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The symptoms or signs of this skin disease are the area infected of the skin becomes red and hot. Cellulitis is caused when some type of bacteria called Staphylococcus enters your skin through a crack or some break in your skin which is sometimes not visible. There are some risk factors regarding this skin disease which have to be taken care of to avoid developing cellulitis. You can prevent Cellulitis if you take care of your skin, keep your skin clean, do not ignore any wounds on your feet and apply lotions to prevent your skin from drying or cracking. Copyright © 2012 Rayur, All trademarks are the property of the respective trademark owners. Humans are natural hosts for many bacterial species that colonize the skin as normal flora. For most patients with impetigo, topical treatment is adequate, either with bacitracin (Polysporin) or mupirocin (Bactroban), applied twice daily for 7 to 10 days.
Folliculitis is a superficial infection of the hair follicles characterized by erythematous, follicular-based papules and pustules.
Topical treatment with clindamycin 1% or erythromycin 2%, applied two or three times a day to affected areas, coupled with an antibacterial wash or soap, is adequate for most patients with folliculitis. Infection begins with vesicles and bullae that progress to punched-out ulcerations with an adherent crust, which heals with scarring.
Erysipelas is a superficial cutaneous infection of the skin involving dermal lymphatic vessels. Group A β-hemolytic streptococcus is the most common pathogen responsible for erysipelas, and S. Classically, erysipelas is a tender, well-defined, erythematous, indurated plaque on the face or legs (Fig. Diagnosis is by clinical presentation and confirmation by culture (if clinically indicated, ie., bullae or abscess formation).
Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare infection of the subcutaneous tissues and fascia that eventually leads to necrosis.
Infection begins with warm, tender, reddened skin and inflammation that rapidly extends horizontally and vertically. Necrotizing fasciitis is a surgical emergency requiring prompt surgical debridement, fasciotomy, and, occasionally, amputation of the affected extremity to prevent progression to myonecrosis. Dermatophytosis implies infection with fungi, organisms with high affinity for keratinized tissue, such as the skin, nails, and hair. Tinea cruris (jock itch) occurs in the groin and on the upper, inner thighs and buttocks as scaling annular plaques (Fig. Tinea corporis (body), faciei (face), and manuum (hands) represent infections of different sites, each invariably with annular scaly plaques.
For most patients, topical treatment with terbinafine (Lamisil), clotrimazole (Lotrimin, Mycelex), or econazole (Spectazole) cream is adequate when applied twice daily for 6 to 8 weeks. Candidiasis refers to a diverse group of infections caused by Candida albicans or by other members of the genus Candida.
Infection is common in immunocompromised patients, diabetics, the elderly, and patients receiving antibiotics. Candidal intertrigo is a specific infection of the skin folds (axillae, groin), characterized by reddened plaques, often with satellite pustules (Fig.
For candidal intertrigo and balanitis, topical antifungal agents such as clotrimazole, terbinafine, or econazole cream, applied twice daily for 6 to 8 weeks, is usually curative when coupled with aeration and compresses.
Tinea versicolor is a common opportunistic superficial infection of the skin caused by the ubiquitous yeast Malassezia furfur. Infection produces discrete and confluent, fine scaly, well-demarcated, hypopigmented or hyperpigmented plaques on the chest, back, arms, and neck (Fig. Selenium sulfide shampoo (2.5%) or ketoconazole shampoo is the mainstay of treatment, applied to the affected areas and the scalp daily for 3 to 5 days, then once a month thereafter. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is a painful, self-limited, often recurrent dermatitis, characterized by small grouped vesicles on an erythematous base.
Disease follows implantation of the virus via direct contact at mucosal surfaces or on sites of abraded skin. Primary infection occurs most often in children, exhibiting vesicles and erosions on reddened buccal mucosa, the palate, tongue, or lips (acute herpetic gingivostomatitis). Viral culture helps to confirm the diagnosis; direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) is a helpful but less-specific test. Acyclovir remains the treatment of choice for HSV infection; newer antivirals, such as famciclovir and valacyclovir, are also effective.
Herpes zoster (shingles) is an acute, painful dermatomal dermatitis that affects approximately 10% to 20% of adults, often in the presence of immunosuppression.
During the course of varicella, the virus travels from the skin and mucosal surfaces to the sensory ganglia, where it lies dormant for a patient's lifetime. Herpes zoster is primarily a disease of adults and typically begins with pain and paresthesia in a dermatomal or bandlike pattern followed by grouped vesicles within the dermatome several days later (Fig.
Zoster deserves treatment, with rest, analgesics, compresses applied to affected areas, and antiviral therapy, if possible, within 24 to 72 hours of disease onset. HPV infection follows inoculation of the virus into the epidermis through direct contact, usually facilitated by a break in the skin. The common wart is the most common type: It is a hyperkeratotic, flesh-colored papule or plaque studded with small black dots (thrombosed capillaries) (Fig.
The disease follows direct contact with the virus, which replicates in the cytoplasm of cells and induces hyperplasia.


Molluscum are smooth pink, or flesh-colored, dome-shaped, umbilicated papules with a central keratotic plug (Fig. Treatment might not be necessary because the disease often resolves spontaneously in children. Impetigo is a superficial skin infection usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus and occasionally by Streptococcus pyogenes. Tinea versicolor is a common superficial infection of the skin caused by the ubiquitous yeast Malassezia furfur. Herpes simplex virus infection is a painful, self-limited, often recurrent dermatitis, characterized by small grouped vesicles on an erythematous base. Soft tissue fillers (dermal fillers) - food drug, Soft tissue fillers, injectable implants, dermal fillers, wrinkle fillers medical device implants approved food drug administration. Beards hygienic bacteria-resistant , Beards bacteria potentially developed antibiotics, study .
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This type of bacteria may enter the disrupted areas of skin through cuts, wounds or dermatitis. Oral medication like antibiotics are given for over a period of prescribed days till cellulitis disappears.
Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes are infrequent resident flora, but they account for a wide variety of bacterial pyodermas. The nonbullous type is more common and typically occurs on the face and extremities, initially with vesicles or pustules on reddened skin. Furuncles are deeper infections of the hair follicle characterized by inflammatory nodules with pustular drainage, which can coalesce to form larger draining nodules (carbuncles).
Systemic antistaphylococcal antibiotics are usually necessary for furuncles and carbuncles, especially when cellulitis or constitutional symptoms are present.2 Small furuncles can be treated with warm compresses three or four times a day for 15 to 20 minutes, but larger furuncles and carbuncles often warrant incision and drainage.
Ecthyma is usually a consequence of neglected impetigo and often follows impetigo occluded by footwear or clothing.
An oral antistaphylococcal antibiotic is the treatment of choice for cellulitis; parenteral therapy is warranted for patients with extensive disease or with systemic symptoms as well as for immunocompromised patients. Necrotizing fasciitis commonly occurs on the extremities, abdomen, or perineum or at operative wounds (Fig. Tinea unguium (onychomycosis) is fungal nail disease, characterized by thickened yellow nails and subungual debris (Fig. These organisms typically infect the skin, nails, mucous membranes, and gastrointestinal tract, but they also cause systemic disease. The counterpart in men is balanitis, characterized by shiny reddish plaques on the glans penis, which can affect the scrotum.
For thrush, the treatment is nystatin suspension or clotrimazole troches four to six times daily until symptoms resolve.
Purported risk factors include oral contraceptive use, heredity, systemic corticosteroid use, Cushing's disease, immunosuppression, hyperhidrosis, and malnutrition. Potassium hydroxide preparation exhibits short hyphae and spores with a spaghetti-and-meatballs appearance. Alternatively, a variety of topical antifungal agents, including terbinafine, clotrimazole, or econazole cream, applied twice daily for 6 to 8 weeks, constitute adequate treatment, especially for limited disease.11 Systemic therapy may be necessary for patients with extensive disease or frequent recurrences, or for whom topical agents have failed.
HSV type 2 infection is responsible for 20% to 50% of genital ulcerations in sexually active persons. After primary infection, the virus travels to the adjacent dorsal ganglia, where it remains dormant unless it is reactivated by psychological or physical stress, illness, trauma, menses, or sunlight. For recurrent infection (more than six episodes per year), suppressive treatment is warranted.
Reactivation often follows immunosuppression, emotional stress, trauma, and irradiation or surgical manipulation of the spine, producing a dermatomal dermatitis. Anogenital warts are a sexually transmitted infection, and partners can transfer the virus with high efficiency. Maceration of the skin is an important predisposing factor, as suggested by the increased incidence of plantar warts in swimmers. Most modalities are destructive: cryosurgery, electrodesiccation, curettage, and application of various topical products such as trichloroacetic acid, salicylic acid, topical 5-fluorouracil, podophyllin, and canthacur.
Infection is common in children, especially those with atopic dermatitis, sexually active adults, and patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Treatment is comparable to the modalities outlined for warts; cryosurgery and curettage are perhaps the easiest and most definitive approaches. People with diabetics are more likely to get this infection because of their low immune system and low blood circulation in the feet. Whichever antibiotic is prescribed by your doctor, you must complete the entire course of medication as directed even if you start feeling better.
Predisposing factors to infection include minor trauma, preexisting skin disease, poor hygiene, and, rarely, impaired host immunity.
Impetigo commonly occurs on the face (especially around the nares) or extremities after trauma. The vesicles or pustules eventually rupture to leave the characteristic honey-colored (yellow-brown) crust (Fig.
Cellulitis is a warm, tender, erythematous, and edematous plaque with ill-defined borders that expands rapidly.
Good hygiene, warm compresses three or four times a day for 15 to 20 minutes, and elevation of the affected limb help to expedite healing.


Thrush is oropharyngeal candidiasis, characterized by white nonadherent plaques on the tongue and buccal mucosa. HSV type 1 is usually associated with orofacial disease, and HSV type 2 is usually associated with genital infection. The Tzanck smear can be helpful in the rapid diagnosis of herpesviruses infections, but it is less sensitive than culture and DFA.
Other types of warts include flat warts (verruca plana), plantar warts, and condyloma acuminatum (venereal warts).
A quadrivalent HPV vaccine (Gardasil) has been available since 2006, and this represents the newest approach to preventing genital HPV infection and ultimately cervical cancer in women. Most patients have many papules, often in intertriginous sites, such as the axillae, popliteal fossae, and groin. In children, canthacur, applied topically then washed off 2 to 6 hours later, is well tolerated, and is very effective. Though Cellulitis can occur anywhere on your face and body, it mostly affects the skin on your lower legs.
Occasionally, a pustule enlarges to form a tender, red nodule (furuncle) that becomes painful and fluctuant after several days. Often a continuum of folliculitis, furunculosis (furuncles), arises in hair-bearing areas as tender, erythematous, fluctuant nodules that rupture with purulent discharge (Fig. Untreated staphylococcal or streptococcal impetigo can extend more deeply, penetrating the dermis, producing a shallow crusted ulcer.
Cellulitis is often accompanied by constitutional symptoms, regional lymphadenopathy, and occasionally bacteremia (Fig. Within 48 to 72 hours, affected skin becomes dusky, and bullae form, followed by necrosis and gangrene, often with crepitus.
Kerion celsi is an inflammatory form of tinea capitis, characterized by boggy nodules, usually with hair loss and regional lymphadenopathy.
Alterations in the host environment can lead to its proliferation and subsequent skin disease.
Paronychia is an acute or chronic infection of the nail characterized by tender, edematous, and erythematous nail folds, often with purulent discharge (Fig. For paronychia, treatment consists of aeration and a topical antifungal agent such as terbinafine, clotrimazole, or econazole for 2 to 3 months; occasionally, oral antistaphylococcal antibiotics are needed, coupled with incision and drainage for secondary bacterial infection.
Herpes labialis (fever blisters or cold sores) appears as grouped vesicles on red denuded skin, usually the vermilion border of the lip; infection represents reactivated HSV.
The rough surface of a wart can disrupt adjacent skin and enable inoculation of virus into adjacent sites, leading to the development and spread of new warts. The immunomodulator imiquimod cream (Aldara) is a novel topical agent recently approved for treating condyloma acuminatum, and it might help with common warts as well, usually as adjunctive therapy.
The vaccine is safe and 100% effective and is recommended for girls and women ages 9 to 26 years. Initially cellulitis may affect your skins surface or the tissues under the skin and later can spread to your bloodstream. It is always important to detect and treat cellulitis as early as possible otherwise the serious infection can spread throughout the body. Diseases like varicose veins are more prone to cellulitis because of less blood circulation in the legs and feet. Antimicrobial therapy should be continued until inflammation has regressed or altered depending on culture results.
Ecthyma can evolve from a primary pyoderma, in a pre-existing dermatosis, or at the site of trauma. Left untreated, cellulitic skin can become bullous and necrotic, and an abscess or fasciitis, or both, can occur. Without prompt treatment, fever, systemic toxicity, organ failure, and shock can occur, often followed by death.
Cheilitis resolves with aeration, application of a topical antifungal agent, and discontinuation of any aggravating factors. Primary genital infection is an erosive dermatitis on the external genitalia that occurs about 7 to 10 days after exposure; intact vesicles are rare. When zoster involves the tip and side of the nose (cranial nerve V) nasociliary nerve involvement can occur (30%-40%). Sexual partners of patients with condyloma warrant examination, and women require gynecologic examination.
Computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can help to delineate the extent of infection.
Angular cheilitis is the presence of fissures and reddened scaly skin at the corner of the mouth, which often occurs in diabetics and in those who drool or chronically lick their lips (Fig. A single 150-mg dose of fluconazole, coupled with aeration, is usually effective for vulvovaginitis.10 Treatment is summarized in Box 1. Most patients with zoster do well with only symptomatic treatment, but postherpetic neuralgia (continued dysthesias and pain after resolution of skin disease) is common in the elderly. Prodromal symptoms of pain, burning, or itching can precede herpes labialis and genital herpes infections.



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