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23.08.2014, admin
Bacterial Skin Infections are due to the presence and growth of microorganisms that damage host tissue. It is a bacterial infection of the deeper layers of the skin, the dermis and the subcutaneous tissue. The skin becomes red, swollen and you can see a clear border between normal and infected skin. A bacterial skin infection that occurs in areas where skin touches skin, like between toes, in armpits, or groin. If you have a fungal infection that isn’t getting cured with an anti-fungal treatment, it could be erythrasma. A bacterial infection of certain sweat glands found in the armpits, groin, buttocks, scalp, and under the female breast. Staph might cause certain skin infections that appear in the form of boils and pimples that can be swollen, painful and red and they may also contain pus or any other drainage. There are about twenty five to thrity percent people who possess staph living in their skin but they do not find any symptoms not do they feel any kind of uneasiness or fever. MRSA infections generally spread through skin-to-skin contact and with the contact of surfaces that are contaminated with the wound drainage of some other person. The practice of good hygiene: Good hygiene should always be practiced because this helps in safeguarding the chances of contacting staph infections. A very clean and tidy environment should be maintained by cleaning touched surfaces frequently. The best thing to do is to see your doctor if you feel that you have contacted staph or MRSA infection. Most of the common staph infections and even the MRSA strains can be treated very effectively by the use of antibiotics.
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The extent of infection is generally determined by the number of organisms and the toxins they release.
There are certain staph bacteria that are found to be resistant to antibiotics and they are called methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus or MRSA. Hands should always be kept clean by the use of water and soap or an alcohol based sanitizer can also be used for this purpose. However, it is also important to note that there are many MRSA strains and staph infections that can also be treated without the use of antibiotics.
Except as specifically provided in this Agreement, the Licensed Material may not be shared or copied for example by including it in a disc library, image storage jukebox, network configuration or other similar arrangement. Treatment of even the milder forms of bacterial skin infections is of importance because of the long-term morbidity associated with them.
The causative organisms are mostly Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus, with occasional involvement of Gram-negative organisms. These include 'primary bacterial infections' and 'secondary bacterial infections' superimposed on other dermatoses and traumatic or post-surgical wounds. A review of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infections.
Mechanism of resistance to macrolides and lincosamides: Nature of the resistance elements and their clinical implications. International clones of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in two hospitals in Miami, Florida. Community acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin infection: A retrospective analysis of clinical presentation and treatment of a local outbreak. Empiric antimicrobial therapy for pediatric skin and soft-tissue infections in the era of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Treatment strategies for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in pediatrics. Bacterial pyoderma in children and therapeutic options including management of community-acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics cannot distinguish community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection from methicillin-susceptible S.
A prospective investigation of outcomes after hospital discharge for endemic, community-acquired methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus skin infection. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. Sometimes, it so happens that staph bacteria enter an individual’s body through skin breakage, cut or abrasion and it is only after entering the body that the bacteria cause infections. However, it is important to note that staph bacteria can result in serious infections like bloodstream infections, pneumonia and wound infections.
For treating MRSA and staph infections without the use of antibiotics, infected people should adopt measures like draining the boil or abscess.
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However, because of global emergence of resistant strains of bacteria, treatment of these conditions is becoming increasingly difficult.
As the mites burrow and lay eggs inside the skin, the infestation leads to relentless itching and an angry rash.
Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the WebMD Site. The draining of boil or abscess should always be done by a professional doctor or a health care provider because the pus contained in the boil possesses bacteria that can further infect a person. The Licensed Material may only be used in materials for personal, noncommercial use and test or sample use, including comps and layouts.
If Licensed Material featuring a person is used (i) in a manner that implies endorsement, use of or a connection to a product or service by that model; or (ii) in connection with a potentially unflattering or controversial subject, you must print a statement that indicates that the person is a model and is used for illustrative purposes only. Physicians might consider that Morgellons and Bartonella are in some way intertwined.??Morgellons sufferers report an array of symptoms happening just under the skin, such as the emergence of fibers and filament clusters, specks, particles and sand shaped granules, yet physicians are unaware of this phenomena because they are not using enlargement devices. Scabies SymptomsWhen a person is infested with scabies for the first time, it can take four to six weeks for the skin to react. It is very difficult to get rid of staph infection immediately and it is only because of this reason that the doctor or the healthcare provider should always be contacted and at the same time it is also very important to follow the instructions given by the doctor or the health care provider. The current antibacterial resistance patterns in organisms causing skin and soft tissue infections and the problems encountered in their management in children have been discussed. With rapidly increasing resistance to antibacterial agents, management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult. An unaided visual exam using the naked eye is no longer appropriate to an emerging illness involving so many artifacts. No one trusts the judgment of a mechanic who refuses to look under the hood of a car. A more thorough approach needs to be taken using equipment such as dermascopes and microscopes, as this is the only way to identify the microscopic fibers that are the defining symptom of Morgellons, and which separates it from all other diseases. Using a dermascope can also prevent misdiagnosing diseases that have some similar symptoms, such as Lyme (although some patients may have both).
Microscopic enlargement needs to be at minimum 60x-200x in order to see the fibers clearly. As evidenced in the photos in our galleries, there is something clearly wrong with the skin of Morgellons sufferers.


Scabies BurrowsAnother hallmark of scabies is the appearance of track-like burrows in the skin. Most doctors currently believe that the fibers patients come to see them about are 'textile' in nature. If you take a look at the galleries of fibers in urine, stool, blood, skin, and hair, you will see that these filaments are invading the body systemically and cannot possibly be textile. Click here to view other particles in the skin as well as other unidentified artifacts.?• ?Randy Wymore, Director of OSU-CHS Center for the Investigation of Morgellons Disease and Associate Professor of Pharmacology and Physiology had the fibers analyzed at the Tulsa police department's forensic laboratory.
The Morgellons particles didn't match any of the 800 fibers on their database, nor the 85,000 known organic compounds.
For those insisting the CDC study of Morgellons laid down the law for definitive answers about Morgellons, I'd suggest you listen to Doctor Randy Wymore speak more in depth about the study and its inherent flaws and bias. How Does Scabies Spread?Scabies typically spreads through prolonged, skin-to-skin contact that gives the mites time to crawl from one person to another.
Many clinicians refer to this condition as delusional parasitosis or delusional infestation and consider the filaments to be introduced textile fibers. In contrast, recent studies indicate that MD is a true somatic illness associated with tickborne infection, that the filaments are keratin and collagen in composition and that they result from proliferation and activation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the skin. Previously, spirochetes have been detected in the dermatological specimens from four MD patients, thus providing evidence of an infectious process. (2013) has revealed the presence of Borrelia in Morgellons lesions in everyone tested.
It is the subject of considerable debate within the medical profession and is often labeled as delusions of parasitosis or dermatitis artefacta. However, canine scabies and feline scabies are not caused by the same type of mite that triggers human scabies.
This view is challenged by recent published scientific data put forward between 2011-2013 identifying the filaments found in MD as keratin and collagen based and furthermore associated with spirochetal infection. You can get mites from handling an infested pet, but these mites can’t reproduce in human skin. The novel model of the dermopathy put forward by those authors is further described and, in particular, presented as a dermal manifestation of the multi-system disease complex borreliosis otherwise called Lyme disease. Even in the endemic regions, most SSTIs are treated without culture of infective material, which impairs the detection of correct prevalence of CA-MRSA in the community. The requirements for a diagnosis of delusional disorder from a psychiatric perspective are clarified and the psychological or psychiatric co-morbidity that can be found with MD cases is presented. Management of the multisytem disease complex is discussed both in general and from a dermatological perspective. The child's classmates and caregivers will probably need to be treated as well, even if symptoms have yet to appear.
Scabies in Nursing HomesLong-term care facilities, including nursing homes and homes for the developmentally disabled, are also prone to scabies outbreaks. Because caregivers assist residents with bathing and dressing, skin-to-skin contact is common. Crusted ScabiesAlso called Norwegian scabies, crusted scabies is a very severe infestation involving tens of thousands of mites on a single person. The clinical spectrum of the disease caused by CA-MRSA (most frequently furuncles, carbuncles and abscesses) is similar to that of MSSA. Crusted scabies is most common in people with weakened immune systems, the elderly, and people who are disabled. This type of scabies is highly contagious and requires swift treatment to prevent outbreaks.
Despite evidence demonstrating that an infectious process is involved and that lesions are not self-inflicted, many medical practitioners continue to claim that this illness is delusional. We present relevant clinical observations combined with chemical and light microscopic studies of material collected from three patients with Morgellons disease.
Our study demonstrates that Morgellons disease is not delusional and that skin lesions with unusual fibers are not self-inflicted or psychogenic. Proliferative stages of bovine digital dermatitis demonstrate keratin filament formation in skin above the hooves in affected animals.
Diagnosing ScabiesIn most cases, a doctor can identify scabies based on the appearance of the rash and your description of the itch. Antibacterial resistanceSystemic drugs In children, majority of the SSTIs are caused by either S.
The multifactorial etiology of digital dermatitis is not well understood, but spirochetes and other coinfecting microorganisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of this veterinary illness. Morgellons disease is an emerging human dermopathy characterized by the presence of filamentous fibers of undetermined composition, both in lesions and subdermally. This involves collecting skin from the affected area and using a microscope to check the sample for mites, eggs, or fecal matter.
In various institutions in India, empiric treatment for SSTIs is the norm rather than specific antibacterial treatment following culture and sensitivity test.
While the etiology of Morgellons disease is unknown, there is serological and clinical evidence linking this phenomenon to Lyme borreliosis and coinfecting tick-borne agents. Although the microscopy of Morgellons filaments has been described in the medical literature, the structure and pathogenesis of these fibers is poorly understood. In contrast, most microscopy of digital dermatitis has focused on associated pathogens and histology rather than the morphology of late-stage filamentous fibers.
Treatment is a cream or lotion that is applied to the entire body from the neck down in most cases. The most effective antibiotics have included tetracyclines (doxycycline, minocycline), macrolides (Zithromax, Biaxin), Septra DS, and quinolone drugs (Cipro, Levaquin, Avelox, and Factive). Often the skin lesions and associated symptoms resolve once the above antibiotics are used in a comprehensive treatment plan" ??Horowitz, Richard (2013-11-12).
Why Can't I Get Better?: Solving the Mystery of Lyme and Chronic Disease (Kindle Locations 2662-2666). Treating Scabies: Itch ReliefWhile prescriptions can kill scabies mites and their eggs, they don't provide any immediate itch relief. Methicillin resistance is acquired through mecA gene carried in staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCCmec). Hydrocortisone cream may also help, but it can change the appearance of the scabies rash, making the condition harder to diagnose. Still, 100% of the patients, that were felt to genuinely haveMorgellons Disease, have large microscopic-to small macroscopic fibersvisible under their outer layer of skin.
Who Needs to Be Treated?When someone is diagnosed with scabies, anyone who has close physical contact with the person should also be treated. These fibers are not associated withscabs or open lesions, nor are they under scarred tissue. These are methicillin-resistant in 50% of cases and also show resistance to macrolides, clindamycin and co-trimoxazole.
The idea thatMorgellons fibers are mere fuzz and lint, simply sticking to the lesions andscabs, is not possible based on the observations that were just described.These fibers are under "normal-appearing" areas of skin.
Doctors usually recommend treating all members of the household, even if symptoms are not present.
The photographs indicate that the particles are very active, and are growing "tendrils," fibers," "ruffles," protrusions," and are creating connections between themselves.
To make sure these mites are killed, wash any sheets and clothing used by the affected person within the past three days.
These connecting "fibers" appear to be creating translucent "crystal clear" objects that give the appearance of "crystal fibers."                                                                              —Fungihomeworld.
5mar2010                 ?                   ?        Although Morgellons has no known "cure" at this time, we believe recognizing and identifying the disease gives a patient something to go on so they can start becoming proactive with their health.


How Soon Will Scabies Go Away?Scabies medications can kill the mites and eggs quickly, and patients can usually return to school or work 24 hours after starting treatment. Often these visits are out-of-pocket expenditures as patients escalate up the food chain to specialists not within their health plans, bankrupting themselves unnecessarily. Having a diagnosis will allow sufferers to make informed decisions about their next healthcare choices. There is no silver bullet when it comes to Morgellons. A holistic approach working with diet and pH, plus supplements to rebuild the body's systems is one avenue towards proactive change and symptom reduction. Fibers and particles in various states of emergence from the skin. This mass exodus happens after coconut oil has been applied to my skin and usually takes 3-4 hours after application to see these kind of results. Fibers under the skin can clearly be seen in these photos as well as in urine and stool, plus the lab doing DNA testing has noted that they are seeing fibers in stool samples.
I truly do not understand how this could be misconstrued as a mental illness—and anti-depressants and anti-psychotics are not a fix. This community is looking for a way to repair the health of the body.  A quick Google search revealed that only a quarter of the dermatologists in the United States even own a dermascope. Plus, a scope that only enlarges 10 or 15 times, is not going to be appropriate for diagnosis of Morgellons. The fact that our doctors are supposedly experts and authorities, and considered the last word in the eyes of most of the public, yet are clearly not equipped to diagnose a new disease such as Morgellons, reflects poorly on the medical profession.?You have power to move the Morgellons cause along, if only you will participate. We need your support and input as health "authorities" to bring credibility to the phenomenon? happening.
If you think there are not enough people sick with this disease to warrant your time, think again and heed a call from those of us who are looking at the skin of our friends and families and are finding fibers in them. As of yet, this "healthy" population is asymptomatic, but we believe they are carrying the seeds of this disease in their systems. Pediatric cases of linezolid-resistant MRSA infection have been reported, associated with prolonged low-dose therapy.
Imagine a world in which every patient going for a physical with their GP or dermatologist had 3 minutes devoted to examination of the skin with a scope—and what kind of data could be gathered from this!
That's the kind of world I would like to live in. One final note before I step off my soapbox is to reinforce the oath you took on becoming a doctor. DOP in patients records have led to loss of their legal rights, hospitalization against their will and in some cases children being removed from their parents. In a prospective study conducted among children with pyoderma in north India (2004), the incidence of multi-drug resistance was recorded to be 16.8%. Also, be cautious as to how you phase things as in "I'm having crawling sensations on my skin." instead of "I'm infested with bugs!" I'd refrain from using the term "Morgellons" until you sense you can trust your practitioner. Click the links to see extensive documentation of Morgellons fibers in Urine, Stool, Blood, Skin, Hair Above: Fiber is magnified 200x. At the time this was taken, my urine pH was very low (acidic) and I was having a hard time bringing it up to alkaline for two days. When I checked my skin I saw many more fibers then usual and many were still under the skin. Virulence factor of organismsSome of the CA-MRSA clones are more virulent and are transmitted more effectively through communities over widespread geographic areas, [11],[30] causing difficulties in the management.
I asked myself what would cause such fiber growth, and made the connection to an acidic system.
Some CA-MRSAs have Panton-Valentine-Leukocidin (PVL) genotype, which contributes to severe, necrotizing skin infections. Immunocompromised children Immunocompromised states related to primary immunodeficiency disorders or those secondary to malignant diseases or immunosuppressive therapy pose special problem in the management of SSTIs in children. It it my personal wish to see physicians actually begin to use magnification so that they may understand the phenomena their patients are experiencing. Photo submitted courtesy of oddiyfuqoro NA will? Above: This particle is one of the classic forms I find being expelled from the body. Children with risk factors for developing HA-MRSA infection are more likely to develop invasive disease. Recurrent infections Recurrence is common in milder forms of SSTIs (folliculitis, abscess, impetigo, etc.), and management of such cases is challenging for the physicians. Recurrent skin abscess caused by MRSA is a common problem and may be related to the fact, that the organism causes environmental contamination and so eradication is difficult. Non-availability and non-affordability of drugsMany of the newer classes of antibacterials are not freely available in different parts of India and even if available are not affordable by people from low socioeconomic strata, who are the common sufferers of SSTIs. Neonatal SSTIs with persistent fever may require a lumbar puncture (to rule out meningitis) and chest X-Ray (to rule out pneumonia). Decision on wound closure is guided by its site and time lapse since the infliction of injury.
In children, it may be difficult to undertake invasive procedures like aspiration, and in such situations surface swab of the infected site may be attempted. The Morgellons particles didn't match any of the 800 fibers on their database, nor the 85,000 known organic compounds. For those insisting the CDC study of Morgellons laid down the law for definitive answers about Morgellons, I'd suggest you listen to Doctor Randy Wymore speak more in depth about the study and its inherent flaws and bias. First generation cephalosporins have more frequent dosage schedules (4-6 hourly), except cefadroxil (12 hourly), and hence are less favored.
In general, these groups of drugs are well tolerated by children because of good taste and fewer side effects. Cefuroxime axetil, a prodrug, can be used both orally (uncomplicated SSTIs) and parenterally (severe SSTIs) in children. Several third generation cephalosporins show good effect against both Gram positive and Gram negative organisms and are often used for SSTIs. Mild to moderate skin infections can be treated with erythromycin, but it is unsuitable for severe infections because of its bacteriostatic property.
The newer macrolides have wider antibacterial spectrum of action, and these are concentrated in neutrophils with phagocytosed S. In a systematic review of 26 studies related to pediatric SSTIs, treatment failure related to MRSA infection was not quoted.
Often the skin lesions and associated symptoms resolve once the above antibiotics are used in a comprehensive treatment plan" ??Horowitz, Richard (2013-11-12). Hence its use must be restricted to severe MRSA infection or other multi drug resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections.
Teicoplanin has the advantages of antibacterial spectrum that is identical to that of vancomycin, more potency, particularly against Streptococcus sp.
Pediatric use of teicoplanin has been limited to children on cancer chemotherapy.Linezolid is effective against MSSA, MRSA, VISA, S. Against staphylococci and enterococci, linezolid is bacteriostatic, but is bactericidal for streptococci. Though well tolerated in children, serious side effects may occur and the higher cost may limit its use. Mostly these drugs have been used in hospitalized children with underlying immunosuppression.Fluoroquinolones have broad spectrum activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative organisms but are not licensed for use in children.



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