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Water containing H2S can corrode piping materials, such as copper, brass, steel and iron as well as exposed metallic components inside dishwashers and appliances tarnishing the surfaces a black color. Like chlorine, hydrogen peroxide is a strong oxidizer and can quickly kill bacteria and eliminate the odors.
Hydrogen peroxide converts hydrogen sulfide gas, and any iron or manganese present to a solid particle which is then removed by a back-washing self-cleaning carbon filtration system. In some cases, its not practical to install the peroxide injection point near the well, or perhaps you are on a shared community well, and you prefer to have the system right where the water enters the home.  In this case, a flow-based system can be used. Easy to read, packed with 165 pages of useful how to guides, diagrams, charts and pictures. Although we favour the siphon systems they are not always appropriate and Ashby Consultants will independently advise you on the best waste treatment system for your particular site, requirements and budget. These systems can range from grey water recycling, wormerators and composting toilets to individual primary treatment systems that use no power or pumps to technically capable and complex tertiary systems for individual residences or small communities. Here we explain how to install, use, & repair or maintain drinking water reverse osmosis systems or RO systems as an option for high mineral content, odors, or for correcting unsanitary or unsatisfactory drinking water.
Reverse osmosis can remove most water contaminants including parasitges (Cyrptosporidium & Giardia), heavy metals including cadmium,, copper, lead, mercury, and other common water contaminants sometimes found in the water supply itself such as arsenic, barium, high levels of nitrates or nitrites, perchlorate, and selenium.
Reverse osmosis as used in water treatment systems is a purification process through which water molecules pass through a porous membrane while leaving other molecules, presumably of contaminants, behind.
Water on the supply side of the RO membrane along with contaminants accumulating there are flushed from the supply side of the RO membrane into the building's drain system. Water pressure (usually at 40 psi or more) forces water molecules through the membrane, leaving behind certain water contaminants including bacteria and sediment.
Our photo ( left) shows a small point of use (POU) reverse osmosis water purifier installed below a kitchen sink. For this reason some reverse osmosis water treatment systems include additional stages of pre or post filtering to remove bacteria, chemicals, odors, tastes. Watch out: also for water supplies high in sediment, debris, chemicals, odors, or bad tastes.
To avoid clogging the RO system a pre-filter to remove sediment may be needed, and to avoid chemical, taste, or odor complaints, a post-processing charcoal filter system may also be needed. Reverse osmosis (RO) water purifiers (see sketch at below left) will remove nearly all water contaminants and also remove minerals from water leaving it soft and purified.
Because the design and capacity of various RO systems varies, only if a reverse osmosis system is registered and listed as a water purifier, can it be relied on to handle bacterial contamination in the water supply. As it becomes high in contaminants, water on the input side of the RO filter is flushed to a disposal location. See REVERSE OSMOSIS CONCENTRATE WASTE DISPOSAL for a discussion of the effects of disposing of reverse osmosis water treatment equipment wastewater - RO concentrate - into septic tanks and drainfields. Reade Question: what is the water tank height needed for a reverse osmosis system installation? What shall be the minimum height at which a water tank shall be placed, the tank from which a RO + UV water filter,draws water.
Best would be water pressure around 60 psi - a figure high enough to overcome the osmotic pressure and to cause the reverse-osmotic flow of water.


An RO system used for salt water de-salination operates at much higher pressures, ranging from 250-400 psi for grackish water to 800-1000 psi for the desalination of seawater.
RO systems whose specifications we reviewed operate at any turbidity level under 1.0 Net Turbidty (NTU) - an expression of the maximum level of total dissolved solids (TDS) in the water supply.
Continue reading at REVERSE OSMOSIS CONCENTRATE WASTE DISPOSAL or select a topic from the More Reading links or topic ARTICLE INDEX shown below.
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This well-focused, up-to-date reference details the current medical uses of antiseptics and disinfectants -- particularly in the control of hospital-acquired infections -- presenting methods for evaluating products to obtain regulatory approval and examining chemical, physical, and microbiological properties as well as the toxicology of the most widely used commercial chemicals. Our recommended books about building & mechanical systems design, inspection, problem diagnosis, and repair, and about indoor environment and IAQ testing, diagnosis, and cleanup are at the InspectAPedia Bookstore. The Illustrated Home illustrates construction details and building components, a reference for owners & inspectors. Our river water treatment systems are ideal for the treatment of non-hygienic water that is murky, has a muddy sediment and reveals an unacceptable odour and taste, as is often the case with water coming from rivers, dams, canals, boreholes, etc. Chlorine tablets are supplied in containers of 10 tablets each (only 1 tablet and 100 ml of sudfloc will treat about 10 000 liter of water).
The maintenance cost for domestic purposes amounts to approximately R10.00 per week for the chemicals.
It is advisable to give the water in the reservoir or tank at least one hour’s rest before use. A combination of a silica sand filter and an activated carbon filter is installed on the outlet of the reservoir or tank in the pipeline that supplies the end user with water.
The activated carbon filter not only improves clarity, but also removes undesirable odour and taste from the water, as well as excess chlorine. Standard filters have 40mm delivery pipes and supply 9 000 litres per hour at a pressure of 1 Bar. Where a large volume of water is required, filters can be adapted up to the required volume, while banks of filters are also supplied for large volumes. Chlorine tablets to purifying drinking water are not the same type as those used in swimming pools.
At least 1 Bar of water pressure is required to obtain sufficient backwash on filters, otherwise a pressure pump needs to be installed ahead of the filter. Our river water treatment systems can be used successfully by farmers, small towns, industries and mines. This kind of water can discolor coffee, tea and other beverages, and alter the appearance as well as taste of cooked food. For many applications no retention tank is needed, and any residual hydrogen peroxide will be effectively removed by the carbon filter. A metering pump automatically inserts a tiny amount of hydrogen peroxide in front of the pressure tank, whenever the well pump turns on. This type of system uses a flow meter to control the peroxide injection pump.  As soon as there is flow, the peroxide pump injects a small amount of hydrogen peroxide based on how fast the water is flowing through the pipe. Where appropriate we recommend a primary filtered septic tank with a Vortech Super Siphon dosing to LPED fields.


Water on the output side of the filter has been treated or purified, depending on the capacity of the particular RO system.
This pressure (60 psi) is within the operating range of some but not all well pump systems. Note that the specifications for operation of any RO system depend also on the filter type that is in use. It deals comprehensively and authoritatively with its subject with contributions from 31 distinguished specialists. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference eBook purchased as a single order. Systems of this nature are excellent at removing organic and bacterial contamination, iron and manganese and many have already been installed for clients all over South Africa, as well as in Lesotho, the Kongo and Angola.
Where the reservoir or tank is not high enough to render adequate pressure to backwash efficiently, a pressure booster pump can be installed before the filters to give the proper backwash results.
Rotten-egg water not only has an objectionable odor, but in high concentrations may be dangerous to your health, and is corrosive to plumbing, fixtures and appliances.
If the pH of the water is over 7.5 chlorine is not very effective and a large amount of chlorine must be used.
Whenever hydrogen peroxide is put into water a large amount of dissolved oxygen is released and a strong oxidizing effect takes place.
If the rotten-egg odors are extremely excessive, or if coliform bacteria are present, a contact tank is recommended, which allows a few minutes of time for the peroxide to contact with the water, to make sure the water is disinfected.
The back-washing carbon filter system is installed after the pressure tank and filters the water.  The result is clean, disinfected, and odor-free water through out the home. Proportionally fed hydrogen peroxide products offer owners a convenient way to inject hydrogen peroxide as the water enters the household plumbing system and are very easy to set up and maintain. These simple but modern systems provide reliable, long term septic treatment and are fully compliant with local council requirements. Provides an historical overview, descriptions of the types of antimicrobial agents, factors affecting efficacy, evaluation methods, and types of resistance.
The actual pressure requirements for your system may also depend on the filter type your RO system uses (Cellulosic, aromatic polyamide, or thin film composite). Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order. Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home. Carson Dunlop Associates' provides extensive home inspection education and report writing material. Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference eBook purchased as a single order.



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