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Receive special offers on bestselling IPG categories, including cooking, crafting, teen reads, and more! Respiratory-text Upper Respiratory System Infections ADVANCE ORGANIZER We take into our lungs great quantities of air each day and some of that air contains infectious agents. The upper part of the respiratory system includes the ears, nose, sinuses, mouth, and throat. The term upper respiratory infection (URI) includes the common cold, sore throats, and flu. A decongestant called phenylpropanolamine (PPA), found in many over-the-counter cold remedies, has recently been linked to strokes in young women. If symptoms continue to get worse or fail to improve after several days, the healthcare provider should be told. Symptoms include fever more than 38.3 degrees Celsius, sudden onset of chills, dry cough, productive cough with rusty sputum with blood stains, sharp chest pain especially during inhalation, rapid shallow breathing, and shortness of breath with activity, nausea and vomiting, headache, diarrhea, weakness, abdominal pain and fatigue. Viral pneumonia starts with symptoms involving the upper respiratory tract such as low grade fever and dry cough, nasal congestion, headache, sore throat with muscle and joint pains, dry cough with or without sputum, chest pain upon inhalation, chills, shortness of breath during activity, nausea and vomiting and diarrhea.
Another cause of lung infection is aspiration when the stomach contents goes up to the lungs. Pneumocystis carinii is a fungus that causes pneumonia in AIDS patients and decreases the body’s defences. Tuberculosis with Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the causative agent infects the lungs and other organs such as kidney, brain and spine. Parasites like ascaris or round worms may invade the lungs especially if they have multiplied successfully in the body. Different tests are done depending on the type of lung infection but clinical history and physical exam are routine measures done by doctors in assessing a patient.
Infection in the lower respiratory tract is far more serious than upper respiratory tract infection. It is important to base the antibiotic of choice on the sensitivity test and isolated bacteria because of increasing bacteria resistant to antibiotics and traditional treatments are now becoming less effective. In children, procaine penicillin and amoxicillin are found to have greater effect compared to cotrimoxazole for community-acquired pneumonia. Increased fluid intake is usually advised by doctors to patients having lower respiratory tract infection.
Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) is an illness caused by acute infections involving the upper respiratory tract which includes the nose, pharynx, larynx and sinuses. Acute upper respiratory infection includes tonsillitis, rhinitis, pharyngitis and laryngitis sometimes referred as common cold. Beta haemolytic group A streptococcal tonsillitis and pharyngitis presents sudden pain upon swallowing, sore throat and fever.
Pain and pressure on the ear caused by otitis media and reddening of eyes or conjunctivitis are usually associated with URTI. Health authorities are now encouraging physicians to lessen the prescription of antibiotics for treating upper respiratory tract infections.
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Some of the following supplies are prescription-only medications and have no commercially available alternative. The principal components of the feline respiratory disease (also known as the kitty cold) are feline viral rhinotracheitis and feline calicivirus.
This animation evaluates the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and management of these illnesses. Periodic Health Assessment (PHA) or Periodic Health Exam (PHE): Perform adult periodic health assessments which address health promotion, screening and disease prevention.
Common Symptom Based Presentations and Undifferentiated Illness: Diagnose and manage acute, urgent, emergent and chronic conditions presenting as undifferentiated symptoms using a patient-centred family medicine approach. Urgent and Emergent conditions: Distinguish, investigate and respond appropriately to serious, acute, urgent and emergent conditions in adults. Cancer: Use the periodic health examination as an opportunity to practice cancer prevention.


It also includes the main bronchi or windpipes, which are the air-carrying tubes in the chest. Someone with a cold should remember that antibiotics can cause more harm than good in these cases.
Other over-the-counter and prescription medications can be used for symptoms such as cough, fever, muscle aches, runny nose, or stuffy nose. The Food and Drug Administation (FDA) has requested that manufacturers stop producing medications containing PPA. Having a URI usually doesn’t prevent a person from catching another URI in the future. Bacteria such as streptococcus pneumonia, Haemophilus influenza, Staphylococcus aureus, Chlamydia, Klebsiella, Moraxella catarrhalis, Legionella, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are all causative agents of lung infection.
Aspiration happens when the normal swallowing mechanism is impaired or because of vomiting and acid reflux. General antibiotics such as erythromycin may be given first until culture results are not released. Lower respiratory tract infection is always referred to pneumonia but it can also refer to other illnesses like acute bronchitis and lung abscess. Acute bronchitis is an acute viral or bacterial infection of the large airways in people who are healthy without recurrent disease history.
It is classified as community-acquired or hospital-acquired depending on where the patient has acquired the infection.
Complications include sore throat, cough, nasal congestion, runny nose, headache, facial pressure, low grade fever and sneezing. Some have advocated delaying use of antibiotic for treating URTI to prevent drug resistance. Some studies have shown that taking rest and doing exercises while having upper respiratory disease doesn’t contribute to the duration of illness.
The upper respiratory tract including the nose, sinuses and throat inflammation usually causes secretions resulting to coughing or sneezing. Please be advised that ready4itall.org in no way advocates any illegal activities to procure these supplies. BE SMART!
Most cats come into contact with these two viruses in their lifetime, but those cats who have been vaccinated or are equipped with a strong immune system can quickly shake off the disease. An interactive multimedia presentation with 3-D and 2-D animations, still images, and illustrations with corresponding text and audio, this CD-ROM is formatted for MS-Windows operating system.Author BiographyItzhak Brook, MD, MSc, is a professor of pediatrics and medicine at Georgetown University School of Medicine in Washington, DC.
This swab test, called a throat culture, can check for the bacteria that cause this infection. For example, untreated strep throat can lead to kidney damage or rheumatic fever, which can damage the heart. In severe cases of the flu, antiviral medications such as rimantadine or oseltamivir may be given. In view of the FDA’s public health advisory, anyone who has products at home containing phenylpropanolamine should discard them.
If long-term effects such as kidney damage occur from the URI, a person may need further treatment. When the air is inhaled, it travels through the mouth or nose into the lungs via the air canal systems called as bronchi.
Antiviral medications such as Amantadine, Ribavirin and Ganciclovir are given to patients whose causative agents are identified. The first line treatment for this infection is antibiotics but these are not prescribed for viral infections. Other viruses are parainfluenza virus, corona virus, enterovirus, adenovirus and respiratory syncitial virus. Treatment is usually symptomatic support, meaning the symptoms are being treated and not the disease itself.
Studies show that there is no so much difference with treating immediately with antibiotics with delayed prescriptions.
So people who have adapted a lifestyle where in exercise is a part of their daily routine, it is fine to continue exercising while in this condition.


He is also an attending physician in pediatrics at the Georgetown University Medical Center and the former chairman of the Anti-infective Drug Advisory Committee of the FDA. Untreated skin or throat infections by Streptococcus pyogenes can occasionally result in serious kidney or heart damage, since these organs are not infected the damage is generally caused by the immune system.
The germ can also be passed on when an individual with an upper respiratory infection touches his or her nose and then handles an object that another person later touches. It is important to have the right kind of medication based on the bacteria involved to ensure treatment success and to avoid bacterial resistance. Some use antibiotics as treatment for viral bronchitis but its effects are not that beneficial compared to the side effects it may exhibit such as increased resistance, nausea and vomiting, and cost of treatment.
In children with severe pneumonia, oral antibiotics are as effective with injectible once without the need to experience injection pain, high cost and risk for infection.
However in severe cases like in COPD and bronchitis, antibiotics are used to shorten the illness.
Cats or kittens who contract the calicivirus can then become lifetime carriers of this disease. He is a fellow of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the Society for Pediatric Research, and the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, apart from being a member of more than 20 professional organizations.
In other infections, the disease can be the result of an exotoxin absorbed from a localized infection. A chest X-ray may be ordered to make sure pneumonia, a more serious infection deep in the lungs, is not present. For example, the flu shot can be given to high-risk individuals every fall to help prevent the flu.
The second person can then pick up the germ from the object and transfer it into his or her own respiratory tract by touching the face.
Amoxicillin is the first line drug for community acquired pneumonia while intravenous azithromycin is the first line drug if there is a risk of death. URIs can also put people at risk of getting pneumonia, which may be life-threatening, especially in the elderly and very young.
In pneumonia, inflammation or infection of the lungs causes the pus or fluid to fill a particular section (Lobar pneumonia) or patches are formed on the lungs (bronchial pneumonia). Respiratory support such as mechanical ventilation is provided if a patient is unable to breath. Ticarcillin and gentamicin with clavunalic acid is given intravenously in severe cases of hospital acquired pneumonia.
As the disease steadily takes hold in the kitten’s system, you will see mouth ulcers popping up (small red bumps on the tongue and roof of the mouth). Some toxins have specific target organs because they have receptors for specific cells in a specific organ. Treatment and management include causative-agent identification, pain relievers for chest pain, oxygen, physiotherapy, bronchodilators, and hydration.
Included in the upper respiratory tract are the moist linings of the eyes, the nasolacrimal duct, the middle ears, sinuses, mastoid air cells, nose and throat. The very exterior secretions of the nose are colonized by diphtheriods, micrococci and Staphylococcus aureus.
This infection may lead to scarlet fever [see tongue], rheumatic fever or glomerulonephritis. However milder illnesses [that is, ones with less pus] often have viral causes (adenoviruses and rhinoviruses). Be sure, if you live in a multi-cat home and your latest arrival is infected, that your other cats have been vaccinated against this disease before allowing the kitten into general population.



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