Pharyngitis throat infection treatment,how to get rid of dry skin on face from sunburn,how to get rid of headset smell,home remedies for dry bumpy skin - For Begninners

08.05.2014, admin
An infection is an invasion and multiplying of pathogenic microbes in the body tissues in which they are not usually present (1). Ask a Doctor Online Now!A colonization is the usual presence of non-pathogenic and even potentially pathogenic microbes on the skin, in the nose, mouth, bowel, penile or vaginal mucosa, as a part of normal human flora, in the amount not harmful for the body – this is not an infection. A contamination is the presence of germs which do not multiply, for example, in a contaminated (not infected)wound. A carrier state is the non-usual presence of pathogenic microbes in the body, in the way not harmful for the carrier, but potentially dangerous for others, since the carrier is usually contagious. An overgrowth of microbes, non-pathogenic in small amount, but pathogenic in large amount, for example, an overgrowth of Clostridium difficile bacteria in the colon can cause life threatening pseudomembranous colitis. Re-activation of an infection may occur; for example, a Varicella zoster virus, which has remained dormant in the roots of the spinal nerves after successfully healed chicken pox, may be re-activated during stress or certain disease, and can cause shingles. Bacteremia, viremia, fungemia and parasitemia (the presence of microbes in the blood) may result in an infection of other organs, or sepsis.
Systemic infection, like influenza, affects the whole body and causes systemic symptoms, like general malaise, muscle pains, fever, nausea, etc.
Localized infection, like cellulitis, is limited to one or few body parts and presents with localized symptoms, like redness, swelling, pain or localized (nasal, ear, etc.) discharge. Chronic infection, like tuberculosis or AIDS, may last from several weeks to several years. Recurrent infection is one that frequently affects a person, like folliculitis in those who share the same sport equipment, or fungal infections  in those with lowered immunity. Invasion of multi-cellular parasites, like intestinal worms or head lice, into the body is called infestation. Viral infections are often systemic and may cause fever, headache, runny nose, sore throat, muscle and joint pains, diarrhea, skin rash, etc.
Fungal (yeast) infections in a person with a healthy immune system usually affect only the skin. In a person with a weak immune system, fungal infections, commonly caused by a yeast Candida albicans, may appear in the mouth (oral thrush), esophagus, rectum or vagina; systemic candidiasis is severe and commonly fatal infection. Parasitic infections cause different symptoms, depending on the type of parasite and organ affected. Infestation (Latin infestare = to attack, disturb) is an invasion of multi-cellular parasites, like intestinal worms (helminths) or head lice to the body. In medical terms, the incubation period is the time from when a person is exposed to an infectious agent (pathogenic microorganism) till the onset of signs and symptoms. Fever in localized skin infections or food poisoning may be absent, in tuberculosis or viral pneumonia it is usually low-grade, in influenza moderate, and in bacterial pneumonia or sepsis high. Pain in childhood viral infections and flu is usually general and vague, and in localized bacterial infections, like bacterial prostatitis, localized and intense. Discharge from the nose, eyes, ears, trachea, bronchi and lungs (phlegm, sputum), nipples, bowel (mucus in the stool), urethra, vagina and wounds may appear in all types of infections. An incubation period is the time elapsed between exposure to pathogenic microbes and symptoms appearance. An autoinfection – the spread of an infection from one body part to another, usually by hands or clothes (folliculitis, impetigo). By drinking contaminated water, one can contract stomach flu, cholera, dysentery, typhoid fever, amebiasis, etc. By swimming in contaminated swimming or spa pools, or lakes, one can contract hot tub folliculitis, intestinal parasite Cryptosporidium, eye and middle ear infections.
Industrial cooling or hot water systems, air condition and room-air humidifiers can be a source of Legionella. During walking barefoot, Clostridium tetani, sandworms, or intestinal parasites, like Strongyloides stercoralis or hookworms can be contacted.
Infections acquired in hospitals can be dangerous, since causing microbes are often resistant to regular antibiotics, and patients infected are often already seriously ill.
Legionella may be sometimes found in the tap water in newly opened or poorly maintained hospitals.
A fomite is an inanimate object or substance capable of transmitting infectious agents (microorganisms) from one object to another. Ask a Doctor Online Now!Microbes may make harm by releasing toxins, for example, in food poisoning, a parasite Entameba hystolytica can release toxins, which can destroy colonic mucosa, resulting in bleeding ulcers and diarrhea. Invasion of microbes triggers immune response of the body and attracts inflammatory cells, like leukocytes, and substances, like cytokines, which attack the microbes. Effective anti-microbial medications for most infections, except viral ones, are available. Ask a Doctor Online Now!Please note that any information or feedback on this website is not intended to replace a consultation with a health care professional and will not constitute a medical diagnosis. Amir, the base of infection is an invasion of microorganism into your body what results in inflammation.
Isolated pharyngitis takes a relatively milder course in adults: body temperature ranges between 37-38A°, while the general well-being is practically undisturbed. Acute pharyngitis can be treated through gargling, application of antiseptic sprays and general strengthening therapy. We distinguish between several types of chronic sore throat: catarrhal, atrophic and hypertrophic pharyngitis. Hypertrophic pharyngitis is expressed in dull pain in the throat and the desire to constantly couch up the sticky mucus.
All these diseases are expressed in the form of sore throat and dysphagia (difficult swallowing).
Follicular tonsillitis displays a different picture a€“ reddened tonsils, covered with white spots, i.e. Lacunar tonsillitis is characterized by thick white membranes in the folds of lymphadenoids, what makes it similar to diphtheria.
Yellowish membranes, which appear to have closely adhered to the mucous lining, bleeding after intervention.

Externally such forms of tonsillitis are hardly different from the mentioned basic types, with the only difference of presence or absence of concomitant pathologies. A caseous mass is formed in case the inflammatory process persists and the matter in follicular caps starts to necrotize.
Chronic tonsillitis can be almost painless in the periods of remission, but it is a solid background for reoccurring acute tonsillitis. The treatment of candidamycosis includes reconsidering of unsupervised intake of antibiotics, stimulation of the immune system, as well as local and general antimycotic medication.
Caption: Herpes infection seen at the back of a patient's mouth during a throat examination. Licence fees: A licence fee will be charged for any media (low or high resolution) used in your project. June 8, 2010 by Dr Paulose Sore throat is a common problem during childhood, and is usually the result of a bacterial or viral infection.
Symptoms that may occur with a viral infection can include a runny nose and congestion, irritation or redness of the eyes, cough, hoarseness, soreness in the roof of the mouth, a skin rash, or painful to swallow. Beta hemolytic streptococcus a€” Group A streptococcus is the name of the bacterium that causes strep throat. The treatment of sore throat depends upon the cause; strep throat is treated with an antibiotic while viral Pharyngitis is treated with rest, pain relievers, and other measures to reduce symptoms. After completing 24 hours of antibiotics, the child is no longer contagious and may return to school. Steroid-A short course of steroid do wonders in case of severe viral sore throat, not responding to other symptomatic treatment. Pain killers– Throat pain can be treated with a mild pain reliever such as acetaminophen or a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent such as ibuprofen these medications should be dosed according to weight, not age. Aspirin is not recommended for children <16 years due to the risk of a potentially serious condition known as Reye syndrome. Monitor for dehydration -Some children with a sore throat are reluctant to drink or eat due to pain. Dr Paulose FRCS, DLO is a Consultant ENT Plastic & Laser Surgeon with over 38 years of world class experience in Ear, Nose, Throat and Laser Surgery treating patients across the world from UK, US, Middle East to Asia. Diphtheria is an acute infectious disease of humans affecting the upper respiratory tract and occasionally the skin, caused by the action of diphtheria toxin produced by toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae or by C.ulcerans. The organisms do not invade deep tissues or the blood, but, they multiply within the membrane. Mass immunisation against diphtheria in Western Europe transformed the disease to one of the first infectious diseases to be conquered. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of diphtheria, the identification of contacts and carriers and the appropriate management of these patients is imperative.
The age distribution of cases has made this epidemic unusual, in that there has been a high proportion of cases among adolecents and adults.
A resurgence of diphtheria in the Russian Federation and NIS occurred in the 1990s with more than 50,000 cases being reported at the peak of the epidemic in 1995. Following mass immunisation campaigns, additional control measures and support from WHO, ELWGD and other agencies, diphtheria is now largely under control in the WHO EURO region. Image Collection: Color Atlas & Synopsis of Pediatric Dermatology Kay Shou-Mei Kane, Jen Bissonette Ryder, Richard Allen Johnson, Howard P. Sign up to stay informed with the latest womens health updates on MedicineNet delivered to your inbox FREE! Festivities included rides, carnival games, face painting, princesses, art projects, fabulous food, a balloon raffle, and a spectacular -->silent auction.
For example, if you have Staphylococcus aureus bacteria (a common cause of skin infections) in your nose, you may infect others, even if you alone never develop an infection.
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth due to invasion of otherwise non-harmful colonic bacteria into the small intestine can cause bloating and diarrhea. Example: infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which can cause infectious mononucleosis, often triggers no symptoms in small children. Examples of bacterial infections: staphylococcal skin infections, pseudomonas folliculitis, streptococcal pharyngitis, osteomyelitis, pneumococcal pneumonia, bacterial meningitis, etc. Patchy areas with a brownish or reddish scaly rash on the scalp (scalp ringworm), trunk, limbs or groin (jock itch), peeled skin on the hands or feet (athlete’s foot), or discolored or cracked nails are typical symptoms of a skin fungal infection. Intestinal parasites cause bloating, diarrhea, mucus in the stool and eventual weight loss.
Not every person who comes into contact with an infectious agent will become infected but once the infection is acquired, the micoorganism will take a period of time during which it multiplies and spreads within the body until the point that signs and symptoms become evident. There is no single specific symptom but a combination of symptoms and signs that speak for an infection.
In everyday speech, only infections transmitted directly from person to person (like flu) are considered as contagious. Once contaminated, fomites may carry microbes for few minutes or several weeks, depending on the type of the microbe and certain circumstances, like air humidity and temperature. Such a defense reaction regularly results in an inflammation of infected tissue, which can be observed, for example, as purulent discharge in common cold or swollen joint in bacterial arthritis. For example, Streptococcus pneumoniae , causing pneumonia, can trigger fluid collection in the lungs, impeding oxygen exchange between the air and the blood and thus reducing the oxygen supply to the tissues, what may result in death.
When in doubt, a doctor can take a sample of blood, urine, stool, sputum, nasal or other discharge and send it to laboratory, where microbes can be determined by serologic tests or a culture. A doctor can often make a diagnosis from symptoms and physical examination, but in doubtfull or severe cases, lab tests has to be done to determine the causing microbe. It can settle either immediately in the tonsils or affect the whole oropharynx (central part of the throat). It can appear as an independent disease or as one of the symptoms of such pathologies as flu, scarlet fever etc. Nevertheless, in order to prevent advancement of the poorly treated infection into higher (e.g.

Employees of chemical industries, as well as people, who have focuses of chronic infection in their organisms (matter in sinuses, chronic tonsillitis, etc.) are most exposed to this disease. The treatment of this disease should start with minimizing the harmful effect of etiological factors a€“ underlying agent of the disease. These very types are the most severe ones, presenting ultimate threat to the life of the patient.
But it is only the Candida yeast, which normally makes part of the normal micro flora that can provoke sore throat and white spots on its mucous membranes in case favorable conditions (immune deficiency) are created. Pharyngomycosis, as well as other inflammatory diseases of the throat constitute a weighty reason for consulting a doctor and having a number of additional analysis. Signs And Symptoms 4 Causes For Having White Patches On Throat White Spots On Back Of Throat a€“ What They Point To And How How Long Does Strep Throat Last? The red spots on the palate and at the back of the throat (pharynx) are due to an infection with the Herpes simplex (cold sore) virus. Although sore throat usually resolves without complications, it sometimes requires treatment with an antibiotic. The most common include common cold viruses, influenza, adenovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus (Infectious mononucleosis-Glandular Fever).
Although other bacteria can cause a sore throat, this is the most common bacterial cause; up to 30 percent of children with a sore throat will have this. During this time, treatments to reduce pain may be helpful but will not help to eliminate the virus. The most characteristic feature of diphtheria affecting the upper respiratory tract is a membranous pharyngitis (often referred to as a pseudo-membrane) with fever, enlarged anterior cervical lymph nodes and oedema of soft tissues giving a "bull neck" appearance. The lesions start as vesicles and quickly form small, clearly demarcated, and sometimes multiple ulcers. Within the infected area, the toxin diffuses through the mucous membrane and causes necrosis of the mucosal cells. The geographical distribution of the epidemic is largely urban, except in Central Asian Republic and the Caucasus, where most of the population lives in rural areas.
Contamination also refers to presence of pathogenic microbes on medical equipment, in the water, food etc. Examples of viral infections: influenza, childhood diseases like chicken pox, rubella, rubeolla and infectious mononucleosis, AIDS, viral hepatitis, viral hemorrhagic fever, etc. Effective over the counter or prescribed anti-fungal ointments and oral medications are available. Diseases that are accompanied by appearance of white spots on the mucous membrane of a sore throat, can be either acute or chronic, and be induced by viral agents, bacteria and fungi.
It can be explained by the increased sensitivity of the hyperaemic and swollen mucous membranes. The doctor can prescribe inhalations and local application of anti-inflammatory solutions for gargling.
Thus, catarrhal tonsillitis looks like reddening and swelling of tonsils in combination with flow-over with light matter. Treatment of tonsillitis should be carried out under strict supervision of an otolaryngologist, since this disease is fraught with complications, affecting the kidneys, heart and vessels. This can not only help in treating the already existent disease, but also prevent its future complications. There are some less common causes of sore throat that are serious or even life-threatening. However, it is important for the child to finish the entire course of treatment (usually 5-7days). The lesions are usually difficult to treat and may take months or even years to heal and have been seen in UK returning travellers from exotic holiday destinations in Africa, South East Asia. Symptoms of diphtheria infection are brought about by the diphtheria toxin which can spread to the heart, central nervous system, and other organs.
This gives rise to a thick grey "pseudomembrane" composed of fibrin, epithelial cells, bacteria and polymorph neutrophils. Diphtheria therefore, continues to be a serious health problem within these countries and presents potential health risks to other countries.
The five basic causes of the development of such a visual phenomenon are acute pharyngitis, chronic pharyngitis, acute tonsillitis (quinsy), chronic tonsillitis and candidamycosis.
Examining the throat one will notice not only reddening, but also the flow of white purulent discharge along the back of throat. There are two types of herpes simplex virus; HSV1, which causes infections of the nose, mouth and face, and HSV2, which infects the genitals. The toxin also affects other parts of the body including the heart and nervous systems, causing paralysis and cardiac failure. The cervical lymph nodes enlarge causing oedema of the neck (a classical condition of "bullneck").
Except of acyclovir and related antiviral drugs, at present, there is not a lot of effective medicines for viral diseases available. There is no cure for herpes simplex infection, but outbreaks can be treated with the antiviral drug acyclovir. Milder infections resemble streptococcal pharyngitis and the pseudo-membrane may not develop, particularly in vaccinated individuals. Furthermore, toxin released into the circulation and tissues causes extensive organ damage. Surgical removal of parasitic cysts, like in Echinococcus, from the liver, bones, brain or lungs is sometimes required.
The detection of diphtheria toxin is therefore the most important test to perform on any suspect corynebacteria isolate.

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