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Looking for the most current news, updates, and articles relating to microbiology, go to The American Society for Microbiology educational website Microbe World. Table of cerebrospinal fluid findings in bacterial and viral meningitis as compared to normal levels. Fotosearch Stock Photography and Stock Footage Royalty Free ImagesStock Photography & Royalty Free Stock Photos licensed by Publitek, Inc. The Main Line Filter Kit is used to connect main-flow supply from ventilator to heated humidifier.
Because these properties are shared by certain bacteria (rickettsiae, chlamydiae), viruses are now characterized by their simple organization and their unique mode of replication.
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Fotosearch helps you find the perfect royalty free illustration, line art drawing, EPS vector graphic, or stock clipart icon. Buy pictures and get immediate image file downloads, or get fast, cheap delivery on CD-ROM or DVD. These are the proteins that form the capsid (protein coat); there may also be a few enzymes or regulatory proteins involved in assembling the capsid around newly synthesized viral nucleic acid, in controlling the biochemical mechanisms of the host cell, and in lysing the host cell when new virions have been assembled. For certain viruses the RNA is replicated by a viral enzyme (transcriptase) contained in the virion, or produced by the host cell using the viral RNA as a messenger.
In other viruses a reverse transcriptase contained in the virion transcribes the genetic message on the viral RNA into DNA, which is then replicated by the host cell. When these proteins assemble to form the capsid, part of the host cell membrane is pinched off to form the envelope of the virion.Some viruses have only a few genes coding for capsid proteins. Some envelope proteins facilitate viral entry into the cell, and others have directly pathogenic effects.Some viruses do not produce rapid lysis of host cells, but rather remain latent for long periods in the host before the appearance of clinical symptoms. In the lentiviruses, it was formerly mistakenly believed that virus was inactive during this period.


The true situation is that lentiviruses are rapidly replicating and spawning dozens of quasi-species until a particularly effective one overruns the ability of the host's immune system to defeat it. For many years all forms of latency were thought to be identical, but now it has been discovered that there are different types with basic and important distinctions.In viral latency, most of the host cells may be protected from infection by immune mechanisms involving antibodies to the viral particles or interferon.
Cytotoxic lymphocytes may also act as antigen-presenting cells to better coordinate the immune response.
Containment of virus in mucosal tissues is far more complex, involving follicular dendritic cells and Langerhans cells.Some enveloped RNA viruses can be produced in infected cells that continue growing and dividing without being killed. It is also possible for the DNA of some viruses to be incorporated into the host cell DNA, producing a carrier state. These are almost always retroviruses, which are called proviruses before and after integration of viral DNA into the host genome.Few viruses produce toxins, although viral infections of bacteria can cause previously innocuous bacteria to become much more pathogenic and toxic. Other viral proteins, such as some of the human immunodeficiency virus, appear to be actively toxic, but those are the exception, not the rule.However, viruses are highly antigenic. In patients with hemolytic anemia or sickle cell disease it causes aplastic crisis; it can also cause acute arthritis.
Persistent infection in immunocompromised patients can lead to chronic bone marrow failure. This has the most rapid onset of the hepatitis viruses affecting humans; transmission is easier than for the hepatitis B and C viruses, but infection generally does not persist. Progression of HIV-2 infection to AIDS is generally slower and less extreme than that of HIV-1.
The virus is believed to induce permanent infection and has a propensity toward a subset of T lymphocytes called the CD4 cells. The infected cells become dysfunctional and eventually the host's immune system is overwhelmed or exhausted; death ensues, usually as a result of infection.
HTLV-1 causes chronic infection and is associated with adult T-cell leukemia and a type of myelopathy.


Serotype A viruses are subject to major antigenic changes (antigenic shifts) as well as minor gradual antigenic changes (antigenic drift) and cause widespread epidemics and pandemics. RSV can cause a wide variety of respiratory disorders ranging from a mild cold to serious or even fatal disease of the lung in the very young and very old.
It regularly produces an outbreak of infection each winter and virtually disappears in the summer months. The most severe infections in children are in the very young, especially those who are preterm, immunologically compromised, or suffering from a congenital heart defect or preexisting lung disorder.
Adults at risk for infection include parents and others who are repeatedly exposed to young children, for example, pediatric nurses and day care attendants. The course of infection tends to be milder in adults than in children and about 15 per cent of affected adults have no symptoms.
It is composed of eight segments, including a nucleoprotein (which folds its nucleic acids and helps them to be transcribed), a hemagglutinin (which helps it to enter cells), a neuraminidase (which helps it to bud out of infected cells), several transcriptases (which make copies of the viral RNA), a matrix protein (which supports the outer membrane), and several nonstructural proteins. The virus mutates frequently and causes annual disease outbreaks, some of which (pandemics) affect millions of people. It can be treated with antiviral drugs and prevented with annual vaccinations that target its frequently evolving antigens.
Viruses suspected of causing tumors in humans include Epstein-Barr virus (associated with Burkitt lymphoma), hepatitis B virus (associated with hepatocellular carcinoma), papilloma virus (associated with carcinoma of the cervix), and human herpesvirus 8 (associated with Kaposi sarcoma).




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