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10.04.2016, admin
The female body undergoes many physiological, anatomical and hormonal changes during pregnancy. Bacterial contamination can take place during implantation of the embryo and the infection can persist till parturition. Bacterial vaginosis or BV is a very common disease amongst pregnant woman and the causative agent is the bacterial flora of the vagina.
Treatment BV is curable by proper drug administration especially antibiotics which are safe for childbearing women. Treatment Usually penicillin is the treatment but ladies allergic to this antibiotic and at low anaphylaxis danger are commonly treated with initial dose of 2 g of Cefazolin via intravenous injections followed by 1g of the same medicine per 8 hour till parturition. Penicillin allergic childbearing woman who are at higher danger of anaphylaxis are treated with 900mg intravenous loading of Clindamycin per 8 hour or 500 mg intravenous loading of erythromycin per 6 hours till parturition.
Urinary Tract Infection Urinary Tract Infection or UTI is a common pathogenic manifestation in pregnant women.
Sometimes the increasing uterus blocks normal urine passage causing urine accumulation in the bladder for prolonged time period resulting in pathogenic situations.
Treatment Antibiotics safe for pregnancy like amoxicillin, Cephalexin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, Sulfonamides, nitrofurantoins etc.
You must definitely take care of yourself and your skin during pregnancy; it must certainly not be ignored.
If you are pregnant, and you catch certain infections, they can be harmful for you and your baby. Most women who have kids agree that experiencing occasional cramping during pregnancy is quite common. Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect.
The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own personal medication records. Bladder stones form in the urinary bladder when minerals such as magnesium, ammonium, phosphorus and calcium precipitate out of the urine. Three different types of bladder stones are known to occur in ferrets, and each has a different cause. Three main factors cause struvite stones: diet, urinary pH and bacterial infections of the bladder. The two main components of the diet involved in struvite stone occurrence are the source of the protein and the level of magnesium.
Bacterial bladder infections from Staphylococcus or Proteus species can raise the urine pH to 8 or above. This radiograph shows a male ferret with several small bladder stones in the bladder and in his urethra. In this autopsy photo, the ferret is lying on its back with the tail and rear legs to the right and the belly, chest, head, etc. Oxalate is formed from the metabolism of plant-based protein, which contains the amino acids glycine and serine.


The signs of a bladder stone in ferrets can include straining to urinate, vocalizing in pain when urinating, urinating small amounts frequently, dribbling urine, wet fur around the prepuce or vulva, and discoloration of the urine. Most of the time the bladder stone can be palpated by a veterinarian, but a radiograph (X-ray) should be done to confirm the presence of a stone or stones, to visualize the location of the stone or stones, and to look for other urinary problems such as a prostate problem in males. Although ferrets are similar to dogs and cats when it comes to bladder stones, they are more sensitive to plant-based protein and elevated urinary pH. Cystine stones are tricky because ferrets require a high protein diet for maintenance, but need a low protein diet to avoid forming more cystine stones. After surgery, the bladder stone should be analyzed to determine exactly what type of stone it is. An antibiotic such as amoxicillin (Amoxi-drops or Clavamox drops), cefadroxil (Cefa drops), cefovecin (Convenia), trimethoprim-sulfa (Tribrissen), enrofloxacin (Baytril), or marbofloxacin (Zeniquin) can be used to eliminate a bacterial infection in the bladder. If the stone is a calcium oxalate stone, then the protein in the diet needs to be changed to a high-quality meat-based protein. If the stone is a cystine stone, then a reduction in protein is needed to reduce the amount of cystine in the diet and in the urine.
After proper treatment, a ferret with a bladder stone will soon be back to its usual Jumping-Jack-Flash self and should enjoy a normal life span. News, articles, must-have info, contests and more for owners of all exotic, small mammal pets. This makes the female more vulnerable to various kinds of infectious diseases and the immune system also runs low till parturition to avoid rejection of the baby making the female even more susceptible. The rate of occurrence of this infection is so high that every 1 out of 5 pregnant woman suffers from it at some point of their childbearing period. The urinary tract undergoes various changes during pregnancy especially the urethra becomes shorter hence the bacteria gets easy pass into the body causing the infection.
If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.
This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. When a ferret eats a diet with mainly plant-based protein, the pH of the urine rises above the normal range. Occasionally the ferret will be totally unable to urinate and rapidly becomes lethargic and depressed. Specialized diets for the various types of bladder stones are available for dogs and cats, but there are no diets specifically made for ferrets with bladder stones. The surgery is usually a relatively simple procedure in ferrets unless the stone is located in the urethra. The Minnesota Urolith Center through the College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Minnesota provides stone analysis at no cost.
The protein source of the diet needs to be changed to a high-quality meat-based protein, and the pH of the urine needs to be lowered.
Plant-based protein must be eliminated to prevent oxalate from being excreted into the urine.


These diseases do not always come along with adequate symptoms in many women so generating proper awareness about such bacterial infections is highly necessary.
The medicines should be taken properly and carefully for the complete time period for which they have been prescribed.
Occurrence of this infection creates a life threatening condition for the newborn babies most of the time and so is a very dangerous pathogenic condition. But Sulfonamides can cause Kernicterus and hyperbilirubinemia in newly born babies so its administration for last few weeks of pregnancy should be avoided. Ferrets are actually at risk for three different types of bladder stones, so let’s go over what bladder stones are, what causes them, how to recognize them, how to treat them and how to prevent them. Animal-based protein such as chicken, turkey, pork, egg and fish have the amino acids methionine and cystine in them.
Bladder infections are most common in unneutered jills during the breeding season and during pregnancy, and in ferrets with adrenal gland disease. These stones are formed from calcium and oxalate, so a ferret should avoid a diet with excessive calcium and oxalate. Increases in urine oxalate levels promote calcium oxalate stones more so than increases in calcium.
Once the stone has been analyzed, an appropriate diet change can be made to prevent future stone formation.
If the diet change does not lower the urinary pH, then a urinary acidifier like dl-methionine can be added to the diet. This is why it is so important to feed a high-quality, meat-based ferret food or kitten food instead of a low-quality, plant-based non-ferret food. Thus, it is important to use an appropriate antibiotic as soon as possible if a ferret has a bladder infection. The kidneys may also have a problem reabsorbing three other amino acids: ornithine, lysine and arginine.
Completing the course of antibiotics reduces the bacterial population of the vaginal completely though in some most unfortunate cases the disease does reappear. Calcium oxalate stones are more likely to develop in acidic urine, but they can form in alkaline urine too.
Because cystine is the least soluble amino acid, the stone is composed almost entirely of cystine. Cystine solubility depends on urine pH, and cystine stones are more likely to form in acidic urine. On the other hand plant-based protein like corn gluten, wheat gluten, soy protein isolates and soybean meal do not have those two sulfur-containing amino acids. Thus plant-based protein does not acidify the urine, and the pH of the urine raises higher than normal (above 6.4).



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