Confidence interval less than 1,secret lives diane chamberlain epub reader,meditations from the mat pdf zusammenf?gen,meditations on isaiah 9 - You Shoud Know

The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) publishes a set of data every quarter covering several measures each for heart failure, heart attack and pneumonia care.
The denominator for the composite scores is calculated by summing the number of patients who were eligible for any of the four aspects of heart failure care. The individual measures for heart failure, heart attack and pneumonia care published by CMS are linked to the composite measure with results for each displayed. Note that when hospital level reporting of the individual measures is low nation-wide, data for the corresponding composite measure(s) cannot be calculated.
Readmission rates includes patients readmitted to a hospital within 30 days of discharge from a previous hospital stay for heart attack, heart failure, or pneumonia. CMS 30-day mortality rates take into account deaths within 30 days from all causes after an initial hospitalization with a principal diagnosis of heart attack, heart failure, or pneumonia.
Discharge data submitted by the hospitals are entered by IDPH into software provided by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). The Pediatric Quality Indicators (PDIs) are a set of measures that reflect quality of care inside hospitals and identify potentially avoidable hospitalizations among children (PDI). Hospitals submit monthly data on a quarterly submission cycle from specified surgical measure categories to the Illinois Department of Public Health and the federal Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS).
Psychiatric, rehabilitation and long-term care hospitals currently are not reported on this Web site, although many have agreed in principle to provide data using standard quality measures.
The National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN), a secure, Internet-based surveillance system managed by the Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is used by all Illinois hospitals with adult, pediatric and neonatal intensive care units to collect data on central line-associated bloodstream infections. The reporting criteria and methods required by NHSN and a summary of the national level data are detailed on the NHSN Web site. If the SIR equals 1.0 (observed number of CLABSIs equals the expected number of CLABSIs based on the NHSN data) there is no difference between the observed number and the expected number.
If the SIR is greater than 1.0, the number of CLABSIs observed in a specific hospital is greater than the number of CLABSIs expected based on the NHSN pooled data. If the SIR is less than 1.0, the number of CLABSIs observed in a specific hospital is less than the number of CLABSIs expected based on the NHSN pooled data. All conclusions are based on the assumption that the hospital’s patient population is similar to the NHSN pooled patient population. As of January 1, 2012 all acute care hospitals in Illinois began reporting Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infections and Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) using the National Healthcare Safety Network's (see above) Multidrug-Resistant Organism (MDRO) Laboratory-Identified (LabID) event module. The summary measure used to quantify MRSA blood stream infections is the Healthcare Facility Onset Incidence Rate of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infections.
The facility’s CO prevalence rate and patient days is entered directly into the formula shown above. The summary measure used to quantify CDI is Healthcare Facility Onset Incidence Rate of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI).
The ICD-9 code 008.45, appearing anywhere in the list of discharge diagnoses, was used to identify cases of C. The patient safety indicators (PSIs) are a set of measures that screen for adverse events that patients experience as a result of exposure to the health care system.
Discharge data submitted by the hospitals, are entered by IDPH into software provided by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). The breast feeding measures are calculated from birth certificate data submitted by birthing hospitals to the Vital Records program of the Illinois Department of Public Health. Breastfeeding is reported by hospital as the percentage of infants who are exclusively breastfed, exclusively formula fed, and infants who received any breastfeeding (those who are exclusively breastfed or who received both breast milk and formula). The HCAHPS (Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems) survey is the first national, standardized, publicly reported survey of patients' perspectives of hospital care. The HCAHPS survey is administered to a random sample of adult patients across medical conditions between 48 hours and six weeks following discharge; the survey is not restricted to Medicare beneficiaries. Discharge data from the Illinois Department of Public Health is utilized to calculate information on utilization of services.
The number of specially trained lactation consultants and the number of International Board Certified lactation consultants is gathered from data submitted by hospitals to the Illinois Department of Public Health through the Annual Hospital Profile survey. The bed numbers refer to the number of authorized beds approved by the Health Facilities and Services Review Board.
Emergency room bypass hours are calculated from data submitted by hospitals to the Illinois Department of Public Health through its Web-based Illinois Hospital Bypass System. The percent of patients who left the emergency room either before being seen or against medical advice is also calculated from discharge data provided by the Illinois Department of Public Health.
Hospitals gather data on the type and volume of insurance providers of the patients seen in their facility. Data from the Illinois Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (Illinois BRFSS) were used to present prevalence of asthma. Data from the Illinois Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (Illinois BRFSS) for years 2009 and 2010 were used to present prevalence of diabetes in Illinois counties and Cook county sub-regions. Data from the Illinois Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (Illinois BRFSS) for years 2009 and 2010 were used to present prevalence of obesity in Illinois counties and Cook county sub-regions. Data from the Illinois Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (Illinois BRFSS) for years 2009 and 2010 were used to present information on the percentage of current smokers in Illinois counties and Cook county sub-regions. Data from the Illinois Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (Illinois BRFSS) for years 2009 and 2010 were used to present information on physical activity behaviors of residents of Illinois counties and Cook county sub-regions. Data from the Illinois Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (Illinois BRFSS) for 2009 were used to present information on healthy eating behaviors of residents of Illinois counties and Cook county sub-regions. The Illinois Department of Public Health used an algorithm to help classify ED utilization developed by the New York University Center for Health and Public Service Research.
The first three groups are often combined, resulting in two final groupings labeled unnecessary and necessary ED visits.
Data for geographic areas (county, zip code, Cook County sub-regions and Illinois regions) with less than 20 visits in a given emergency room category were suppressed due to statistical imprecision and patient confidentiality. Data by visit category is expressed as a percentage of all Emergency Department visits and crude rate per 10,000 population within a geographic locale.
The first-listed (or primary diagnosis) was used to identify the ED discharges for asthma (ICD-9-CM code 493). Prevention Quality Indicators (PQIs), developed by the federal Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), identify hospital admissions that evidence suggests could have been avoided, at least in part, through high-quality outpatient care.
PQIs used in this report consist of the following 13 ambulatory care sensitive conditions, which are measured as rates of admission to the hospital. Race and ethnicity data are collected according to Office of Management and Budget standards. The readmission rates on the Illinois Public Health Community Map are based on the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) 30-day readmission measures and are calculated using hospital discharge data received by the Illinois Department of Public Health.
The CMS 30-day readmission measures specifications are written for calculation by hospital, with hospital admissions for Pneumonia, Heart Failure and Heart Attack used as the measure denominators.
For more information about the CMS 30 day readmission measure specifications, go to the Hospital Compare Web site or Quality Net. Concentrated disadvantage is a standardized measure of the economic strength of a community.
Concentrated disadvantage is calculated at the county level based on five variables collected in the U.S. The deviation from the statewide benchmark is defined in one of three categories: better than the state, worse than the state or no difference. Caution is advised in interpreting the rates and deviation from the statewide benchmark for those counties reporting a rate of 0 admissions per 100,000 population. The IDPH discharge data set includes only Illinois residents discharged from Illinois hospitals and excludes discharge data from border states and beyond, as well as Veteran Administration medical centers.
A less prevalent condition such as a perforated appendix or lower leg amputation may arise less frequently in a smaller county which could result in less stable estimates. Your participation in this 2-minute survey will help improve this non-profit website, making it easier for everyone to find a good hospital. All website visitors are being asked only once to participate in this research survey and participation is voluntary.
DESCRIPTION: Henricus Martellus was the one mapmaker who linked the late medieval cartography, just emerging from social, religious, academic and technological constraints, to mapping that reflected the Renaissance and the new discoveries. No one at that time had any knowledge of the true position and outlines of East Asia, yet the representation of East Asia is identical on both the Martellus maps and the Behaim globe. Who had most to gain from such a reckless exaggeration of the extent of Eurasia and who was the first to do so? The Arctic coasts on the Martellus map and those of north and northwest Europe resemble those of the Fra Mauro planisphere of 1459 (#249) rather than those of the Ulm Ptolemy of 1482. In the volume of Imago Mundi, found amongst the possessions of Christopher Columbus after his death, there are numerous notes or postils written in the margins or below the printed matter. Note that in the year a€?88 in the month of December arrived in Lisbon Bartholomew Diaz, Captain of three caravels which the Most Serene King of Portugal had sent to try out the land in Guinea. Another peculiar feature of the Martellus map is the enormous peninsula commencing due south of Aureus Chersonesus [the Malay peninsula] at 28A° south, thereafter widening to reach China.
It has become clear to some cartographic scholars that South America was represented as a huge peninsula of southeastern Asia on many world maps of the 16th century, from the Zorzi sketches of 1506 to the Livio Sanuto map of 1574. It is not so well known that this very same peninsula existed already under the name of India Meridionalis on earlier maps, drawn before the arrival in the western hemisphere of Christopher Columbus.
However, the Martellus maps show a very good representation of the South American hydrographic system, including all the great rivers in the sub-continent. A deeper study of the same maps has made possible the identification of several capes on the Atlantic coast, the swamps of the Rio Negro in Brazil, and Lake Titicaca. There was thus no known pre-Columbian historical exploration of South America by the European nations. The earlier maps extant include the so-called mappaemundi drawn by medieval churchmen in Western Christendom. In order to detect this peninsula on pre-Martellus maps, we needed an identifying criterion. The following is a theory expressed by Paul Gallez regarding the depiction of South America prior to Columbusa€™ voyages.
In the southernmost part of South America (?), there are the words, next to a strait: Hic sunt gigantes pugnantes cum draconious [Here live some giants who fight against the dragons]. Traditionally, the so-called Legend of the Patagonian Giants is attributed to Antonio Pigafetta, the chronicler of Magellana€™s voyage.
The east-west extent from the Canaries to the coast of China is about 235A°, which agrees with the Toscanelli-Columbus concept and with the 1489 Martellus map now in the British Library.
The sheets of paper on which the Yale map is drawn are of different sizes, which excluded the possibility that they were printed map sheets, for they would then have had to be the same size to fit within the map portfolio. Roberto Almagia (1940) stated that he had identified no less than three manuscript maps of the world signed by Martellus, all virtually identical with that in the codex in the British Library. When Columbus left Lisbon in 1485 for Spain, Bartholomew, with his highly trained skills as a cartographer in the Genoese style, stayed on in the map workshop of King John II.
These two world maps by Martellus represent, along with Martin Behaima€™s famous globe of 1492, the last view of the old pre-Columbian world as perceived by Western Europe before the great expansion of the world picture during the subsequent twenty years. The Yale example shows more of the Ocean Sea in the Far East than does the British Library manuscript. Very little is known about Henricus Martellus Germanus, a mapmaker working in Florence from 1480 to 1496. The Indian Ocean is open to the south, but Martellus retains its eastern coast, which Ptolemy had called Sinae, home of the fish-eating Ethiopians. Martellus retains other Ptolemaic features, such as the appearance of the northern coast of the Indian Ocean with a flattened India and a huge Taprobana.
Although Martellusa€™s world maps in the Ptolemy manuscripts show an extension of the inhabited world as 180A°, those in the Insularium make it 220A° or more, an attractive feature to those who dreamed of reaching Asia by sailing west. Most of the text still isna€™t legible, but some of the parts that are appear to be drawn from the travels of Marco Polo through east Asia. The work of Henricus Martellus Germanus epitomizes the best of European cartography at the end of the 15th century. Wolff, Hans, a€?The Conception of the World on the Eve of the Discovery of America - Introduction,a€? in Wolff, Hans (ed.), America. AlmagiA , Roberto, a€?I mappamondi di Enrico Martello e alcuni concetti geografici di Cristoforo Colombo,a€? La Bibliofolia, Firenze, XLII (1940), pp. AlmagiA , Roberto, a€?On the cartographic work of Francesco Roselli,a€? Imago Mundi, VIII (1951), pp.
Caraci, Ilaria L., a€?La€™opera cartografica di Enrico Martello e la a€?prescopertoa€™ della€™America,a€? Rivista Geografica Italiana 83 (1976), Florence, pp. Caraci, Ilaria L., a€?Il planisfero di Enrico Martello della Yale University Library e i fratelli Colombo,a€? Rivista Geografica Italiana 85 (1978), Florence, pp.
Crino, Sebastiano, a€?I Planisferi di Francesco Roselli,a€? LaBibliofilia, Firenze, XLI (1939), pp. Francesco Rosselli was one of the earliest known map stockists and map sellers; in addition he was an important map-maker whose cartographic output spans the decades of the great discoveries. The mapa€™s most prominent feature is, like the Martellus model, the new outline of Africa, now quite separate from Asia, and reflecting the rounding of the Cape by Bartolomeu Diaz in 1487.
First, by 1486 the mathe-matical junta had solved the problem of establishing latitude by measuring the height of the mid-day sun. The numerator for the composite score is calculated by summing the number of patients who were both candidates for and received any of the aspects of care.
If a patient was eligible to receive all four aspects of heart failure care, the patient would be counted four times in the denominator.
They focus on potentially preventable complications and iatrogenic events for pediatric patients treated in hospitals, and on preventable hospitalizations among pediatric patients. Some of these measures were selected for display and summed to numerator and denominator totals. The conditions currently measured - care of adults with a heart attack, heart failure, or pneumonia or adults having surgery - are not commonly treated in these settings.
This rate is calculated as the number of positive lab culture results (from non-duplicate unique blood source specimens) occurring hospital-wide identified 4 or more days after a patient was admitted to the facility, divided by total number of patient days, multiplied by 1,000. If the facility meets the description for bedsize and medical school affiliation listed in the formula, a value of 1 or 0 replaces the two variable names in parenthesis. This rate is calculated as the number of lab results (from non-duplicate specimens) positive for Clostridium difficile identified 4 or more days after a patient was admitted to the facility, divided by number of patient days, multiplied by 10,000.

Questions about breast feeding were incorporated as part of the US Standard Certificate Revisions recommended by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). The survey contains 18 questions about critical aspects of patients’ hospital experiences (communication with nurses and doctors, the responsiveness of hospital staff, the cleanliness and quietness of the hospital environment, pain management, communication about medicines, discharge information, overall rating of hospital, and would they recommend the hospital). Participating hospitals may either use an approved survey vendor, or collect their own HCAHPS data (if approved by CMS to do so). Data on the number of inpatients, their length of stay and median charges includes the use of DRG grouping software from 3M to combine these discharge data records into the various listed conditions. The number of live births for each hospital is calculated from hospital discharge data submitted by hospitals to the Illinois Department of Public Health. These bed numbers may change frequently as a result of the regular Board meetings, and will be updated regularly as other data is added to the site. Hospitals abstract the data for these measures from the medical records of their patients and submit the information to the Center for Medicare and Medicare Services (CMS). Hospitals fulfill reporting requirements by accessing the system at the start of the bypass period, indicating that it is on bypass.
Diabetes prevalence is defined as adults, 18 years of age or older, who responded to the BRFSS telephone interview that they had been told they had diabetes (see Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System). Obesity prevalence is defined as the percentage of adults age 18 or older with a body mass index greater than 30.
Respondents to the BRFSS telephone survey were categorized as physically inactive if they reported no leisure time physical activity within the last thirty days (see Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System). Respondents to the BRFSS telephone survey indicated their daily servings of fruits and vegetables (see Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System).
Emergency department (ED) visit volume has surged in recent years, and many people are using these services as a primary means of obtaining medical care.
Data used as input to this classification system comes from the Illinois discharge data collection system and includes all 2011, 2012, and 2013 outpatient discharges with an emergency department billing code. Charges shown are gross charges established by hospitals each year, not actual dollar amounts received in payment.
Rates reported for pediatric and adult populations are three-year average crude rates per 10,000 area population.
Readmission rates were calculated for three different conditions: Pneumonia, Heart Failure, and Heart Attack.
Rates were calculated per patient, rather than per admission, with each patient counted only once regardless of the number of admissions the patient had during the study period. The rates shown here are calculated by geographic area and demographic group and use population as the denominator.
While it is similar to measuring poverty, it encompasses more than just income level to assess a community’s economic standing. The state mean for each indicator was computed by averaging the values across the 102 counties in Illinois. They indicate average distance of a county’s values from the state mean, so they are interpreted in comparison with other county values. To make this assessment, the county-specific PQI rates are compared against the benchmark derived from the population – the statewide PQI rate. A zero rate may truly reflect zero admissions for a specific condition or may reflect incomplete case ascertainment particularly in border counties.
Little is known of this important German cartographer, probably from Nuremberg, who worked in Italy from 1480 to 1496 and produced a number of important manuscript maps. No meridians, parallels or scales of longitude are given, but estimates based on measurements of the map indicate about 230A° from Lisbon to the coast of China, or 240A° from the Canaries. The actual latitude of the Cape of Good Hope is 34A° 22a€™ south based on land measurements by Diaz, who landed three times on the south coast.
He reported to the same Most Serene King that he had sailed beyond Yan 600 leagues, namely 450 to the south and 250 to the north, up to a promontory which he called Cabo de Boa Esperanza [Cape of Good Hope] which we believe to be in Abyssinia. It indicates that he was high in the confidence of the King as an expert cartographer, otherwise he would not have been present at such a secret occasion. It was done probably in Seville after he joined his brother, entering the postil in Imago Mundi and altering his prototype map at the same time.
It seems that the prototype originally showed the Cape at 35A° south, well clear of the frame at about 41A° south, as one would expect of a competent cartographer.
It is a relic of the continuous coastline that linked Southeast Asia to South Africa in Ptolemaic world maps that displayed a land-locked Indian Ocean, and it needs a name to identify it in argument. This is the India that Columbus was looking for, because it was marked in the right place on his maps. In the post-Columbian series, the isthmus of Panama is represented with its true width, because it had been heard of by Columbus and other explorers from the aborigines; in the pre-Columbian series, the union of the peninsula with Asia is much broader, because nobody had exact information about it. The pre-Magellanic maps have South America extending only to some degrees South; on post-Magellanic maps the land extends to 53 degrees South.
On these pre-Columbian maps, the drainage net is much better drawn than on any other representation made before 1850.
So Gallez believes that the deep and sound European knowledge of South America before its exploration by Columbus and his Spanish and Portuguese challengers has been firmly established. But the detail of its hydrographic features mapped by Martellus in 1489 is a fact, even if this fact remains historically unexplained. In this way we have identified the Dragona€™s Tail on three maps drawn between 1440 and 1470.
As cultured persons, both Pigafetta and Magellan would have seen such maps as Walspergera€™s or others of the same family, and they would surely have taken aboard some copies of them.
Long in the possession of a family from Lucca, it went to Austria in the 19th century and was bought for Yale in 1961. Vietor, then Map Curator of Yale University, reported a gift by an anonymous donor a€?in the form of a magnificent painted world map signed by Henricus Martellus, approximately six feet by four feet (180 x 120 cm).
In a private communication of June 1972, Vietor stated that X-ray examination had revealed no evidence of printing on the paper sheets and that it was hand-drawn, lettered and colored. It was not foretold on Folio 1 and is clearly an unexpected addition to the codex of picture-islands.
He was engaged in building up a large map of the world based on Donus Nicolaus and on Portuguese charts. On his globe, South Africa, between 23A° and 28A° south, extends a horn of land for hundreds of miles due eastward into the Indian Ocean. Among the thousands of islands Marco Polo reported off the coast of Asia, an enormous Sumatra and Java are found in the south, while to the northeast is the huge island of Cipangu [Japan].
The map is remarkable for its exciting new information, although being imperfect because of its acceptance of classical and medieval antecedents. On the world map in his Insularium at the British Library, he shows the results of Bartholomew Diasa€™ rounding of the Cape of Good Hope in 1488, listing the names of the various ports and landmarks along the way. This was the edge of Ptolemya€™s map - he did not show the full extent of Asia, noting that a€?unknown landsa€? lay beyond. In the north, Greenland is a long, skinny peninsula attached to Europe and north of Scandinavia, a concept derived from the Claudius Clavus map of 1427. One of the Insularium manuscripts at the Laurentian Library in Florence seems to be a working copy, as it has many cross-outs and corrections on the maps and in the texts. His intelligent effort to reconcile modern discoveries with traditional knowledge, especially Ptolemy, provides a workable model for the world map in a time of rapid change. He worked in Florence prior to 1480, then was away from Italy for about two years before returning to his home town where he was active until his death some time after 1513. The cartography of such maps is very poor: for instance, on the maps of Hieronymo Girava 1556, Johann Honter 1561, Giacomo Gastaldi 1562 and Francesco Basso 1571, the Rio Amazonas has its source in Patagonia and flows from south to north. If a patient received all four aspects of heart failure care, the patient would be counted four times. These totals are then presented in the mouse-over or hover box while the percentage shown in the performance band is the percentage calculated by dividing the numerator (n) by the denominator (of N) and multiplying by 100.
The standardized infection ratio for Healthcare Facility Onset Incidence Rate of MRSA bloodstream infections adjusts for medical school affiliation, facility bed size, and the prevalence rate of Community Onset MRSA using a risk model. For calculation of CDI rates, patient days for newborn populations (neonatal intensive care units, special care nurseries, well-baby nurseries, and newborns in labor and delivery units) are not included in the denominator. As such, these counts may vary for the same period based on final counts produced annually. The survey also includes four items to direct patients to relevant questions, three to adjust for the mix of patients across hospitals, and two items that support Congressionally-mandated reports. To accommodate the needs of hospitals, HCAHPS can be implemented in four different survey modes: mail, telephone, mail with telephone follow-up, or active interactive voice recognition (IVR). They then access the system at the end of the bypass period to indicate that the period has ended. Data on patient volume by insurance type was extracted as submitted to provide the percentage of hospital visits by major categories of insurance provider, with private pay and charity included where no insurance coverage exists. Along with demographic components such as age, sex, race and ethnicity, payer and income level, it is useful to look at the type of visit associated with emergency department use (necessary or unnecessary) and ED use for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions such as asthma and diabetes. All patients are charged the same gross charge (or list price) for the same services before applying any discounts.
As this software only defines the PQIs at the county level, the AHRQ SAS program was modified to allow for estimation of Illinois regions. Patients with a primary discharge of one of these three conditions during the index admission and associated all-cause readmissions within 30 days of discharge were examined. This may change interpretation of the data, including application of readmission rates to social determinants of health and disparities. It acknowledges that some communities experience a concentration of economic disadvantages that adversely impact residents. For each indicator separately, z-scores were computed to indicate the number of standard deviations each county’s value fell from the state mean. In the few instances where this has occurred to date, the deviation for that county-specific rate is that it performed better than the state (since a lower rate is desirable as opposed to a higher rate). Ptolemya€™s geographical writings, largely unknown to Western Europeans during the earlier Christian Middle Ages in Europe, became the basis for the Renaissance in geography. His entire hopes of gaining support from King John in 1485 for such an enterprise as sailing westward to Cathay rested on his argument that it lay only 130A° to 140A° to the west. A manuscript copy of Polo and his travels was given by the Doge of Venice to Prince Pedro in 1427 and was thereafter in the Kinga€™s Treasury in Lisbon.
Measurements of altitudinal height of the sun by astrolabe or quadrant were accurate on land but could be 2A° or more out on the rolling deck of a ship.
23 is in the handwriting of Bartholomew, and was identified as his by Bishop Bartolomeo de Las Casas, who knew him well. He says that in this place he found by the astrolabe that he was 45A° below the equator and that this place is 3,100 leagues distant from Lisbon [19,850 km]. It was to influence the Catholic Sovereigns who were in the dark owing to the intense secrecy by Portugal regarding discovery. There is no record extant of anyone reporting that they had seen any land or island south of the equator, nor did anybody pretend to have explored the inner part of a trans-Atlantic continent and to have mapped its rivers. We may thus believe that this knowledge already existed before Martellus, and we should look at older maps in search of the sources that he could have had at his disposal. They thus knew that, following their maps, they would have to sail to the south along the coast of the Dragona€™s Tail until they reached the Land of Giants, and that at the end of that land, they would find a passage to the West, to the Sinus Magnus, and thus a way to the Moluccas. It shows a great deal more ocean to the east of Asia with several large islands in it, including Japan in the far northeast.
Signora Carla Marzoli of Milan, in a private communication, stated that this large map a€?had left Italy into the possession of family centuries ago and had been lodged in a Swiss bank for safety, for a long time.a€™ In 1959, through trade channels, she learned that this map was for sale.
It uses the homeopathic (heart-shaped) projection, as far as can be judged, for it lacks meridians and parallels and scales. They all omitted Cipangu but he found a separate map of Cipangu in a codex which had the same outlines as those in the Behaim globe of 1492.
It was, like all important maps at that time, drawn on sheets of parchment which could be joined together almost invisibly, and mounted on linen.
In the Indian Ocean, the islands of Madagascar and Zanzibar, rather poorly drawn, add an intriguing aspect. It was the most accurate delineation available to Martin Behaim when he constructed his globe exhibiting the pre-Columbian world. On the Martellus map there is a long peninsula to the east of the Golden Chersonese (Indochina), featuring the mysterious port of Cattigara.
The Mediterranean and Black Seas and the Atlantic coasts are taken from sea charts, while the east coast of Africa, as yet unexplored, also follows Ptolemya€™s design.
Here the habitable world is extended to 265A°, with northern Asia coming right up against the right-hand border. According to historian Chet Van Duzer who is participating in a new (2014) digital image scanning of the Yale Martellus, a€?In northern Asia, Martellus talks about this race of wild people who dona€™t have any wine or grain but live off the flesh of deer and ride deer-like horsesa€?. The role of experience was clearly important to Martellus, for in his copy of the Laurentian Insularium he includes a verse about his own travels, noting that he has been traveling around for many years, and adding that it is worthwhile but difficult to set a white sail upon the stormy sea.
It is a cleanly-engraved copperplate, with finely-stippled sea and six characteristic loose-haired wind-heads grouped round the border of the map. A legend at the bottom referring to the date 1498 is clearly an error for 1489, and has been copied as such from the 1489 Martellus manuscript world map with obviously similar geographic content to that of Rosselli. These maps depicted graphically the theory that Cipangu [Japan] was but 3,500 miles (5,635 kilometers) westward, and only 1,500 miles (2,415 kilometers) further lay the shores of Cathay [China]. 23 is in the handwriting of Bartholomew, and was identified as his by Bishop Bartolomeo de Las Casas, who knew him well.A  Arthur Davies has made a long study of the writing of the Columbus brothers and states, without a shadow of doubt that it is in the hand of Bartholomew. These measures and rates can be an indicator of how well the hospitals care for their patients. The standardized infection ratio for Healthcare Facility Onset Incidence Rate of CDI adjusts for the type of testing used at the facility, medical school affiliation, facility bed size, and the prevalence rate of Community Onset CDI using a risk model. Hospitals may either integrate HCAHPS with their own patient surveys, or use HCAHPS by itself.
The algorithm classifies ED cases into four major categories of visit necessity after isolating injury, drug, alcohol and mental illness cases for separate study. If the benchmark lies outside of the county-specific CI then the county-specific rate is considered to be statistically different from the statewide benchmark. The Martellus delineation included some Ptolemaic dogma in its continental contours and projection but significantly modified and improved upon the ancient model with regards to its contents.

The coast of Cathay is approximately 130A° West of Lisbon on the Martellus map, on the Behaim globe and in the Columbus-Toscanelli concept. Copious marginal notes, in the handwriting of Bartholomew and his older brother Christopher, are found in the Admirala€™s copy of the printed book of Marco Polo published at Louvain between 1485 and 1490.
The coasts charted by Diaz have been fitted into the circular outline of the world of the Fra Mauro hemisphere, representing such a marked trend to the southeast that the Cape of Good Hope seems to be due south of the Persian Gulf, whereas it is due south of the Adriatic. Yet the Martellus map shows South Africa extending across the frame of the map to 45A° south. He has described this voyage and plotted it league by league on a marine chart in order to place it under the eyes of the Most Serene King himself. This dates the legend as 1489, probably in January of that year, just before Bartholomew went to Seville. Arthur Davies, in his discussion of this map refers to it as the Tiger-leg peninsula; in others it is referred to as Catigara.
The best preserved copy is in the British Library and there is also a poorer copy in the University of Leiden.
Considering that in 1489 Martellus knew about the inner courses of many South American rivers, we have no reason to doubt that, forty years earlier, Andreas Walsperger (#245) knew of the Patagonians.
The meeting with the Tewelche in Saint Julian was the full confirmation, for Magellan and Pigafetta, of what they already knew from their maps.
The Laon globe (#259), made in France about 1493 (probably by Bartholomew Columbus when he served Anne, Regent of France) has the Tiger-leg to 40A° south.
She examined it and saw its connection with the Martellus map in the British Library and with the conceptions of Columbus. Fortunately, Martellus copied most of the nomenclature and legends on to the smaller map, now in the British Library, so the a€?Yalea€™ Martellus can recover them without difficulty. Next come three regional maps, striking because of the enormous nomenclature on the coasts. The three manuscript maps were larger in scale and showed more detail than the codex world map. This large map, 180 cm by 120 cm, formed a standard Portuguese world map, continually added to by new discoveries, including those of CA?o and Diaz.
Some historians claim that their presence indicates the map cannot be dated before 1498, when Vasco da Gama returned with news of his voyage to India. Modern Africa is so long, however, that it breaks through the frame at the lower edge of the map. Unlike Ptolemya€™s Asia, Martellusa€™ version has an eastern coast with the island-bedecked ocean beyond and additional names taken from Marco Polo. From this we can see that in the Insularia Martellus used modern information when he had it, incorporating it into a classical format.
Martellusa€™s depiction of rivers and mountains in the interior of southern Africa, along with place names there, appear to be based on African sources. He suggests that the reader might prefer to stay safely at home, and learn about the world through his book.
Like its model, the projection is the barrel-shaped (homeoteric, or modified spherical) a€?second projectiona€™ of Ptolemy. Columbus thus had documentary support for his beliefs about oceanic distances from his readings of earlier cosmographers, Cardinal Da€™Ailly (#238) and Paolo Toscanelli (#252). Its shape, outline and position are identical with the representation of Cipangu on the Behaim globe.
It is important to know that small differences in the percentages usually don't mean that one hospital is significantly better or worse.
Data on outpatient procedure volume and charges includes the use of clinical classification software (CCS) for clustering patient diagnoses and procedures into a manageable number of clinically meaningful categories.
The Area Resource File, a national county level health resource file, collects data from an array of over fifty sources.
The overall z-scores were classified into quartiles to classify counties into four levels of concentrated disadvantage. Kimble demonstrated that, as far as 13A° South, the nomenclature of West African coasts is 80% identical in the two maps but bears no relation to the nomenclature of any other map of the period. The minor differences in location between these three must be seen against the enormous exaggeration of the extent of Eurasia which they exhibit in comparison with all previous estimates. The only other claim that the Cape was at 45 degrees south is in the hand of Bartholomew Columbus. It suited Columbus admirably and it is likely that Bartholomew made the change at his direction. It is shown to more than 25A° south in the Cantino map of 1502 (Book IV, #306), Canerio map of 1504 (Book IV, #307), the WaldseemA?ller maps of 1507, 1513 (Book IV, #310) and many others.
The map is surrounded by a dozen puffing classical wind heads, and for the first time in a non-Ptolemaic map, there is a latitude and longitude scale on the side. At her request, Roberto Almagia and Raleigh Skelton examined it and pronounced it authentic.
The first is of Western Europe and Morocco, cut off in the east through the center of France; the second starts from this line and extends east as far as Naples and Tunis. The Martelli were a prominent merchant family in Florence, and Enrico Martello sounds Italian enough. If the two Ptolemy atlases can be dated as the first and last of his works, it is interesting to see that he reverts to the pure Ptolemaic form for the world in the later edition, with the lengthened Mediterranean and the closed Indian Ocean.
Ita€™s likely that this information came from an African delegation that visited the Council of Florence in 1441 and interacted with European geographers. This provided him with the ammunition to further promote his plan to sail west to reach the Indies. The Martellus map in the British Library is less than 20 inches (50 cm) from west to east, and is on a scale one-quarter that of the Yale map. The survey is available in official English, Spanish, Chinese, Russian and Vietnamese versions. County-level and higher data are aggregated from 10 kilometer square spatial resolution grids. It includes extensive data from the most recent year on physicians detailed by specialty and professional activity. The ICD 9 codes for identifying Pneumonia, Heart Failure and Heart attack in the primary diagnosis spot of the index admission are outlined below.
South of that limit, however, the Martellus map gives the outlines and nomenclature of the voyage of Bartholomew Diaz in 1487-88, while the Behaim globe has invented nomenclature corresponding to nothing in Portuguese cartography. It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that he copied a map which was originally designed to support the ideas of Columbus. Due south of the Malay peninsula, at 28A° South, there appears an enormous peninsula which widens and turns north to join China again with the largely circular concept of the Fra Mauro map. On the face of it, seeing it on the Martellus map, it asserts that Diaz had proceeded north along the cast coast of South Africa to beyond Natal. Columbus hoped Spain would support a voyage westward to Cipangu, 85A° away, and to Cathay 130A° to the west. Of course, this is mostly symbolic, as neither Henricus Martellus nor anyone else had a complete set of accurate coordinates. The sheets of the a€?Yalea€™ Martellus, together with certain regional maps, were acquired by the patron. The one piece of information he gives us about himself, that he had traveled extensively, suggests a career in business.
Again, with the Tigerleg or the Dragona€™s Tail, there has been an controversial attempt to identify it as an early map of South America, turning Ptolemy's a€?Sinus Magnusa€? into the Pacific Ocean. Clearly, Ptolemy maps were considered as illustrations for a revered and ancient text and did not have to include the latest news. Three other surviving maps contain some of this same information, but the Martellus map covers more territory than any of them, making it the most complete surviving representation of Africansa€™ geographic knowledge of their continent in the 15th century. The splendid manuscript of Martellus preserved in the National Library at Florence contains thirteen tabulA¦ modernA¦, but is probably later than the earliest printed editions of Ptolemya€™s Geography.A  However, Martellus revised the Ptolemaic world map based on Marco Poloa€™s information on Asia, and he incorporated the recent Portuguese voyages to Africa. Due south of the Malay peninsula, at 28A° South, there appears an enormous peninsula which widens and turns north to join China again with the largely circular concept of the Fra Mauro map.A  This peninsula does not exist in fact, and seems to be a repeat of the Donus Nicolaus map of the world in the Ulm Ptolemy, cut away by the circular outline of Fra Mauro. On the face of it, seeing it on the Martellus map, it asserts that Diaz had proceeded north along the cast coast of South Africa to beyond Natal.A  His furthest point, in fact, was the Rio de Infante [Great Fish River] on the south coast, at 34A° south. Although the Columbus brothers knew that Marco Polo had returned from China by this sea route, they inserted this great obstruction of Tiger-leg by 1485. Percentages may be affected by such factors as how many patients are included in the calculation of the rate. Data on diagnostic procedure visit volume and charges includes the use of revenue codes from the discharge data set. All causes for readmission were included, except patients with a planned readmission, such as readmissions for procedures or rehabilitation.
The correspondence between the Behaim globe and the 1489 Martellus map consequently ended in 1485, when Diego CA?o had returned from his first voyage after reaching 13A° south (Cape Santa Maria in the Congo, 1482-1484).
Yet that map could not have been completed until early in 1489 for it had complete details of the discoveries of Bartholomew Diaz in his voyage of 1487-88, when he circumnavigated the Cape of Good Hope (capo da€™ esperanza) and reached the Indian Ocean.
At that latitude one degree was thought to be 50 miles (80 km), according to the Toscanelli letter, so that Japan was only 4,250 miles (7,200 km) west. No wonder that, having regard to his maps, he concluded that this river flowed from Paradise.
Martellus assembled the paper sheets, stuck them on a canvas backing, made his characteristic rectangular picture frame for it and colored the seas in dark blue. His surviving work includes two editions of Ptolemya€™s Geography, a large wall map now at Yale University, and five editions of the Insularium Illustratum of Cristoforo Buondelmonti. The correspondence between the Behaim globe and the 1489 Martellus map consequently ended in 1485, when Diego CA?o had returned from his first voyage after reaching 13A° south (Cape Santa MariaA  in the Congo, 1482-1484).
It would show King John that even if the Portuguese reached India they could not reach the Spice Islands (which were on the equator east of Tiger-leg) without having to make long voyages into the southern stormy seas. To have included Cipangu would have required a scale reduced one-sixth, too small to permit of legible nomenclature. Median charges shown for all displayed services are list prices that may be discounted and paid by health insurance companies.
Patients transferred from one acute care facility to another acute care facility and patients discharged against medical advice were excluded. This was the time when Martin Behaim, as a member of the King Johna€™s mathematical junta, was able to study the map and proposals of Columbus. He returned from this voyage in December 1488 and, within a year, full details, including rich nomenclature, had appeared on the map of Martellus made in Italy; this despite the utmost secrecy on the part of King John of Portugal. The fact that the map had been put away in a Swiss bank for perhaps 60 years explains why it went unobserved. Martellus had been required by his patron to include in the codex a world map and regional maps which had just come into his possession in 1489.
The historian Roberto Almagia has pronounced that Henricus Martellus was an excellent draftsman, who drew upon the latest information and improved the maps he adapted for his collections. This was the time when Martin Behaim, as a member of the King Johna€™s mathematical junta, was able to study the map and proposals of Columbus.A  On the 1489 Martellus map there is an inscription next to the Congo that mentions the commemorative stone (PadrA?o) that CA?o erected at Cape Negro during his second voyage (1485-87) when he reached as far as Cape Cross. For King John and for the Catholic Sovereigns it showed that Spain could easily reach Cathay and then the Spice Islands, secure from all interference from Arabs or Portuguese in the Indian Ocean.A  Columbus may have deceived himself regarding the existence of the Tiger-leg but, since it suited his plans so admirably, one suspects that he asserted its existence just as he later made the Cape of Good Hope to be at 45A° south. The second major difference is that, while the coasts from Normandy to Sierra Leone, on the Yale map, are based on the world map of Donus Nicolaus of 1482, the corresponding coasts on the British Library Martellus uses a Portuguese map for them.
The furthest point reached by Diaz, the Rio de Infante [the great Fish River], is duly recorded as ilha de fonti.
His great talent for such an exacting task was his skill as a draughtsman-cartographer experienced in altering the scale of maps of islands that he was copying.
Someone with access to it and to the reports of Bartholomew Diaz, drew the prototype of the Martellus map. According to the historian Arthur Davies, this is conclusive evidence that the prototype originally terminated at 35A°, with the legend correctly placed near it. Even today, the best source for information on the voyage of Diaz is the Martellus map of 1489. The extra ten degrees in shifting the Cape to 45A° south meant more than twenty degrees extra distance in a voyage to India. Two peculiar features in the region of South Africa suggest that Bartholomew Columbus was that someone.
When Bartholomew altered the prototype map to 45A° south, he was unable to remove the legend.
The policy of secrecy of King John was shattered in one great leakage by someone in a unique position to know all the details. Moreover, and perhaps this was the decisive factor, it would take Portuguese ships to nearly 50A° south to round Africa, into what Diaz had already found to be the roughest seas encountered anywhere in the world.
Moreover, and perhaps this was the decisive factor, it would take Portuguese ships to nearly 50A° south to round Africa, into what Diaz had already found to be the roughest seas encountered anywhere in the world.A  Bartholomew, in 1512, gave evidence in the Pleitos (the great lawsuit of the Columbus family versus the Crown of Spain) and declared that he had gone about with his brother in Spain helping to gain support for his enterprise.
Each island-picture is surrounded by a frame, drawn and painted in ivory to give the impression of a carved wood frame, suggesting a picture hanging on a wall.
Such picture-islands occupy nearly all the folios, making an Atlas of Islands, and are then followed by a superb picture-map of Italy, taken from the 1482 world map of Donus Nicolaus.
The islands in this codex were copies from the Ulm Ptolemy, from the Isolario of Bartolomeo de li Sonetti printed in Venice in 1485, and from other sources. This account of Gallo was copied, almost verbatim by Serenega in 1499 and by Giustiniani in 1516.
Bartholomew left Genoa as a youth in 1479 and officially made only one further visit to Italy, in 1506.
Gallo could have acquired knowledge of the role of Bartholomew only from his own lips, in 1489.

Change career at 50
How to change oil kfx 450r

Comments to «Confidence interval less than 1»

  1. T_O_T_U_S_H
    Energy of mindfulness takes deeper impact if you begin present moment, on function, nonjudgmentally thoughts in each subtle.
  2. Lady_Zorro
    Psoriasis lesions indicated meditation can speed up the joined by different Deep Spring Center.
  3. SeNaToR
    Malayasia in 1990, he acquired his full who have.
  4. X_MEN
    Institute for Ministry at Sacred Coronary heart Major Seminary retreats.
  5. VUSAL
    Shawn Nevins and Solitary Non secular our course of uses the practice of mindfulness enjoy empowering.