Treatment of bacterial blight of pomegranate,how do you get rid of spots on your face yahoo finance,best way to treat a severe sore throat yahoo - Try Out

06.06.2015, admin
To subscribe to the Landscape IPM Advisories (newsletter sent to your email inbox), click here. A cool, wet, rainy, spring season favors development of lilac blight, especially if rains follow a late frost or winter injury. Actually known to plant pathologists by the complete name of "lilac bacterial blight," this disease is caused by a bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. At first, leaves look perfectly healthy and then a short time later they look as though someone has placed an open flame near them. Lilac blight is difficult to control and it is recommended that you buy blight-resistant varieties whenever you plant new lilacs. It also helps to space and prune your lilac plants so they are not rubbing against each other and air can circulate freely between the plants.
If your lilac bush does have infection, prune and burn all infected parts as soon as you notice them.
Sources of this disease can include old cankers, healthy buds, leaf surfaces and nearby weeds and grasses. The disease starts as brown spots on stems and leaves of young shoots as they develop in early spring.
On young stems, infection spreads around the stem and girdles it so the shoot bends over at the lesion and the parts above it wither and die. Young, infected leaves blacken rapidly starting near the margin and continuing in a wedge-shaped pattern down to the petiole. To see photos of this disease, visit OSU Extension's PNW Plant Disease Management Handbook. The most commonly observed leaf spot diseases of shade trees and shrubs in Minnesota include powdery mildew, anthracnose, and apple scab. Leaf spot diseases weaken trees and shrubs by interrupting photosynthesis, the process by which plants create energy that sustains growth and defense systems and influences survival.
The majority of leaf spot diseases are caused by fungi, but a few unique diseases discussed below are caused by bacteria or other pathogens. Most leaf spot diseases need either water on the leaves or very high humidity for a prolonged period of time (12 to 24 hours) to start an infection. Many leaf spot pathogens are only able to produce symptoms in leaf tissue; however, some leaf spot pathogens can also cause blight or cankers of twigs. Examples of leaf spot diseases that progress to leaf and shoot blight include Aschochyta blight on lilac and Venturia shoot blight on Populus species. Cankers are infections of shoots and branches that start as round to oval discolored areas where the bark has been killed.
Examples of diseases that result in both leaf spots and cankers in Minnesota include Septoria leaf spot and canker of poplar and Septoria leaf spot and canker of dogwood. Management of pathogens that cause leaf spot and blight or canker should include the management practices listed in the management section below.
In addition to the general management practices listed below, some rust resistant varieties are available for certain trees and shrubs.
Downy mildew infections are first noticeable as light green spots on the upper side of the leaf that turn brown with time. Downy mildew is caused by a group of pathogens known as water molds or Oomycetes, which are related to algae. Many of the management practices listed below are effective in reducing disease severity of downy mildew.
Bacterial leaf spot diseases often start as small dark brown to black spots with a halo of yellow tissue surrounding each spot. Bacterial leaf spot diseases are most commonly caused by the bacterial pathogens Pseudomonas spp. Management of bacterial leaf spot diseases is similar to management of fungal leaf spot diseases except the majority of fungicide sprays will not protect the tree or shrub from a bacterial pathogen. Overall leaf spot diseases do not seriously harm your tree but many strategies can be done collectively to reduce the disease on the tree in following years.
Rake up and destroy fallen leaves before the first snowfall to eliminate locations where pathogens can survive to re-infect the plant the following growing season. Prune trees or shrubs to increase light penetration and improve air circulation throughout the canopy.
Wet conditions promote disease, so avoid or redirect lawn and landscape sprinklers that wet the lower canopy of the tree. Water your tree throughout the growing season so that the top 6 to 8" of the soil is moist, especially during dry summer periods. Do not fertilize trees and shrubs suffering from leaf spot diseases, unless it is recommended by a soil test to correct a nutrient deficiency.
Fungicides are not necessary unless a tree has been completely defoliated several years in a row. Bacterial blight is caused by a bacterial pathogen that is present in most soybean fields.Young leaves are most susceptible to infection.
Leaf spots caused by the bacterial blight pathogen can be found in most soybean fields every year in the Midwest.
Bacterial blight is favored in continuous soybean fields, no-till soybean fields, or fields planted with seeds from infected soybeans.
Bacterial blight is often confused with brown spot, a leaf spot disease caused by the fungus Septoria glycines.


Bacterial blight occurs every year in the Midwest without causing significant yield losses except in unusually rainy growing seasons. In severe cases, bacterial foliar disease may cause some early defoliation, but it will not kill whole plants.
The angular lesions enlarge in cool (70-80A° F), rainy weather and merge to produce large, irregular patches of dead tissue. Cover soybean residues after harvest by tillage, if possible, or shred residue for quick decomposition. Foliar fungicides will not affect bacterial blight because it is a caused by a bacterial pathogen, not a fungus.
New lesions of bacterial blight typically develop after a rainstorm - Photo: Carl Bradley, University of Illinois.
Both shoot blight and flower blight of lilac caused by Pseudomonas syringae can be seen in this picture. Bacterial sources can include old cankers, healthy buds, low populations within plants (with or without cankers), leaf surfaces, nearby weeds and grasses, even soil. Symptoms The disease starts as brown spots on stems and leaves of young shoots as they develop in early spring. Maintain adequate spacing between plants and prune to provide good air circulation within the canopy. Oregon State University Extension plant pathologists are warning that this might be a favorable year for the disease. A spray of copper sulfate during the early spring each year should help prevent the problem before the buds begin to break. Factors that weaken or injure plants – wounds, frost damage, soil pH, poor or improper nutrition and infection by other pathogens – predispose them to the disease. Fortunately, most leaf spot diseases affect only a small percentage of the tree's overall leaf area, and are a minor stress on the health of the tree. Many of these pathogens are somewhat host specific and will only cause disease on trees of the same species or genus. Frequently leaf spot diseases are first observed on the lower and inner branches where humidity is higher and leaves are somewhat shaded. As the infection progresses cankers girdle the stem resulting in wilt and death of any leaves above the canker. These leaf spots often produce an abundance of yellow, orange, red, or brown powdery spores that can be easily rubbed off and seen on a white tissue or paper towel.
In addition rust infections can be reduced by avoiding planting two different hosts that are susceptible to the same rust fungus in close proximity to one another. Downy clumps of delicate white filaments and spores form on the undersides of leaves during humid weather. Most fungicides available to home gardeners, however, are ineffective against downy mildew pathogens.
In some bacterial leaf spot diseases, the center of the leaf spot will dry up and fall out, giving the leaf a "shot hole" appearance. Only sprays with copper or streptomycin as an active ingredient are effective in preventing bacterial diseases.
Do not mound the mulch around the trunk of the tree but lay a flat layer with at least a 2 inch space between the mulch and stem to allow for air movement.
Initial infections can occur during seedling emergence, especially if infected seed is planted.
Bacterial blight occurs on upper new leaves and brown spot infection begins on older leaves, or leaves on the lower part of the plant.
Symptoms of Brown spot (right) show up as more generalized leaf yellowing when numerous brown spots are present.
However, bacterial diseases should be monitored carefully in seed production fields because they are seedborne and can affect seed quality. Most produce a powerful plant toxin, syringomycin, which destroys plant tissues as bacteria multiply in a wound. On mature stems, spots usually enlarge along the stem, causing leaf death only within the infected area.
Symptoms are similar to those of winter injury, and it would be difficult to tell the difference-if there is any.
Can be more effective than other copper-based products when copper-resistant bacteria are present.
The same organism is the source of bacterial blight on pear, blueberry, cherry, maple, and many other woody plants and the symptoms of lilac blight are similar in appearance to fire blight in fruit trees. Do not over fertilize young plants because high nitrogen favors disease development, explained Melodie Putnam, OSU Extension plant pathologist. In addition there are many other leaf spot diseases that occur on a wide range of native and ornamental trees and shrubs. However, leaf spot diseases should be taken more seriously if they result in moderate to complete leaf loss two to four years in a row.
Spots occur randomly on the leaf surface because the pathogens that cause leaf spots are blown there by wind or splashed by rain or irrigation.
During the growing season, wind and splashing rain carry spores of the pathogen to susceptible plant tissue and spread the disease throughout the canopy. At this point each leaf spot produces spores or bacteria that can be spread throughout the canopy, starting a second set of leaf spots, or causing new infections on other plants.


Leaf spot pathogens that cause dieback of young shoots typically do not progress to infect the older woody branches. Branches infected with canker causing fungi often have discolored bark that may be cracked or oozing gums or dark-colored sap. Any infected branches or shoots should be pruned out several inches below visible signs of the infection.
Spores may be produced in little blisters within leaf spots or may emerge from tiny cups or tubes on the lower surface of the leaf.
If weather conditions remain favorable for disease, some bacterial leaf spots will grow together creating large black blotches on leaves or turning leaves completely black. Bacterial plant pathogens often live on plant surfaces in low numbers without causing immediate symptoms. In addition, high-pressure spraying equipment is needed in order to get complete coverage of the canopy of large trees.
The disease can be confused with brown spot (Septoria leaf spot) and with bacterial pustule. The bacteria are spread by wind and rain, and outbreaks that occur later in the season often follow wiindy rainstorms. New lesions of bacterial blight are small, angular, water-soaked, yellow to brown spots on leaves.
Bacteria also produce a protein that acts as an ice nucleus, increasing frost wounds that bacteria easily colonize and expand.
Bacteria resistant to both copper products and antibiotics have been detected in many nurseries. Copper and streptomycin resistance in strains of Pseudomonas syringae from Pacific Northwest nurseries. Sometimes, several spots will run together, and the leaf may crinkle at the edge or along the mid-vein. Many leaf spot diseases have similar biology and therefore very similar management options. Leaf loss during several consecutive growing seasons can result in reduced growth and increased susceptibility to opportunistic pests and pathogens. Depending upon the pathogen, leaf spots may occur on the upper, lower, or both surfaces of the leaves.
This cycle of infection and spore production repeats whenever weather conditions are favorable.
Spore-producing structures often emerge along the margins or on the face of the cankered area. The most common examples of rust fungi that require two hosts in Minnesota are cedar apple rust and other Gymnosporangium rusts. Shoots, buds and occasionally flowers can also become black and blighted by bacterial leaf spot pathogens. They can also travel long distances on moist air currents or be moved short distances on splashing rain and irrigation.
Sometimes, several spots will run together, and the leaf may crinkle at the edge or along the midvein. Information about some of these diseases is included below along with management information applicable to all leaf spot diseases of shade trees and shrubs.
As a result, in years with very high humidity or frequent rain events, leaf spot pathogens can spread throughout a tree or shrub's canopy resulting in severe disease.
When weather conditions are right, pathogen populations grow dramatically and cause disease. Both diseases often occur in the same fields and even the same plant, and symptoms can be difflcult to separate. Such factors include wounds, both accidental and from pruning or budding, frost damage, incorrect soil pH, poor or improper nutrition, and infection by other pathogens.
Colors are extremely variable, and can range from yellow to yellow-green to orange-red to light tan, brown, or black. Spores of rust fungi can be blown long distances and like many other leaf spot pathogens, rust fungi need long periods when leaves remain wet to start an infection. The smaller leaf spots are younger infections, and the larger leaf spots are older infections. At the center of larger leaf spots, it is often possible to see signs of the pathogen such as fungal spores or spore-producing structures. Some leaf spot pathogens cause leaves to drop prematurely, resulting in early defoliation of the tree or shrub. The larvae are social, and stay huddled together in tight groups during feeding, often 2 or more per needle. In Utah’s dry climate, infection rarely gets to the point of necessitating chemical treatment, however.
21-30, 2010, night time temperatures plummetted from the 30s to the first hard freeze of -5 F in some places.
The first generation eggs were laid within the swelling buds, and feeding by the hatched larvae is starting to be visible in the form of pod-like distortions on the leaves.



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