Antibiotics used for bacterial lung infection last,quick cures for a sore throat,how to get rid of redness from acne cyst fast - Step 1

03.06.2014, admin
IntroductionAntibiotics are medications used to treat, and in some cases prevent, bacterial infections.
Take antibiotics as directed on the packet or the patient information leaflet that comes with the medicine, or as instructed by your GP or pharmacist. It is essential to finish taking a prescribed course of antibiotics, even if you feel better, unless a healthcare professional tells you otherwise.
If you forget to take a dose of your antibiotics, take that dose as soon as you remember and then continue to take your course of antibiotics as normal. However, if it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule.
If you have to take two doses closer together than normal, there is an increased risk of side effects. Accidentally taking one extra dose of your antibiotic is unlikely to cause you any serious harm. However, it will increase your chances of experiencing side effects such as pain in your stomach, diarrhoea and feeling or being sick. There are now hundreds of different types of antibiotics but most of them can be broadly classified into six groups.
Penicillins are widely used to treat a variety of infections such as skin infections, chest infections and urinary tract infections.
Aminoglycosides tend to be used only to treat very serious illnesses such as septicaemia as they can cause serious side effects, including hearing loss and kidney damage. Fluoroquinolones are broad-spectrum antibiotics that can be used to treat a wide range of infections. Around one person in 15 has an allergic reaction to antibiotics, especially penicillin and cephalosporins.
Some antibiotics are not suitable for people with certain medical conditions, or for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. Both the NHS and health organisations across the world are trying to reduce the use of antibiotics, especially for conditions that are not serious. Strains of bacteria can mutate (change) and, over time, become resistant to a specific antibiotic.
Also, antibiotics can destroy many of the harmless strains of bacteria that live in and on the body.
The overuse of antibiotics in recent years has played a major part in antibiotic resistance.
These types of infections can be serious and challenging to treat, and are becoming an increasing cause of disability and death across the world.
The biggest worry is that there may emerge new strains of bacteria that are effectively untreatable by any existing antibiotics. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae are one such emerging group of bacteria, with several types. Antibiotics may also be recommended for people who are more vulnerable to the harmful effects of infection. There are several circumstances in which you may be given antibiotics as a precaution to prevent, rather than treat, an infection. For example, antibiotic prophylaxis is normally recommended if you are having surgery on a certain part of the body that is known to carry a high risk of infection or that could lead to devastating effects if it were to become accidentally infected. Antibiotic prophylaxis may be recommended for a wound that has a high chance of becoming infected. For example, an animal or human bite, or a wound that has come into contact with soil or faeces. There are several medical conditions that make people particularly vulnerable to infection, meaning antibiotic prophylaxis is necessary. For example, people who have had their spleen removed or those with the blood disorder sickle cell anaemia, whose spleen does not work properly, should take antibiotics to prevent some infection. In some cases, antibiotic prophylaxis is prescribed for people who experience a recurring infection that is causing distress or an increased risk of complications. ConsiderationsSome important considerations associated with the six main classes of antibiotics are listed below. Patients who are allergic to one type of penicillin will be allergic to all (the allergy is related to the basic penicillin structure).
If you have had a previous allergic reaction to penicillin you may also be allergic to cephalosporins. You should never take a cephalosporin if you have acute porphyria, which is a genetic condition that can cause skin and nerve problems. Cephalosporins are thought to be safe to take during pregnancy but, as a precaution, they are only ever used if the benefits of treatment are thought to outweigh potential risks.


You should not take a type of macrolide called telithromycin if you have myasthenia gravis, which is an uncommon condition that causes muscle weakness. If you are pregnant or are breastfeeding, the only type of macrolide you can take is erythromycin (Erymax, Erythrocin, Erythroped or Erythroped A).
These side effects are usually mild and should pass once you finish your course of treatment.
If you experience any additional side effects other than those listed above you should contact your GP or the doctor in charge of your care for advice. Around 1 person in 15 has an allergic reaction to antibiotics, especially penicillin and cephalosporins. These mild to moderate allergic reactions can usually be successfully treated by taking a medication known as antihistamines.
However, if you are concerned or your symptoms fail to respond to treatment then you should call your GP for advice. Tetracyclines can make your skin sensitive to sunlight as well as artificial sources of light such as sun lamps and sunbeds. The Yellow Card Scheme allows you to report suspected side effects from any type of medicine that you are taking. Interactions other medicinesAntibiotics can sometimes interact with other medicines or other substances. If you want to check that your medicines are safe to take with your antibiotics, ask your GP or local pharmacist. Some of the medications you may need to avoid or seek advice on if taking a specific class of antibiotic are outlined below. It is usually recommended that you avoid taking penicillin at the same time as a medication called methotrexate, which is used to treat some types of cancers and severe autoimmune conditions such as the skin condition psoriasis. You may experience a skin rash if you take penicillin and a medication called allopurinol, which is used to treat gout.
If you need treatment with cephalosporins, you may temporarily have to stop taking the blood-thinning medication. However, the risk of kidney and hearing damage has to be balanced against the benefits of using aminoglycosides to treat life-threatening conditions such as septicaemia. Some fluoroquinolones can intensify the effects of caffeine (a stimulant found in coffee, tea and cola), which could make you feel irritable, restless and cause problems falling asleep (insomnia). Finally, you may need to avoid taking medication that contains high levels of minerals or iron as this can block the beneficial effects of fluoroquinolones.
It is recommended that you avoid alcohol with all antibiotics as drinking could make your infection last longer.
Some antibiotics need to be taken with food while others need to be taken on an empty stomach. Make sure you read the information leaflet that comes with your medication carefully to find out whether this is the case.
The best way to treat most colds, coughs or sore throats is to rest and drink plenty of fluids. It is common for children to get coughs and colds, especially when they go to school and mix with other children. The more we use an antibiotic, the more likely it is that bacteria will become resistant to it. Other antibiotics can be used, but they may not be as effective and they may have more side effects.
Only two new types of antibiotics have been found in the past 30 years and there is no guarantee that new ones will be discovered.
When antibiotics are prescribed, the complete course should be taken to get rid of the bacteria completely. Your doctor will only prescribe antibiotics when you need them, for example, for a kidney infection or pneumonia.
The information on this page has been adapted by NHS Wales from original content supplied by NHS Choices.
Patients with severe COPD often have a variety of organisms living in their lungs at all times. Many doctors understand the value in giving their most informed, proactive patients a prescription, prior to an exacerbation.
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If you stop taking an antibiotic part way through a course, the bacteria can become resistant to the antibiotic (see below). They are commonly used to treat moderate to severe acne and a condition called rosacea, which causes flushing of the skin and spots.


Most antibiotics, if used properly, don't cause problems for people who take them and serious side effects are rare. In very rare cases, this can lead to a serious allergic reaction (anaphylaxis), which is a medical emergency. It is therefore important to read the information leaflet that comes with your medication carefully. This is to try to combat the problem of antibiotic resistance, which is when a strain of bacteria no longer responds to treatment with one or more types of antibiotics. The chance of this increases if a person does not finish the course of antibiotics as some bacteria may be left to develop resistance.
This includes using antibiotics to treat minor conditions that would have got better anyway. These are strains of bacteria that have developed resistance to many different types of antibiotics. These bacteria are widespread in some parts of the world, including parts of Europe, and are beginning to be seen in the UK. In more serious cases, injections or infusions of antibiotics can be given intravenously (directly into the blood or muscles). Patients with a history of allergies, such as asthma, eczema or hay fever, are at higher risk of developing a serious allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) to penicillins. Tell your healthcare professional if you are pregnant or breastfeeding so they can prescribe the most suitable antibiotic for you. Erythromycin can be used at the usual doses throughout your pregnancy and while you are breastfeeding. Dial 999 immediately and ask for an ambulance if you think that you or someone you know is experiencing anaphylaxis. It is run by a medicines safety watchdog called the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
You should also always carefully read the patient information leaflet that comes with your medicine. This is because combining the two medications can cause a range of unpleasant and sometimes serious side effects. In hospital, blood levels are carefully monitored to ensure that the antibiotic is only present in the blood in safe amounts.
But provided you drink in moderation, alcohol is unlikely to interact significantly with your medication. There are many over-the-counter remedies to ease the symptoms, for example paracetamol. They become antibiotic resistant, which means that the antibiotic no longer kills the bacteria.
Some bacteria that cause infections in hospitals, such as MRSA, are resistant to several antibiotics.
It is not possible to stop it completely, but slowing it down stops resistance spreading and buys some time to develop new types of antibiotics.
Viral infections can lower a patient’s resistance enough that a secondary bacterial infection may occur. Asian countries,[18] United States (including Hawaii), Canada ,[19] and Scotland)[20] due to bacterial resistance.
If aminoglycosides are used properly in topical preparations, such as ear drops, these side effects do not occur. By using them only when necessary, they are more likely to work when we need them in future.
An antibiotic used to treat an exacerbation should be one that is effective for unusual bacteria, such as chlamydia and mycoplasma.
If the cold lasts more than three weeks, or you become breathless or have chest pains, or if you already have a chest complaint, see your GP. Corticosteroids and antibiotics may also be prescribed for the treatment of an exacerbation. When several rounds are needed, rotating the choice of antibiotics can reduce the risk of creating resistance to a specific drug. If you have antibiotics or prednisone at home for such early treatment of exacerbations, tell your doctor when and why you have started the treatment.



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