Bacterium that causes lyme disease 8th,bacterial eye infection and contact lenses 4.25,how to get rid of dog urine smell wood floors level - You Shoud Know

22.08.2015, admin
What Is Lyme Disease?Lyme disease is an infection that is transmitted through the bite of a tick infected with a bacterium called Borrelia burgdorferi.
The bacterium that causes Lyme Disease substitutes manganese for iron in its diet, a new study finds.
This talent helps the pathogen evade the immune system, which often acts against foreign invaders by starving them of iron. Lyme disease is transmitted by tick bites and can cause fever, fatigue, headaches and rashes. Now, researchers have found that to cause Lyme disease, the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi requires a large supply of manganese, which it uses instead of iron to make an important enzyme. Researchers have known since 2000 that Borrelia doesn't have the genes it would need to make iron-containing proteins. They found that the bacterium substitutes manganese for iron, particularly in defensive proteins that help protect the pathogen against the immune system. The researchers now plan to map out all of the metal-containing proteins in Borrelia and plan to learn how the bacteria acquire manganese from their environment. The researchers reported their findings today (March 22) in the Journal of Biological Chemistry. Psychedelics like lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) have a complicated history of being used as potential treatments for mental illness.
A macrophage (pale brown) interacts with Borrelia cells (blue), the spirochete bacteria that cause Lyme disease. Dominican amber, dating back 15 million years ago, provides the oldest evidence ever found of Borrelia – a kind of bacteria that causes Lyme disease (a stealthy bacterial illness that is spread by tick bites and was only recognized about 40 years ago). This tick trapped in a piece of 15-million-year-old Dominican amber can carry the type of bacteria that causes Lyme disease. But the discovery of an ancient Borrelia-like bacterium, Palaeoborrelia dominicana, shows these problems with tick-borne disease have been around for millions of years.


Prof Poinar found spirochetes-like cells of Palaeoborrelia dominicana in a series of four ticks (Amblyomma sp.) preserved in 15-million-year-old amber from the Dominican Republic.
In 30 years of studying diseases revealed in the fossil record, the scientist has documented the ancient presence of such diseases as malaria, leishmania, and others.
Evidence suggests that even dinosaurs could have been infected with Rickettsial-like bacteria – microorganisms that can cause various types of spotted fever. Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete, a class of long, slender bacteria that typically take on a coiled shape. It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances.
If not treated promptly with antibiotics, the disease can start to attack the circulatory and central nervous systems, causing shooting pains and numbness as well as cognitive difficulties.
The discovery could open new doors for the treatment of Lyme disease, said study researcher Valeria Culotta, a molecular biologist at the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health.
Penicillin acts by attacking the bacteria's cell walls, she said, but some forms of the bacteria don't have cell walls.
The manganese mechanism may be a chink in the bacterium's armor that humans can exploit, Culotta said.
Researchers studied LSD therapy in the 1950s and 1960s, and published numerous clinical papers involving more than 40,000 patients.
Although the outer membrane of Borrelia contains a strong antigen, the OspC protein, the bacterium successfully evades the human immune system by hiding out in places less accessible to immune cells, such as the central nervous system. They can carry bacteria that cause a wide range of diseases, affect many different animal species, and often are not even understood or recognized by doctors,” said Prof George Poinar, Jr., a paleoentomologist with the Oregon State University’s College of Science and the author of a paper published in the journal Historical Biology. It can cause problems with joints, the heart and central nervous system, but researchers didn’t even know it existed until 1975. They are very efficient at maintaining populations of microbes in their tissues, and can infect mammals, birds, reptiles and other animals,” he said.


It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. Culotta and her colleagues used specialized equipment to measure metal-containing proteins in Borrelia, detecting metal content down to parts per trillion. I'm currently working as a research intern in the Department of Ophthalmology at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. Not all ticks are infected, and the risk for contracting the disease increases the longer the tick is attached to the body.
Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the WebMD Site. Follow me, and we'll explore the beauty, mysteries and implications of science in the 21st century.
Symptoms: Early StageWithin one to four weeks of being bitten by an infected tick, most people will experience some symptoms of Lyme disease. A circular, expanding rash (called erythema migrans) at the site of the bite develops in about 70%-80% of cases. Some people report flu-like symptoms at this stage, including fever, chills, headaches, fatigue, swollen lymph nodes, joint pain, and muscle aches. Symptoms: As the Infection SpreadsIf the disease is not detected and treated in its early stages, it can extend to more areas of the body, affecting the joints, heart, and nervous system (after several weeks to months after the initial bite). Additional rashes may occur, and there may be intermittent periods of pain and weakness in the arms or legs. Facial-muscle paralysis (Bell's palsy), headaches, and poor memory are other symptoms at this stage, along with a rapid heartbeat and some loss of control of facial muscles.



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