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A sore throat is a condition affecting the throat and resulting in irritation, scratchiness or pain in the throat. A sore throat is considered as one of the most regular symptoms of a disorder called pharyngitis, i.e.
Most of the cases of a sore throat are generally caused due to viral infections like a cold or flu. Sore throat is commonly caused due to infection by viruses that lead to development of the common cold or flu.
Diphtheria, which is also a serious ailment affecting the respiratory system and commonly found to be more prevalent in developing nations as opposed to developed countries. People who are allergic to different allergens such as pet dander, molds, dust, pollen, etc. Excessive dryness of the air, often during winters when there is artificial heating of the buildings, can elevate the scratchiness and roughness in the throat. HIV infected individuals are more prone to develop flu-like symptoms along with a sore throat in the early stages. The growth of malignant tumors on the tongue, in the larynx or the throat can also lead to development of a sore throat.
Home care remedies for a sore throat involve intake of extra liquids, lots of rest, alleviation of irritation via lozenges consumption, avoidance of allergens and irritants, humidifying the air and consumption of over the counter painkiller drugs for easing pain.
Many of the sore throats are a result of a virus or a mechanical causes, such as mouth breathing, and can be eradicated with the help of traditional treatments. The sore throat symptoms usually include a burning or scratching sensation, as well as an acute pain when swallowing.
The first signs of a sore throat are the appearance of pus on the tonsils, which is valid in both bacterial and viral infections, tender and swollen glands and difficulty in breathing, especially when inhaling, because the passage through the pharynx or larynx becomes too narrow.
Even though a sore throat is not generally a reason for you to worry all that much and more often than not it improves by its own, there are some situations in which you need to call your doctor or go the clinic and having a fever that exceed 101 degrees is one of them.
If the symptoms indicate the flu, this may have serious complications, especially for people who also suffer from diabetes, obesity, asthma or pregnant women.
All things considered, the general sore throat symptoms are mild pain, cough and scratching sensation, as well as slightly swollen lymph nodes, so everything that falls outside this area should be treated with seriousness and medical attention, in order to over rule and severe illness. Chronic granular Pharyngitis can cause a significant problem in daily life, starting from throat discomfort in the morning to alteration of voice and cough .Its is a chronic inflammatory condition of the pharynx characterized by hypertrophy of mucosa, seromucinous glands, subepithelial lymphoid follicles and even the muscular coat of the pharynx. Persistent infection in the surrounding structures of pharynx like nose, sinus, tonsils and dental sepsis.

Mouth breathing exposes pharynx to air which has not been filtered, humidified and adjusted.
Foreign body sensation (something stuck in the throat) Globus sensation- patient has constant desire to clear the throat. Posterior pharyngeal wall may be studded with reddish nodules in case of Granular Pharyngitis. Electrocautery-diathermy was once popular, but it causes lot of post operative pain and has to be done under general anesthetic.
Dr Paulose FRCS, DLO is a Consultant ENT Plastic & Laser Surgeon with over 38 years of world class experience in Ear, Nose, Throat and Laser Surgery treating patients across the world from UK, US, Middle East to Asia. June 8, 2010 by Dr Paulose Sore throat is a common problem during childhood, and is usually the result of a bacterial or viral infection.
Symptoms that may occur with a viral infection can include a runny nose and congestion, irritation or redness of the eyes, cough, hoarseness, soreness in the roof of the mouth, a skin rash, or painful to swallow. Beta hemolytic streptococcus a€” Group A streptococcus is the name of the bacterium that causes strep throat. The treatment of sore throat depends upon the cause; strep throat is treated with an antibiotic while viral Pharyngitis is treated with rest, pain relievers, and other measures to reduce symptoms. After completing 24 hours of antibiotics, the child is no longer contagious and may return to school.
Steroid-A short course of steroid do wonders in case of severe viral sore throat, not responding to other symptomatic treatment. Pain killers– Throat pain can be treated with a mild pain reliever such as acetaminophen or a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent such as ibuprofen these medications should be dosed according to weight, not age. Aspirin is not recommended for children <16 years due to the risk of a potentially serious condition known as Reye syndrome. Monitor for dehydration -Some children with a sore throat are reluctant to drink or eat due to pain.
A majority of sore throat cases caused due to viral infections are easily resolved by home and self care remedies.
Such people are also more susceptible to getting affected by chronic and recurrent cases of a sore throat due to secondary infections.
Sore throat symptoms are very diverse, but usually include pain, burns or a scratching sensation, as well as difficulty and pain when swallowing. If there occur complications of any kind, the sore throat symptoms may be accompanied by coughing, sneezing, runny nose, fever or general fatigue.
Although these are the usual sore throat symptoms, 60% of the people that have this infection don’t actually develop any pus on their tonsils.

This kind of fever, in absence of any other cold symptoms may be a sign of strep throat that needs antibiotic treatment. Furthermore, if the sore throat symptoms include drooling, difficulty in breathing, sneezing, itchy eyes or pain when swallowing, then it is highly advisable to see a doctor also, as you might have a severe allergy or an inflamed epiglottis. These are usually result of nasal polyp, allergic rhinitis, turbinate hypertrophy and adenoids.
Although sore throat usually resolves without complications, it sometimes requires treatment with an antibiotic. The most common include common cold viruses, influenza, adenovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus (Infectious mononucleosis-Glandular Fever). Although other bacteria can cause a sore throat, this is the most common bacterial cause; up to 30 percent of children with a sore throat will have this. During this time, treatments to reduce pain may be helpful but will not help to eliminate the virus. In rare cases, a sore throat is caused by bacterial infections, which may need to be treated by a doctor.
The symptoms can be generalized and headache or nausea may appear whether it is a viral or a bacterial infection. If, in addition to the sore throat symptoms, you experience flu signs, but none of them passes in a few days, you may have infectious mononucleosis and you must see a physician immediately.
There are some less common causes of sore throat that are serious or even life-threatening. However, it is important for the child to finish the entire course of treatment (usually 5-7days). If your sore throat has a rapid development and it’s accompanied by fever or tenderness of the neck, the best thing for you to do is see a general practitioner. In more serious cases, the sore throat symptoms may be accompanied by severe pain and hoarseness, which can last for over two weeks and that may indicate throat cancer or oral cancer.
The same applies in the case your sore throat produces palpitation and it lasts more than a week.

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