Bacteria that cause lower respiratory infections quizlet,how to reduce swelling under eye from sty,how to get rid of vomit smell from fabric uk - PDF Books

11.05.2014, admin
Sir Elton John– singer, songwriter, piano man- will be spending the next week or so off the stage.
According to CNN, Sir Elton became ill last week while performing at Caesars Palace in Las Vegas, and was admitted to Cedar Sinai Hospital in Los Angeles yesterday for further testing and treatment. Those tests resulted in the attending Cedars-Sinai physician recommending that Elton not perform any concerts for approximately seven days with complete rest and antibiotic treatment to cure his respiratory infection and prevent any damage. Several concerts at Caesar’s have been cancelled, and will be rescheduled for October.
John also had to cancel shows due to illness in 2009, when he was hospitalized with a serious case of E.coli bacterial infection and influenza. Respiratory tract infection refers to any of a number of infectious diseases involving the respiratory tract. Typical infections of the upper respiratory tract include tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, sinusitis, otitis media (ear infection), certain types of influenza, and the common cold.
Lower respiratory tract infections are generally more serious than upper respiratory infections. 5.  The most common pneumonia-causing germ in adults is Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus).
6.  Atypical pneumonia, often called walking pneumonia, is caused by bacteria such as Legionella pneumophila, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Chlamydophila pneumoniae. Join the Celebrity Diagnosis Community for FREE & receive the Top Celebrity Health Fads e-book free! AboutWe are a wife & husband team of physicians who have trained and taught at some of the top medical schools in the country including Harvard, Johns Hopkins and Washington University in St. Our mission is both a journalistic and educational one: by reporting on common diseases affecting uncommon people, and including the medical facts behind the headlines, we provide a dynamic collection of Teachable Moments in Medicine™ to increase health awareness and medical knowledge. We give you the medical facts behind Hollywood's health headlines plus information that empowers you to achieve your health and wellness goals. Coronaviruses primarily infect the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tract of mammals and birds.
Coronaviruses also cause a range of diseases in farm animals and domesticated pets, some of which can be serious and are a threat to the farming industry.
There are two types of canine coronavirus (CCoV), one that causes mild gastrointestinal disease and one that has been found to cause respiratory disease. Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) is a coronavirus that causes an epidemic murine illness with high mortality, especially among colonies of laboratory mice.


The respiratory tract is one of the most common routes of entry of infectious agentsIn the body . Rhinovirus as well as other upper respiratory tract viruses get in touch with defensive barriers formed by the oropharyngeal lymphoid tissue ,and this is the reason why themucosa looks inflamed and eritematous .Among the bacterial agents that can cause pharyngitis ,Group A S. Streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis is clinically important because it causes frequent complications .
Rheumatic fever refers to an acute systemic inflammatory process that frequently followsa pharyngeal condition caused by Group A streptococci infection.Repeated attacks of this type of cocci can damage the valves . Sinusitis refers to an inflammation of the mucosa lining the cavities that are within the facial bones . This illness frequently follows an extended infectious process that begins in the nasal mucosa .By contrast ,otitis media refers to an inflammatory condition of the middle ear cavity following an infection process in the upper airway extending from the nasopharynx .
Although many viruses can cause infections in the airway associated to the respiratory system ,bacteria-caused infections have greater clinical importance .S. Viral infections affecting the upper respiratory tract can extend deeper to affect the larynx and trachea .Parainfluenza virus type I and III are the most common viruses forming colonies in and affecting the larynx ,though respiratory syncytial virus and influenza virus are also causing agents . Epiglottitis is found in infants ,it is commonly caused by H.influenzae virus dissemination from the nasopharynx. Whooping cough or coqueluche is caused by infection with the Brudetella pertussis coccabacillus , which is spread through the air by respiratory droplets from an infected person . Microorganisms multiply only in association with ciliated epithelium and result in several virulence factors .After7 or 10 days ,the infection starts with a catarrh stage and low fever, rhinorrhea , profussion of lacrimal fluid and conjunctivitis .
It generally follows serious infections of the upper respiratory airway as a complication of them,particularly infections caused by H.
Bronchiolitis is a common illness of the lower respiratory airway of infants under the age of 1 year following inflammatory obstruction of the small airways in the lungs. The characteristic features of illness are obstruction of the bronchioles due to edema and accumulation of mucus and cell remains ,which results in air hyperinflation . Many viral agents can cause pneumonia, including influenza ,parainfluenza and measles ,among others . An infection of this type is usually classified as either an upper respiratory tract infection (URI or URTI) or a lower respiratory tract infection (LRI or LRTI). Symptoms of URIs can include cough, sore throat, runny nose, nasal congestion, headache, low grade fever, and sneezing.
Pneumonia is a common illness that affects millions of people each year in the United States.


The most publicized human coronavirus is SARS, which has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections and can also cause gastroenteritis. Economically significant coronaviruses of farm animals include: porcine coronavirus (transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus, TGE) and bovine coronavirus, both of these cause diarrhea in young animals. Feline enteric coronavirus is a pathogen of minor clinical significance, but spontaneous mutation of this virus can result in feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a disease associated with high mortality. Prior to the discovery of SARS-CoV, MHV had been the most studied coronavirus both in vivo and in vitro, as well as at the molecular level.
During the last years ,great progress has been made through thedevelopment of new diagnostic and therapeutic tools .However ,a great number of themysteries that render Infectology an exciting field of study still remain unexplained.
Bacteria such as streptococcus pyogenes have certain structures known todetermine pathogenicity which enable them to cause infections .This bacterial andsecretion factors that enable colony formation in the host . Pathogenic mechanisms of rheumatic fever include expansion of T-lymphocytes that canshow a reaction to autoantigens .Thus ,cardiac valves seem to be damaged in this way . Lower respiratory infections, such as pneumonia, tend to be far more serious conditions than upper respiratory infections, such as the common cold.
The antibiotics need to be taken for the full length of time prescribed to fully treat the infection and to prevent a re-occurence. Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults. Some strains of MHV cause a progressive demyelinating encephalitis in mice which has been used as a murine model for multiple sclerosis. Streptococcaland viral pharyngitis being very difficult to distinguish one from the other ,laboratorytests are of material importance for differential diagnosis .
Transmission is thought to be aerosol, which means person to person transmission through air. She was a medical internet pioneer having established one of the first medical practice websites in 1997.
It can survive up to 24 hours on metal surfaces, so steam sterilization of an environment should be considered to neutralize the virus.



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