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23.02.2016, admin
Malignant Hyperthermia Precautions: Prevention or reduction of hyper metabolic response to pharmacological agents. Meningitis is an infection of the membranes (meninges) that cover the brain and the spinal cord. While the most common types of meningitis may get better on their own, some types need special attention.
Bacterial Meningitis – It is caused by a bacterial infection and needs immediate attention or else it can be life-threatening. Viral Meningitis – This is caused by viruses and the infection is serious but not commonly fatal depending on the patient status and the causative virus. Parasitic Meningitis – This type is caused by parasitic infections, which mainly spread through contaminated water, food and soil. Fungal Meningitis – It is caused by fungi and usually spreads due to inhalation of fungal spores. Non-Infectious Meningitis – This type of meningitis is non-infectious and does not spread via persons.
Persons with compromised immune system like those with other infections or those taking immunosuppressive drugs and pregnant women. Missing out the recommended vaccinations for he particular age group can also increase the risk. Meningitis signs and symptoms may take some time to develop or may even show up in few hours.
Headache may be associated with nausea, vomiting, confusion and increased sensitivity to light. Sometimes drowsiness, difficulty in waking up or less interest in eating and drinking, may be noted. In newborns, along with high fever, excessive irritability, poor feeding and crying may be seen. While the physician examines the patient and takes a detailed history of the illness, certain diagnostic investigations may also be ordered. Laboratory Tests - Blood tests to find the causative organism and other infection related parameters. Imaging Tests – X-rays, CT scans can help in detecting location and extent of inflammation and examine head and other related areas.
Lumbar Puncture – When meningitis is suspected, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is collected by lumbar puncture or spinal tap and CSF analysis is done. Complications of meningitis can be severe if not treated in time and can also affect the neurological functioning.


Meningitis can be contagious and can spread through the commonest means, by which other bacterial and viral infections spread. Hand Washing – Proper hand washing methods should be practiced and the entire family, particularly children should be trained. Personal Hygiene – Measures like covering nose and mouth while sneezing or coughing, wearing masks, avoiding sharing of personal items, keeping surroundings clean should be followed. In general, staying healthy, consuming fresh food and exercising can help in boosting the immune system.
For some types of meningitis, vaccines are available; so it is important to follow the recommended immunization schedule for children, pregnant women and other adults. The genus Streptococcus comprises species of Gram-positive, spherical or oval, catalase-negative, nonmotile cocci that tend to be arranged in chains.
On blood agar plates they form colonies ranging from pinpoint size to 2-3 mm in diameter after 24 hours. Viridans streptococci are alpha-hemolytic or nonhemolytic and lack both the group carbohydrate antigen of the pyogenic streptococci and the capsular antigens of the pneumococcus. Importance: viridans streptococci are normal inhabitants of the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and female genital tract. The pneumococcus is a Gram-positive bacterium, frequently of lancet shape, usually arranged in pairs or short chains. Alpha-hemolytic colonies with depressions in their centers are characteristic of pneumococci.
Importance: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of both acute bacterial pneumonia and acute purulent meningitis.
It is caused by three types of bacteria: Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria. In meningitis, there occurs swelling and inflammation of the membranes and the characteristic presenting features of the infection are fever, headache and stiff neck.
The severity of the infection as well as the treatment varies greatly with the types of meningitis. Also, those having illnesses like cancer, HIV or diabetes are at an increased risk of fungal type of meningitis. Antibiotics are given in case of bacterial meningitis, but these may not be useful for viral meningitis. Some of the possible complications include hearing loss, brain damage, memory problems, learning disabilities, seizures or gait problems. Preventive measures, if adopted can be helpful in controlling the spread of many types of meningitis.


Washing hands with soap and running water before eating, in crowded places, after handling pets and animals, before and after using toilet should be practiced. Pregnant women can be more cautious about their food and drink and follow their physician's advice.
Some vaccinations are now a regular part of the childhood immunization schedule and those specified for older children and adults should be accordingly taken at the physician's advice. In comparison with staphylococci, streptococcal cells are generally smaller and ovoid in shape. Most commonly used is blood agar, which consists of a meat broth to which agar and animal blood (usually sheep blood) are added. A distinctive feature of streptococcal growth on blood agar is the production by many species of alpha- or beta-hemolysis. Some of them can be the causative agents of subacute endocarditis, abscesses and infections in neutropenic patients. Meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitides is known as meningococcal meningitis, while meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is known as pneumococcal meningitis. This is often contagious and spreads through nasal and oral discharges from affected person to another.
The most common causes are enteroviruses, which often spread by the fecal-oral route from person to person. The Gram reaction is positive but some cells in older cultures (or purulent discharge) may lose their ability to retain crystal violet (appear Gram-negative). In the alpha-hemolytic reaction, erythrocytes are not completely lysed but growth is surrounded by greenish discoloration of the agar. On blood agar, encapsulated pneumococci produce round, glistening colonies surrounded by a zone of alpha-hemolysis.
People become infected when they are in close contact with the discharges from the nose or throat of a person who is infected. For some cases, corticosteroid medications may be helpful in recovery and to reduce the chances of complications.



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