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30.01.2016, admin
An initial diagnosis of bordetella – better known as kennel cough – led to two injections of the antibiotic Convenia.
The holidays hit, and Bug stayed with my parents for a week while I visited my boyfriend’s family across the country. After reviewing Bug’s medical history, the veterinarian gave a diagnosis of feline herpes virus.
Our cat’s main symptoms have been recurring respiratory infections, marked by sneezing, eye and nose discharge, fever, lethargy, and loss of appetite. In Bug’s case, she had sores on her chest and neck that became mildly infected, requiring steroids to treat.
There is no cure for the feline herpesvirus, only management of your pet’s lifestyle and treatment for outbreaks. Bug was prescribed Immune Support Plus treats containing lysine (an amino acid) and DMG (an antioxidant). Healthy Paws Pet Insurance covers up to 90% of vet bills for your dog or cat—for a lifetime.
Cyclocross started in Europe more than one hundred years ago when cyclist were looking for a way to stay fit in winter. Cyclocross requires the power of a sprinter, the speed and endurance of a time trialist, the bike-handling skills of a mountain biker and the tactics of a road racer. It is not surprising that cyclocross has become the fastest growing part of the sport of cycling in the U.S. Events foster a festive atmosphere and encourage everyone to have fun while racing as hard as possible. Although we have not yet discovered the "silver bullet" to cure this illness, there have been many advances in treatment options since the emergence of CPV in the 1970s.
The first step in creating a CPV treatment protocol that is right for your organization is to figure out what resources are available for CPV patient care. Given the highly infectious and deadly nature of CPV, having the physical capacity to prevent transmission of the virus to other animals is of the highest importance. In addition to appropriate physical facilities, humane treatment of CPV requires significant medical expertise. Treatment of CPV also often requires a significant investment of time to ensure adequate patient monitoring and administration of treatments multiple times per day. Finally, analysis of the medical budget is important to ensure that treatment is financially feasible.
In addition, recovered dogs can continue to shed virus for up to 2 weeks, so appropriate housing and care will need to be sustained after the immediate threat is gone.4 All of these things must be accomplished without compromising or neglecting the myriad other responsibilities that shelters and shelter workers attend to on a daily basis. In addition to assessing your physical, staffing, temporal and financial resources, an individual animal welfare assessment should be made.
Taking resource and welfare considerations into account, treatment of CPV can be a successful and rewarding experience. The treatment of CPV centers on avoiding and correcting dehydration, preventing secondary bacterial infections and treating endoparasites, ensuring adequate nutrition, and alleviating discomfort to enhance welfare and speed recovery. Managing each of these components is essential to a positive outcome and all should be given equal importance.
Note: The treatment plans discussed below apply only to patients that are hemodynamically stable. Dogs infected with CPV quickly become dehydrated due to vomiting, diarrhea and anorexia.3 The first step in correcting dehydration is to estimate the percentage of fluid loss that has already occurred. In addition to the amount needed to correct dehydration, the total amount should also include estimated ongoing losses (through continued vomiting and diarrhea) and normal maintenance requirements (Figure 2). However, intravenous catheter maintenance requires significant nursing care to prevent complications.
Therefore, supplemental potassium should be included in fluids after initial rehydration is complete. A 2.5% - 5% solution of dextrose can be added to replacement fluids to maintain normal blood glucose concentrations (add 50 - 100ml of 50% dextrose per liter of replacement fluids). The injection site should be cleaned prior to administration to minimize the risk of introducing infection.4 When injectable dextrose solutions are not available or feasible, blood glucose levels can be maintained by the oral administration of corn syrup. As with electrolytes, periodic measurement of blood glucose levels is helpful in ensuring the appropriate dose and frequency of supplementation.
Destruction of intestinal villi can lead to loss of protein through the gastrointestinal tract. CPV is a viral infection; therefore antibiotics have no direct effect on the primary infection itself. Co-infection with gastrointestinal parasites is commonplace, particularly in puppies infected with CPV. Since the specific treatment protocol for each parasite species varies, fecal analysis should be performed to diagnose the specific infection whenever possible.
The severe vomiting and diarrhea that often accompany CPV infection can lead to considerable nausea and pain.
A variety of other treatment modalities have been investigated for use in CPV cases with mixed results.
The final component of a CPV treatment plan is monitoring of the patient's response to treatment efforts and re-assessment of the patient's disease status. The frequency and depth of monitoring will vary based on many factors including the severity of the disease, the availability of veterinary input, and the diagnostic capabilities of the organization.


At a minimum, treatment monitoring must include a thorough physical examination by a trained, experienced veterinary staff member twice daily.
For shelters attempting to initiate a CPV treatment protocol for the first time, it may be best to treat all patients as inpatients to allow the veterinary staff to assess treatment response and develop appropriate parameters for selecting future outpatients. In many communities across the United States, healthy shelter animals are now guaranteed a positive outcome.
As a preventable disease, the implementation of strategies to avoid the introduction of CPV into the shelter population (such as vaccination on intake, population segregation, effective sanitation, etc.) are even more important than developing treatment plans. Whether it was time or medication is anyone’s guess, but Bug improved after about two months.
This time, it was accompanied by violent head-shaking and scratching, mainly of her right ear. For her most recent ear inflammation, EnteDerm ear drops were prescribed to hopefully reduce her pain. Medications like antibiotics and various drops or creams may be prescribed by your vet to treat infections and reduce your pet’s pain. Resulting in great suffering and the death of one out of every two people, such fear and stigma was not unwarranted. Many sheltering organizations have started to embrace various CPV treatment options in their efforts to save more lives.
The goal of this assessment is to determine which patients can be successfully treated without jeopardizing the health and welfare of those patients or that of the other animals in the shelter. When treatment is performed on-site, this is most commonly accomplished through the use of a bio-secure, self-contained isolation unit.
Figure 1 describes one method of determining whether your organization is ready to treat CPV through a shelter-based protocol or whether a private veterinary clinic should be utilized. It is a mantra in veterinary medicine that "the treatment should not be worse than the disease." This is a very real possibility in severe cases of CPV, therefore the decision of whether or not to treat CPV should also consider the benefit of treatment to that particular animal. Environmental management and good biosecurity practices are also critical components of a CPV treatment plan and, although their discussion is beyond the scope of this article, their importance cannot be underestimated. Parameters for subjectively assessing the percentage of dehydration are provided in Table 1.
Intravenous administration is the preferred route as it is the quickest, most effective method of restoring and maintaining normal hydration status. Caution should be taken when supplementing potassium levels as both too little and too much potassium can result in cardiac arrhythmias. Low blood glucose levels are of particular concern in puppies and toy breeds due to lack of food intake, inadequate glycogen stores and as a consequence of sepsis.
If treatments are administered via subcutaneous or intraperitoneal routes, dextrose should be mixed within a fluid bolus to prevent tissue irritation and discomfort. However, due to the virus' intense destruction of the gastrointestinal tract and severe depletion of white blood cells, a variety of secondary bacterial infections should be expected. Administration of a broad-spectrum dewormer such as ivermectin, fenbendazole or pyrantel pamoate can be used when definitive diagnosis is not possible or practical. In addition to causing such discomfort, continued vomiting can lead to gastroesophageal reflux, worsening dehydration and a delayed recovery. In severe cases, constant rate infusions of injectable analgesic cocktails may be indicated. Continual re-evaluation of the patient ensures that his or her medical and welfare needs are being met and allows for adjustment in treatment strategies based on the patient's individual response. It is not unusual for a CPV patient to require four or more evaluations in a 24-hour period. In some moderately to severely affected patients, more in-depth diagnostics are warranted and may include analysis of packed cell volume, total solids, white blood cell count, blood glucose and electrolyte levels.
However, from the patient perspective, inpatient treatment often affords a higher level of care. The next challenge for such communities is to address the needs of animals with medical and behavioral issues.
However, with careful planning and oversight, many CPV infected dogs once considered too difficult to treat by many sheltering organizations can be nursed back to health and enjoy the healthy, happy life that they deserve. Brian DiGangi received a Bachelor of Science degree in Animal Science with a minor in Nutrition from North Carolina State University in 2001, and graduated from the University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine (UF CVM) in 2006. Wherever we were, she was too: burrowing under the comforter, playing video games on the futon. Recurring kitty colds were relatively mild, cleared up with plenty of snuggles and bathroom steam sessions. The vet suspected environmental allergies, but we hadn’t changed her cat food or environment at all.
Her eye boogers reached serious levels of ickiness, and poor Bug was squinting, her sinuses were so congested.
Sharing food, water or a litter box with an infected feline increases risk of transmission, as does mutual grooming. A weakened immune system makes feline herpes sufferers more susceptible to secondary infections, like conjunctivitis (pink eye). Minor kitty colds – upper respiratory infections, if you’re feeling fancy – can be treated at home.
Over time, the cause of the devastating illness was discovered; successful treatment and preventive measures followed soon after.


It certainly can be devastating to animal health and welfare and can bring even the best-equipped shelter to its knees.
If such a unit is not available, outpatient treatment with a skilled foster parent under veterinary guidance may be appropriate in select cases. Undertaking a course of treatment for animals that have a good prognosis and establishing objective parameters of unacceptable welfare conditions to define treatment end points will help ensure your treatment protocol is successful and respected. Periodic measurement is essential to maintaining serum potassium levels within a safe range. Antibiotics serve to prevent these secondary bacterial infections from overwhelming the body's immune system leading to life-threatening sepsis.
Practically speaking, vomiting also prevents the administration of oral medications and the re-introduction of food. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be avoided until hydration status has stabilized. Such protocols should be developed on an individual patient basis with veterinary oversight. This will help ensure that shelter staff is prepared, resources are sufficient, and protocols are fine-tuned for more intensive cases that will follow as the program develops.
Beginning a treatment program for dogs infected with CPV may be the next step toward meeting that challenge in your community.
Endotoxemia and tumor necrosis factor activity in dogs with naturally occurring parvoviral enteritis. Bacterial colonization of intravenous catheters in young dogs suspected to have parvoviral enteritis. Enteric Clostridium perfringens infection associated with canine parvoviral enteritis: 74 cases (1987-1990).
Coliform septicemia and pulmonary disease associated with canine parvoviral enteritis:88 cases (1987-1988 ). Effect of early enteral nutrition on intestinal permeability, intestinal protein loss, and outcome in dogs with severe parvoviral enteritis. Recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor for treatment of puppies with neutropenia secondary to canine parvovirus infection. Clinical effects of the recombinant feline interferon-u on experimental parvovirus infection in Beagle dogs.
Treatment of canine parvoviral enteritis with interferon-omega in a placebo-controlled challenge trial.
Treatment of canine parvoviral enteritis with interferon-omega in a placebo-controlled field trial. When sniffling turned to sneezing and then to wheezy coughing – and after the umpteenth kitty sneeze to the face – I took her to the vet. A course of Prednisone, a corticosteroid, seemed to clear up the sores, but again, it can be hard to distinguish the effects of meds from time. He tolerates their deaf dog, Molly, who at 12 years old poses no threat to his dominance over the household.
She weighed in (7.7 pounds) and after being swaddled in a towel, Bug was much more amenable to an ear exam. Kittens, cats with flat faces, and pets with weak immune systems may have more severe symptoms of cat herpes. If your cat is showing signs of nasal discharge or acting lethargic, visit the vet just to be safe.
Although the plague still exists, it's not something that most of us worry about on a day-to-day basis. This article will explore those questions as they relate to the treatment of individual animals with CPV in a shelter setting. When intravenous formulations of potassium are not available or feasible, oral formulations may be utilized in the absence of vomiting. Figure 3 compares inpatient and outpatient treatment protocols and minimum treatment monitoring recommendations. Evaluation of an outpatient protocol in the treatment of canine parvoviral gastroenteritis.
Effect of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) on leukocyte count and survival rate of dogs with parvoviral enteritis.
DiGangi completed clinical externships in both shelter medicine and exotic animal medicine, and co-founded the University of Florida Student Chapter of the Association of Shelter Veterinarians.
The two felines eventually settled into a peaceful existence, but it was no easy feat for Bug or Dickster. The vet reported her right ear showed signs of inflammation, but an ear swab tested negative for a bacterial infection or mites. Even if a feline has no symptoms they can still carry the cat herpes virus, only showing symptoms during times of stress.
He volunteered at the county animal shelter on a regular basis, organized spay-neuter wet labs for veterinary students, regularly participated in a large feral cat trap-neuter-return program and fostered animals for local rescue organizations.



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