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Climate change and associated sea level rise present serious challenges to coastal communities around the world.
ASR helps governments, corporations, and other organizations effectively adapt to climate change challenges.
The project overall aim was to enable Ghana to reduce the vulnerability of coastal zone, agriculture, rural livelihoods and human health to climate change disasters by effecting systemic change, and promoting a holistic and integrated approach to adaptation. Audrey (Audrey Hepburn), was born on May 4, 1929 in Belgium Brussels,Toms Outlet United Kingdom film and stage actress.
The effects of aggravated climate variability have already had a severe impact on economic sectors in developing countries (e.g.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) defines adaptation to climate change as adjustments in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderate harm or exploit beneficial opportunities.
While forests already have a place in mitigation science, policy and practice, their role in adaptation still remains relatively unrecognised and needs to be built up.
Adaptation is not distinguished by specific activities or measures, but by the whole process, especially in relation to planned adaptation. The IPCC defines vulnerability as the degree to which a system is susceptible to, or unable to cope with, adverse effects of climate change, including climate variability and extremes.
Planned adaptation to climate change involves the use of information about past, present and expected future climate conditions to develop activities that reduce vulnerability and increase wellbeing of people, or to evaluate the sustainability of current and planned actions, strategies and policies under climate change. Further reading: Pramova, E 2011, ‘Adaptation — just a fancy new name?’, Forests Blog, CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia.
Our twin goals are to ensure that adaptation policy and practice adequately address the need to protect forest-dependent livelihoods and sectors from adverse climate change, and to ensure that adaptation strategies are adequately incorporated into improved forest management. CIFOR advances human well-being, environmental conservation and equity by conducting research to help shape policies and practices that affect forests in developing countries. We work collaboratively to understand local impacts of climate change scenarios and apply advanced technology to develop innovative solutions that work in concert with the natural world. Knowledge buildingThe project provided an opportunity for young professionals and researchers in Ghana to work in close collaboration with staff in the Climate System Analysis Group based at the University of Cape Town.
We must reduce the vulnerability of those sectors that are most sensitive to climate variability, such as water resources, agriculture and forests. Adaptation addresses the impacts of climate change, presenting different strategies to mitigation of climate change, which addresses the causes of climate change.
On the one hand, even with strong mitigation efforts, the climate will continue changing in the next few decades and adaptation to these changes is necessary. Conventional development activities can result in co-benefits for adaptation but they can also result in mal-adaptation, meaning that they increase the vulnerability of certain systems to climate change instead of reducing it. The degree of vulnerability depends on the character, magnitude, and rate of climate variation to which a system is exposed, its sensitivity, and its adaptive capacity. Actions are planned on the basis of vulnerability assessments —­ a process unique to the adaptation discipline — which analyse who is vulnerable to what, why this vulnerability is occurring or will occur, and how this vulnerability might increase in the future if no action is taken. Specifically, the project increased the country’s capacity to obtain climate data from new weather stations, capacity that was then used to understand national risk and vulnerability, producing knowledge that was incorporated into local and national policies, strategies and development plans.
The collaboration entailed the collection and analysis of climate data in Ghana that was incorporated into modelling to allow for climate projections into the future.
These climatic changes and their effects have aggravated climate variability, shown in the more frequent droughts and storms and more erratic or intense rainfall patterns worldwide. Poor people in developing countries are particularly exposed to the effects of climate change, not least because they often live and work in the very areas where natural disasters most often occur: floodplains, mountainsides and deltas.


On the other hand, adaptation will not be able to eliminate all negative impacts and mitigation is crucial to limit changes in the climate system. In the first case, the link exists because forests provide ecosystem services that contribute to human wellbeing and reduce social vulnerability. For example, a dam built to address water-related problems upstream can disrupt the water flows on which downstream communities depend, making them more vulnerable to projected future droughts. Also, the project enabled the building of capacity through provision of training on climate change and disaster risk mainstreaming to the leaders and representatives of key agencies and organisations, along with a mentoring programme that will see many of these leaders train young leaders into the future. Similarly, the project supported the organisation of two international workshops on climate change economics and financing with a view to examining cost-effective adaptation options. That same year,Michael Kors Outlet Storeshe was on stage in the mermaid show,Coach Handbags won the Tony Award for best actress. In the second case, the link exists because climate change is an important driver of changes in forests. This means that aggravated climate variability is also projected to intensify significantly in the future. Finally, the project supported educational campaigns whilst enabling the production of material for disseminating knowledge on climate change and help improve public knowledge and understanding of climate change issues (e.g.
Community participation and inclusivenessRegional and district leaders throughout the country participated in the planning and implementation of project activities, and local representatives in five pilot districts were also involved in practical adaptation projects to ensure ownership. In Sisala East, some 45 women groups in nine communities received domestic animals to raise (goats and sheep), around 2000 mango seedlings were successfully transplanted for crop diversification and talk shows on climate change were conducted on radio for awareness-raising. In 1989, blurred over the Christian Louboutin Shoes years Audrey guest starred in the final film of the forever. In Fanteakwa, 16000 seedlings (mahogany, teak and raffia) were transplanted along the Osubin River, nearly 800 cockerels and 50 goats were distributed to 15 communities and 10 water pumping machines were installed for cultivation of vegetables in the dry season. Keta, in turn, saw the building of two footbridges to improve access to farms, markets, schools and enhance the livelihoods of some 1500 people in two communities. In 1992 was awarded the United States the "Presidential Medal of freedom", 1993 humanitarian award Oscar Prada Outlet.
Nurseries for growing seedlings and ten water pumps for dry season farming were set up in West Mamprusi. One further district, Aowin Suaman, had 12 sheds containing 96 stalls set up for the relocation of artisans from river banks prone to flooding, with another 3 sheds with 64 stalls set up for women on higher ground; the sites abandoned by the artisans were used for planting coconut seedlings and a new light industrial site was established along with water supply. In addition, flood and drought vulnerabilities maps were created in all five pilot districts, safe havens were identified and mapped and evacuation plans for flood-prone areas prepared.
The project also enabled another initiative that has the scope to benefit both local communities and the country more widely, the establishment of eight Automated Weather Stations connected to one high speed computer to enable the Ghana Meteorological Agency to improve the frequency and quality of weather data gathering and analysis.3.
Political ownership, collaboration and approvalThe project had the involvement of the Government of Ghana (and relevant agencies) from its inception on account of its national scope and it demonstrated its commitment by making available financial and human resources for implementation of many initiatives. The departments and agencies involved included the Ghana Meteorological Agency, the National Disaster Management Organisation, the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning, the National Development Planning Commission, the University of Ghana, the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development, and Ghana Wildlife Society. This wide involvement of government agencies was to enable the mainstreaming of climate change adaptation approaches into national and subnational development processes that aim to reduce poverty and are sensitive to gender issues.
Further, the project enabled the production of a Policy Advisory Series, a document that addressed climate change issues from 19 key themes (e.g. Because of their age, she used the identity of children several times for the Netherlands underground North Face Jackets delivery information. Mary Lambert (Marie Rambert's) ballet Louis Vuitton Handbags schools, due to the age and height of reason,Burberry Outlet she was told that she was unable to become a ballet dancer.


Financial sustainabilityUNDP will continue to assist the Government of Ghana in its efforts to design and implement climate change adaptation policies by facilitating access to various international financing mechanisms (e.g. Hepburn's father Chan Luu Sale is named yuesefu·weikete·anseni·heben-Ruston, was General Manager of the Brussels branch of the Bank of England,NFL Jerseys mother name AILA·fan·hemusitela, is a Baroness, and Netherlands Royal lineal descendants of nobility. Audrey's mother'sOakley Outlet first marriage married Netherlands nobles,Timberland Outlet gave birth to two sons.
In addition, the project assisted in the preparation of key policy documents for setting up an Institutional Finance Mechanism for climate change in Ghana, based on international good practice principles gathered at meetings with leaders and policy-makers.5. Second marriage Tory Burch Outlet Store object that Hepburn father,ED Hardy Outlet gave birth to Hepburn. Building local capacityPerhaps the strongest component of the project was the focus on capacity building at all levels.
At the local level, for instance, authorities in 170 districts around the country received training on mainstreaming climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction.
When her daughter was six (1935.5),Ferragamo Shoes the father left his wife run away from home,Moncler Outlet mother night white.
In addition, the project helped develop a guide for mainstreaming climate change and disaster risk into national development policies, which was disseminated to district budget officers to incorporate into their planning and budgets. Subsequently the European war (1939.9),Gucci Factory Outlet Audrey's mother came to the Netherlands. As a result, a total of 64 districts had included and budgeted for climate change adaptation activities in their 2012 budget. Project implementers also compiled an Indigenous Knowledge Atlas, incorporating local knowledge about climate and weather gathered through research carried out in the five pilot districts.
In addition, representatives from national government departments and agencies, along with religious leaders, participated at workshops to discuss how to support mainstreaming of adaptation within their remit, with 160 high level leaders committing to facilitate the mainstreaming process. Training was also provided to staff at the Ghana Meteorological Agency on early warning signs to enhance their ability to gather, monitor and use weather data and improve weather and early warning forecasting and climate projections.
Mother wanted Hepburn to forget his father,Toms Shoes Sale and told her that her father has never changed,Gucci Outlet "faith". Finally, a mentoring programme was set up and offered to mentors and mentees recruited from over 15 organisations to ensure knowledge building and diffusion on climate change in their respective organisations 7.
Monitoring and evaluationProject implementers noted the lack of appropriate monitoring and evaluation mechanisms for the overall project at the outset of implementation. Construction the Audrey Hepburn children's Fund, wrote the Hepburn biography, Angel on Earth. But the local project management unit had its own monitoring system in place to track many of the project activities. This was the case, for instance, of the pilot projects in the four of the five districts, which were regularly monitored, although implementers noted the need for clearer indicators to track results.
These included, for instance, the need to engage local communities in the design and implementation of adaptation pilot activities to ensure ownership and commitment that will sustain outputs.
Implementation in the pilot districts showed that planned activities far exceeded local technical capacity to enable them to be delivered in an effective manner, so there is a clear need to undertake local capacity assessment alongside activity design.



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