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10.09.2015, admin
Ebola virus disease (formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever) is a severe, often fatal illness, with a death rate of up to 90%.
Ebola first appeared in 1976 in two simultaneous outbreaks, one in a village near the Ebola River in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and the other in a remote area of Sudan. The origin of the virus is unknown but fruit bats (Pteropodidae) are considered the likely host of the Ebola virus, based on available evidence.
In the current outbreak in West Africa, the majority of cases in humans have occurred as a result of human-to-human transmission. Infection occurs from direct contact through broken skin or mucous membranes with the blood, or other bodily fluids or secretions (stool, urine, saliva, semen) of infected people. More than 100 health-care workers have been exposed to the virus while caring for Ebola patients. WHO does not advise families or communities to care for individuals who may present with symptoms of Ebola virus disease in their homes. Generally, a person must come into contact with an animal that has Ebola and it can then spread within the community from human to human. More research is needed to understand if some groups, such as immuno-compromised people or those with other underlying health conditions, are more susceptible than others to contracting the virus. Exposure to the virus can be controlled through the use of protective measures in clinics and hospitals, at community gatherings, or at home. Sudden onset of fever, intense weakness, muscle pain, headache and sore throat are typical signs and symptoms.
Laboratory findings include low white blood cell and platelet counts, and elevated liver enzymes. The incubation period, or the time interval from infection to onset of symptoms, is from 2 to 21 days.
If a person has been in an area known to have Ebola virus disease or in contact with a person known or suspected to have Ebola and they begin to have symptoms, they should seek medical care immediately. Any cases of persons who are suspected to have the disease should be reported to the nearest health unit without delay.
To help control further spread of the virus, people that are suspected or confirmed to have the disease should be isolated from other patients and treated by health workers using strict infection control precautions. Currently, there is no licensed medicine or vaccine for Ebola virus disease, but several products are under development. While initial cases of Ebola virus disease are contracted by handling infected animals or carcasses, secondary cases occur by direct contact with the bodily fluids of an ill person, either through unsafe case management or unsafe burial practices.
Understand the nature of the disease, how it is transmitted, and how to prevent it from spreading further.
If you suspect someone close to you or in your community of having Ebola virus disease, encourage and support them in seeking appropriate medical treatment in a health-care facility.
People who have died from Ebola should only be handled using appropriate protective equipment and should be buried immediately by public health professionals who are trained in safe burial procedures.
Health workers treating patients with suspected or confirmed illness are at higher risk of infection than other groups. Isolating patients with suspected or confirmed Ebola virus disease in single isolation rooms is recommended.
Are visitors allowed in areas where patients suspected or confirmed Ebola virus disease are admitted? In addition to standard health-care precautions, health-care workers should strictly apply recommended infection control measures to avoid exposure to infected blood, fluids, or contaminated environments or objects – such as a patient’s soiled linen or used needles. All visitors and health-care workers should rigorously use what is known as personal protective equipment (PPE).
It is important to note that neglecting to perform hand hygiene after removing PPE will reduce or negate any benefits of the PPE. Either an alcohol-based hand rub or soap and running water can be used for hand hygiene, applying the correct technique recommended by WHO.
Other key precautions are safe injection and phlebotomy procedures, including safe management of sharps, regular and rigorous environmental cleaning, decontamination of surfaces and equipment, and management of soiled linen and of waste. In addition, it is important to ensure safe processing of laboratory samples from suspected or confirmed patients with EDV and safe handling of dead bodies or human remains for post-mortem examination and burial preparation. WHO strongly recommends that people seek credible health advice about Ebola virus disease from their public health authority. While there is no specific drug against Ebola, the best treatment is intensive supportive treatment provided in the hospital by health workers using strict infection control procedures. WHO provides technical advice to countries and communities to prepare for and respond to Ebola outbreaks.
During an Ebola outbreak, the affected country’s public health authority reports its disease case numbers and deaths. Analyzing case data trends, over time, and with additional information, is generally more helpful to assess the public health situation and determine the appropriate response.
During an outbreak, WHO reviews the public health situation regularly and recommends any travel or trade restrictions, if necessary, and may inform national authorities to implement it.


While travellers should always be vigilant with regard to their health and those around them, the risk of infection for travellers is very low since person-to-person transmission results from direct contact with the body fluids or secretions of an infected patient. As with any illness or disease, it is always possible that a person who has been exposed to Ebola virus may choose to travel.
If you are visiting family or friends in the affected areas, the risk is similarly low, unless you have direct physical contact with a person who is ill or who has died. Health workers traveling to affected areas should strictly follow WHO-recommended infection control guidance.
Anyone who has stayed in areas where cases were recently reported should be aware of the symptoms of infection and seek medical attention at the first sign of illness.
Clinicians caring for travelers returning from affected areas with compatible symptoms are advised to consider the possibility of Ebola virus disease. There is no cure for Ebola, which has infected 1848 people since the outbreak was first reported in Guinea in February.The Liberian government was aware of the risks associated with Zmapp, but the alternative was to allow many more people to die, Information Minister Lewis Brown told the BBC on Monday.
An EgyptAir flight that crashed in the Mediterranean did not swerve and change direction, an Egyptian official says, contradicting a Greek version. What led to the sinking of a migrant boat off the coast of Libya in April 2015, drowning up to 700 people, the largest single loss of life in the Mediterranean in decades?
Researchers at the Broad Institute in Massachusetts and Harvard University claim the Ebola virus (transmission electron micrograph image shown) is mutating rapidly.
Workers unload medical supplies to fight the Ebola epidemic from a USAID cargo flight on 24 August 2014 in Harbel, Liberia. The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline. We use cookies to enhance your visit to our site and to bring you advertisements that might interest you. The British Broadcasting Corporation, BBC, reports that United States scientists have been given permission by the Food and Drug Administration, FDA, to conduct human trials on a drug to treat the Ebola virus. For most, the mere mention of Ebola virus provokes abject fear - the archetypal blockbuster contagion - but just how dangerous is it to our ape cousins?
Tweet Ebola virus in human spreads through close contact such as physical contact with the infected person or the physical contact with the bodily fluids. The Ebola virus is currently causing a devastating and unprecedented outbreak in West Africa, but could the virus create a doomsday scenario by turning airborne?
Infection can also occur if broken skin or mucous membranes of a healthy person come into contact with environments that have become contaminated with an Ebola patient’s infectious fluids such as soiled clothing, bed linen, or used needles. This happens because they may not have been wearing personal protection equipment or were not properly applying infection prevention and control measures when caring for the patients.
Rather, seek treatment in a hospital or treatment centre staffed by doctors and nurses qualified and equipped to treat Ebola virus victims. Burial ceremonies in which mourners have direct contact with the body of the deceased person have played a role in the transmission of Ebola. For this reason, infected patients receive close monitoring from medical professionals and receive laboratory tests to ensure the virus is no longer circulating in their systems before they return home.
This is followed by vomiting, diarrhoea, rash, impaired kidney and liver function, and in some cases, both internal and external bleeding.
They are frequently dehydrated and need intravenous fluids or oral rehydration with solutions that contain electrolytes.
WHO does not recommend home care and strongly advises individuals and their family members to seek professional care in a treatment centre. During an outbreak a number of important actions will reduce or stop the spread of the virus and protect health workers and others in the health-care setting. Where isolation rooms are not available, it is important to assign designated areas, separate from other patients, for suspected and confirmed cases. If this is not possible, access should be given only to those individuals who are necessary for the patient’s well-being and care, such as a child’s parent. It is important to always perform hand hygiene with soap and running water when hands are visibly soiled. Any health-care workers and other professionals undertaking these tasks in connection with suspected or confirmed patients with Ebola virus disease should wear appropriate PPE and follow precautions and procedures recommended by WHO.
WHO is currently reviewing its recommendations for travel and expects to issue advice in the coming days. If the individual has not developed symptoms (see FAQ #4), they cannot transmit EVD to those around them. Transmission requires direct contact with blood, secretions, organs or other body fluids of infected living or dead persons or animal, all of which are unlikely exposures for the average traveller. If this is the case, it is important to notify public health authorities and engage in contact tracing. Rick Sacra, who had worked in Liberia in previous years, went back in August to tend to pregnant women and to children.
In 1996 the US-based pharmaceutical company, Pfizer, carried out a drug trial during a meningitis outbreak in which about 12,000 people died from the disease in the northern state of Kano over six months.Pfizer gave 100 children an experimental oral antibiotic called Trovan which it said had already been tested on more than 5,000 patients.


The latest study was based on analysis of 78 patients diagnosed in the first 24 days of the outbreak in Sierra Leone. International aid agencies and the Liberian government are struggling to keep up with the rapidly-expanding epidemic.
Health-care providers at all levels of the health system – hospitals, clinics, and health posts – should be briefed on the nature of the disease and how it is transmitted, and strictly follow recommended infection control precautions. If you do choose to care for your loved one at home, WHO strongly advises you to notify your local public health authority and receive appropriate training, equipment (gloves and personal protective equipment [PPE]) for treatment, instructions on proper removal and disposal of PPE, and information on how to prevent further infection and transmission of the disease to yourself, other family members, or the community.
Persons who have died of Ebola must be handled using strong protective clothing and gloves and must be buried immediately. When the medical professionals determine it is okay for the patient to return home, they are no longer infectious and cannot infect anyone else in their communities.
It is also important to control spread of the disease and infection control procedures need to be started immediately.
Several steps can be taken to help in preventing infection and limiting or stopping transmission. These actions are called “standard and other additional precautions” and are evidence-based recommendations known to prevent the spread of infections. Alcohol-based hand rubs should be made available at every point of care (at the entrance and within the isolation rooms and areas); running water, soap, and single use towels should also be always available.
If the individual does have symptoms, they should seek immediate medical attention at the first sign they are feeling unwell.
Contact tracing is used to confirm you have not been exposed to EVD and to prevent further spread of the disease through monitoring. The 51-year-old Massachusetts family physician is the third American to contract the Ebola virus.
The 51-year-old family physician from Massachusetts has been working on and off in Liberia with his wife, Debbie, since 1995. The situation has prompted poorly equipped health workers to abandon work and institutions to close to the public.Ebola's initial flu-like symptoms can lead to external haemorrhaging from areas like eyes and gums, and internal bleeding which can lead to organ failure. Pfizer was sued by the government as well as by affected families after 11 children died and dozens were left disabled during the trial - some with brain damage. Future vaccines could also be less effective as mutations continueThe team of researchers, led by the Broad Institute in Massachusetts and Harvard University, analysed more than 99 Ebola virus genomes.
WHO advises that the deceased be handled and buried by trained case management professionals, who are equipped to properly bury the dead. Men who have recovered from the illness can still spread the virus to their partner through their semen for up to 7 weeks after recovery. Access to these areas should be restricted, needed equipment should be dedicated strictly to suspected and confirmed EVD treatment areas, and clinical and non-clinical personnel should be exclusively assigned to isolation rooms and dedicated areas. This may require either notifying the flight crew or ship crew or, upon arrival at a destination, seeking immediate medical attention. He joined SIM in the late '80s and between 2008 and 2010 was the acting medical director at the group's ELWA Hospital in Monrovia.
Humarr Khan, a co-senior author here,' said Sabeti.A 'By providing this data to the research community immediately and demonstrating that transparency and partnership is one way we hope to honor Humarr's legacy. For this reason, it is important for men to avoid sexual intercourse for at least 7 weeks after recovery or to wear condoms if having sexual intercourse during 7 weeks after recovery. Travellers who show initial symptoms of EVD should be isolated to prevent further transmission.
Although the risk to fellow travellers in such a situation is very low, contact tracing is recommended under these circumstances.
Sacra volunteered to help with the current Ebola outbreak back in August, shortly after Nancy Writebol and Dr.
The obstetrics ward is located at the main hospital, which is separate from the Ebola isolation unit.
Johnson said Sacra was following all the precautions advised by CDC and Doctors Without Borders, including wearing protective gear.
Johnson added that all patients coming in to the hospital are screened for fever, and when necessary, monitored for other Ebola symptoms.
On Monday, an Ebola test run by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention came back positive. Johnson refrained from fleshing out the details of Sacra's treatment, but said that there hasn't been any contact with Emory Hospital in Atlanta, where the first two American Ebola patients were hospitalized last month. SIM is determined to continue providing care to patients with Ebola, and those with other ailments. The aid group has approximately 250 health workers in Liberia and plans to recruit more volunteers.



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