied to the peptidoglycan by lipoprotein. In cases in which it is loosely adherent and nonuniform in density or thickness, the material is referred to as a slime layer.
Bacterial species may have one or several flagella on their surfaces, and they may be anchored at different parts of the cell. Fimbriae can be morphologically distinguished from flagella because they are smaller in diameter (3 to 8 nm versus 15 to 20 nm) and usually are not coiled in structure.
Contamination also refers to presence of pathogenic microbes on medical equipment, in the water, food etc.
Examples of viral infections: influenza, childhood diseases like chicken pox, rubella, rubeolla and infectious mononucleosis, AIDS, viral hepatitis, viral hemorrhagic fever, etc. Effective over the counter or prescribed anti-fungal ointments and oral medications are available. Unlike eukaryotes, the bacterial chromosome is a single, double-stranded circle that is contained not in a nucleus but in a discrete area known as the nucleoid. The proteins and RNA of the bacterial ribosome are significantly different from those of eukaryotic ribosomes and are major targets for antibacterial drugs. These tasks include electron transport and energy production, which are normally achieved in the mitochondria. The cytoplasmic membranes of most prokaryotes are surrounded by rigid peptidoglycan (murein) layers. Unlike the exoskeleton of the insect, however, the peptidoglycan of the cell is sufficiently porous to allow diffusion of metabolites to the plasma membrane. Teichoic acids are water-soluble polymers of polyol phosphates, which are covalently linked to the peptidoglycan. Immediately external to the cytoplasmic membrane is a thin peptidoglycan layer, which accounts for only 5% to 10% of the Gram negative cell wall by weight.


A group of these proteins is known as porins because they form pores that allow the diffusion of hydrophilic molecules less than 700 Da in mass through the membrane. The lipoprotein is covalently attached to the peptidoglycan and is anchored in the outer membrane.
Disruption of the outer membrane weakens the bacteria and allows the permeability of large, hydrophobic molecules.
The capsule can also act as a barrier to toxic hydrophobic molecules, such as detergents, and can promote adherence to other bacteria or to host tissue surfaces. Flagella provide motility for bacteria, allowing the cell to swim (chemotaxis) toward food and away from poisons. Generally, several hundred fimbriae are arranged peritrichously (uniformly) over the entire surface of the bacterial cell.
Histones are not required to maintain the conformation of the DNA, and the DNA does not form nucleosomes.
In addition, the membrane contains transport proteins that allow the uptake of metabolites and the release of other substances, ion pumps to maintain a membrane potential, and enzymes. The exceptions are Archaeobacteria organisms (which contain pseudoglycans or pseudomureins related to peptidoglycan) and mycoplasmas (which have no cell walls at all). The peptidoglycan is essential for the structure, for replication, and for survival in the normally hostile conditions in which bacteria grow. Without the peptidoglycan, the bacteria succumb to the large osmotic pressure differences across the cytoplasmic membrane and lyse. However, the outer leaflet is composed primarily of an amphipathic molecule (meaning that it has both hydrophobic and hydrophilic ends) called lipopolysaecharide (LPS).
The Shwartzman reaction (disseminated intravascular coagulation) follows the release of large amounts of endotoxin into the blood stream. The outer membrane and the porin channel allow passage of metabolites and small hydrophilic antibiotics, but the outer membrane is a barrier for large or hydrophobic antibiotics and proteins such as 1ysozyme. The adhesion sites provide a membranous route for the delivery of newly synthesized outer membrane components to the outer membrane.
The addition of lysozyme to cells treated in this manner produces spheroplasts, which, like protoplasts, are osmotically sensitive. For Streptococcus mutans, the dextran and levan capsules are the means by which the bacteria attach and stick to the tooth enamel. Except of acyclovir and related antiviral drugs, at present, there is not a lot of effective medicines for viral diseases available. A coiled cytoplasmic membrane, the mesosome, acts as an anchor to bind and pull apart daughter chromosomes during cell division. Because the peptidoglycan provides rigidity, it also determines the shape of the particular bacterial cell. During infection, the peptidoglycan can interfere with phagocytosis, is mitogenic (stimulates mitosis of lymphocytes), and has pyrogenic activity (induces fever). Removal of the cell wall produces a protoplast that lyses unless it is osmotically stabilized. These molecules are common surface antigens that distinguish bacterial serotypes and promote attachment to other bacteria as well as to specific receptors on mammalian cell surfaces (adherence). External to the peptidoglycan layer is the outer membrane, which is unique to Gram negative bacteria. Except for those LPS molecules in the process of synthesis, the outer leaflet of the outer membrane is the only location where LPS molecules are found. The capsule is hard to see in a microscope but can be visualized by the exclusion of India ink particles.
Synthesis of the capsule takes energy and will not be effected by the bacteria after continued growth under laboratory conditions away from the selective pressures of the host. F pili (sex pill) promote the transfer of large segments of bacterial chromosomes between bacteria.
The mycoplasmas are also exceptions in that they have no peptidoglycan cell wall and they incorporate steroids from the host into their membranes. Surgical removal of parasitic cysts, like in Echinococcus, from the liver, bones, brain or lungs is sometimes required. Plasmids are most commonly found in Gram negative bacteria, and although not usually essential for cellular survival, they often provide a selective advantage: many confer resistance to one or more antibiotics. The area between the external surface of the cytoplasmic membrane and the internal surface of the outer membrane is referred to as the periplasmic space. Neisseria meningitidis sheds large amounts of a related compound, lipooligosaccharide (LOS), resulting in fever and symptoms.
Lipoteichoic acids are shed into the media and host and, although weaker, can initiate endotoxic-like activities. This space is actually a compartment containing a variety of hydrolytic enzymes, which are important to the cell for the breakdown of large macromolecules for metabolism.
These enzymes typically include proteases, phosphatases, lipases, nucleases, and carbohydrate-degrading enzymes. In the case of pathogenic Gram negative species, many of the lytic virulence factors such as collagenases, hyaluronidases, proteases, and beta-lactamase are in the periplasmic space. This space also contains components of the sugar transport systems and other binding proteins to facilitate the uptake of different metabolites and other compounds. Some binding proteins can be components of a chemotaxis system, which senses the external environment of the cell.



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