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Surely the fairest, most democratic way is for parties to be required to spell out to voters in advance of a local election exactly what it's council tax proposals are, and then be legally required to stick to them if they are elected. Friends of the Shelter volunteers work hard to make the shelter a warm, inviting place to build relationships between adopters and the cats. Despite the widespread protests that erupted last year, the rate at which people are killed by the police in the US has accelerated. It’s perhaps portentous that a poll to find Britain’s national bird had last week been decided in overwhelming favour of the robin. Chief executive David Harker said: “First Class Futures really will bring huge benefits to the North East if it is able to realise its vision of raising £100,000. Yorkshire travel to Durham looking for their third successive North Division win after beating Derbyshire at Headingley and, last Friday, Nottinghamshire at Trent Bridge. Kaag says the UN is also looking into recent reports of chlorine gas attacks in the country.
Although the research has been pretty clear that there are health benefits to not sitting, we are just starting to understand that standing alone may be a good alternative, said Dr.
The researchers then lumped the data in with nine other studies that measured chocolate consumption and heart disease.
It was his second injury of the season and he didn't appear again, but while he has been troubled only by the odd niggle this year he has been unable to regain his form.
We can do this for him and dance for him, make him well, make him strong, put him on the front, and all his team, dancer Timmy Galalingu said. The cooking zone features a cooktop with oils, seasonings, pots and pans and perhaps a sink nearby. Zielke noted that Punta Cana, Dominican Republic is becoming a big destination for weddings, as are cruises. He also won the FIFA Club World Cup and European Super Cup two times each and the Spanish Super Cup six times. However, Rob Youhill suffered a dislocated elbow on Saturday which will sideline him for two to three weeks.
Disciplined, well organised and extremely hard to break down, Newcastle have rarely looked like conceding throughout their six-game winning run, and aside from tipping over a Richard Dunne header, Tim Krul was barely tested against QPR.
In return, Wijnaldum has been quick to praise McClaren’s input throughout pre-season, with the Yorkshireman’s experience of the continental game enabling him to establish a strong rapport with his club’s overseas contingent.
The actual story is one of trying to find somewhere safe to live for some poor INNOCENT young children, not whether some "concerned " residents feel slighted.
An agent in the 1970s had also suggested a name change – “he said Tony Peters was too clubby” – and came up with Septimus Shildon. ECHO Elder Cottage Housing Opportunities (ECHO) units are temporary, movable, self-contained houses designed to enable older persons to live near family members or caregivers. Under normal driving conditions, 100 per cent of the engine’s torque is delivered to the front wheels so that the car runs with optimised fuel efficiency. Professor Walton said she had heard of many cases of discrimination against junior females, but the culture was to never complain to supervisors. Mike Abbott, general group manager at The Co-operative Childcare, says: “With men under-represented in the childcare industry, we think they should be championed. The group has found, and cherishes, the 100-year-old Bishop Auckland National Union of Ralwaymen’s banner, plans a railway memorial garden near the station – “real railway seats everything,” he says – has designed LNER-style posters showing the old station in all its improbable glory.
Durham City MP Roberta Blackman-Woods demanded that the city council explains how it did not have spare detectors. I’ve been lucky on the job front, mostly down to working with fantastic people and having a positive approach to life. Marquette went three-and-out on three pass plays and, on its own 26, elected to punt and rest its hopes of defending its state title on defense. The Brewers followed a Game 5 stinker in the National League Championship Series with a Game 6 clunker. China should work out a comprehensive income distribution reform package as soon as possible to promote sustainable, fairer and more balanced development of its economy and society.
A home win against the same opponents and a victory away to bottom club Sunderland are Darlington's only wins in their last 14 games, having started with four wins from the first seven. He and Chris Rushworth quickly removed the home openers and it became 49 for three when replaced Arshad and struck with his fifth ball. The game was notable for the second-half appearance of Downing, with the England international kicking off his second spell at his hometown club in an attacking central-midfield role. With the rest of the Boro squad currently on a training break in Marbella, it remains to be seen whether Downing heads straight out to Spain or remains at Rockliffe Park ahead of his new team-mates’ return next week. On Sunday, the forecast calls for a high temperature in the low 20s in Milwaukee, with blustery northeast wind gusts as high as 30 miles per hour. Monroe mentioned Parker's return from injury next season as one of the factors that led him to choose the Bucks over offers from the New York Knicks, Los Angeles Lakers and Portland Trail Blazers. Nepal's major political parties on Tuesday agreed to reconsider the delineation of states in the wake of countrywide protests against the move in which three people have been killed. Other completed work on the Port Clarence scheme includes flood embankments to the east and west of the Wilton Engineering site. Despite their success, Stuart says they have no intention of expanding their operation and is proud of their role in the burgeoning small-scale food and drink sector in the county. The problem for Brentford, however, is whether their soon-to-be departing manager, Mark Warburton, can motivate his team through the final throes of the campaign knowing that he will not be there to reap the rewards next season.
Council leader Councillor Bob Cook said: “Local residents and businesses had to endure the eyesore that was Billingham House for several years. While the West Nile virus is not new to Maryland, health officials warn people to take precautions when heading outside to parks or to the beach, especially areas where there might be standing water. However, even though the opportunity to return to Teesside after a two-year spell in London was a powerful attraction, Downing insists he would not have rejoined Boro if he did not believe they had a realistic chance of promotion.
Dad, Ian, is director at the family-owned Barkers Furnishing Store in Yafforth Road, Northallerton, where earlier this year Hannah, along with brothers William and Thomas, cut the turf to get a £3m expansion of the business underway. The same night (Saturday), Darlington’s Neil Hepper also took a chance on the road when he travelled to Doncaster and faced the experienced Kevin Hooper over six rounds.
The government has declared their strike illegal although GMA members continued services to their inpatients.
The opportunity to meet with many leaders in Israel face to face has impressed on me even more the significance of the vote I will cast in the US Congress. The lifetime Falls resident had worked other jobs, but working for the schools he once attended is special, and not just because it s home.
Linzi Nicolls leads the way with a sponsored Mile of Hope.В  Many people turned out to do the mile either by walking, running, skipping, and someone even hula hooped it around to raise funds for Lifeline Community Action.
The recently launched group is run by YMCA working with Council’s Sport and Physical Activity Team and Hartlepool College of Further Education. Highly commendable but you have to admit Britain has some of the most bone idle, pig ignorant litter louts in (wider) Europe.
This is especially heartening, because it fits the theory that those people in our society who work really hard are the ones who get rewarded with a bit extra. Congressman Keith Rothfus (R-Pennsylvania), who is on his first visit to Israel, said he would share with his colleagues and constituency what he learned on the trip about the need for America to stand with Israel in her defense, the 'Post reported.
With the last two months of a lost season amounting to something of a tryout for many players on the Milwaukee Brewers' roster, Khris Davis has put a solid foot forward in recent days. It is LVMH’s second-largest fashion and leather-goods brand and, according to analysts at HSBC, this sector of LVMH is doing very well indeed. A southern spokesman said Greville's death had been referred to the coroner, but police were continuing to investigate on behalf of the coroner and WorkSafe. MISSOULA — A line of thunderstorms grinding up the Bitterroot Valley converged over Missoula on Monday evening, spawning gusts up to 74 mph that toppled century-old trees and flipped pole barns off their foundations. Bahraini authorities have suspended the country's main opposition newspaper, accusing it of threatening national unity and relations with other states, the official news agency BNA reported late on Thursday.
If your staff can attend the tables with the professionalism and service that they provide in most US restaurants it will do two things!
John Guthrie, is generally credited with having migrated to New England about the year 1700.
Seymour Guthrie, himself says in his book, a€?A Brief History of a Branch of the Guthrie Family.a€?-- a€?The earliest traditional knowledge of the family is in 1680 in Edinburgh. A comparison of these statements shows that all save the last one gives 1700 as the approximate date of emigration.
This family has a tradition that there were seven Guthrie brothers in Scotland, that owing to religious persecutions they left there, some going to Ireland, others to America.
We will now continue quoting this same source, but skip forward to page 169 and beyond, to follow the family of Robert Guthrie, one of the original immigrants from Scotland, who is believed to be a brother of the John Guthrie discussed above. We shall take Robert of Fallowfield and Nantmeal Townships, as the head of a hypothetical family, consisting of wife, _______ (Darlington) Guthrie, four sons--Adam, James, John, and William and perhaps as many daughters, names unknown.
Were not Adam and James grouped under Robert, they should be arranged under the seventeen forties and fifties; John and William at a decade or so later.
He was the William Guthrie, we are quite sure, who married a daughter of Thomas Barnett, who was a neighbor to James and John Guthrie on Back Creek. Filed with these deeds is the following valuable family record, which gives the children of William, Sr. The date of death of William Guthrie, Sr., is unknown, but it was of course prior to the first deed referred to above, which was dated Oct. Robert Guthrie, (above) second child and eldest son of William Guthrie and wife, Elizabeth, is mentioned as having lands adjoining those inherited by James, his brother, from their father William.
Land records were not well kept for the earliest settlers, but in the book: Scotch-Irish Migration to South Carolina, by Jean Stephenson, Shenandoah Publ.
Several years after William settled in this valley, he was joined by another Scottish family that had just arrived from Pennsylvania, where they had stayed only long enough to fit out some wagons and move down the same trail to the Waxhaw, as did the Guthries. Our Robert was born 22 Oct 1756, and as mentioned above, we are not certain where his birth occurred, but it is believed to have been back in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania. Eventually, as the Revolutionary War came to South Carolina, Robert joined on the side of the American Patriots, and so did the three Jackson boys.
While a transcript of the complete application for the widows pension of Mary Taylor Guthrie, can be read in the other part of this web-site, a brief recap of the basic information can be had in the Roster of South Carolina Patriots in the American Revolution, by Bobby Gilmer Moss, Genealogical Pub. The summary of his military history, given above, also includes the name of his wife and their marriage date. Not only was Andrew Jackson a close neighbor of the Guthries from their early childhood, but during the war, there was some excitement in the local community caused by another famous man.
Robert and Mary (Taylor) Guthrie, were married on March 9, 1780, during the Revolutionary War and almost immediately Robert was called away to fight the British (June 25, 1780; and again the following spring, on April 24, 1781). By 1792, so many people had come into the Kentucky region that they were able to petition the US congress, and were granted statehood, as the 15th state of the Union. Immediately following the Revolutionary War thousands of Americans began flowing westward to claim new lands in the trans-Appalachian wilderness of Kentucky and Tennessee. By 1799, many of the very earliest residents had spent all their means trying to defend their land titles, and had lost. In time, Robert and Mary made one last move, not far away, to a place near Paris, Henry Co., TN, where they lived out their remaining years. In about 1820, John and Elizabeth had heard of new lands opening up in a portion of what had previously been known as a€?Louisiana Territorya€? (from the purchase Thomas Jefferson made from Napoleon) but had just recently been made the newest state of the Union--Missouri. Stone was broken, lying flat on the ground in an overgrown area, about 300 feet SW of John Geerya€™s home. Our Guthrie family origin comes from Scotland.A  To begin with, we will insert a quotation from American Guthrie and Allied Families, compiled by Laurence R. A A A  With these statements pro and con before him, the reader is left to his own conclusions. A A A  Filed with these deeds is the following valuable family record, which gives the children of William, Sr. A A A  The date of death of William Guthrie, Sr., is unknown, but it was of course prior to the first deed referred to above, which was dated Oct. A A A  Robert Guthrie married March 9, 1780, in South Carolina, Mary Taylor, who was born Dec. William Guthrie moved his family from Pennsylvania to South Carolina.A  They eventually settled in the Waxhaw Valley. The summary of his military history, given above, also includes the name of his wife and their marriage date.A  Since this information was provided by his wife, we can assume that it is correct. DESCRIPTION: It was Martin Behaim of Nuremberg (1459-1507), who, in so far as we have knowledge, constructed one of the first modern terrestrial globes, and it may, indeed, be said of his a€?Erdapfel,a€? as he called it, that it is the oldest terrestrial globe extant. In the year 1490 he returned for a visit to his native city, Nuremberg, and there is reason for believing that on this occasion he was received with much honor by his fellow townsmen. The manufacture of a hollow globe or sphere can hardly have presented any difficulty at Nuremberg, where the traditions of the workshop of Johann MA?ller (Regiomontanus), who turned out celestial spheres, were still alive.
The mould or matrix of loam was prepared by a craftsman bearing the curious name of Glockengiesser, a bell-founder. The important duty of transferring the map to the surface of the globe and illuminating it was entrusted to Glockenthon (and possibly Erhard Etzlaub). For over a hundred years the globe stood in one of the upper reception rooms of the town hall, but in the beginning of the 16th century it was claimed by and surrendered to Baron Behaim. The globe, in its pristine condition, with its bright colors and numerous miniatures, must have delighted the eyes of a beholder.
At the request of the wise and venerable magistrates of the noble imperial city of Nuremberg, who govern it at present, namely, Gabriel Nutzel, P. The globe is crowded with over 1,100 place-names and numerous legends in black, red, gold, or silver.
1,431 years after the birth of our dear Lord, when there reigned in Portugal the Infant Don Pedro, the infant Don Henry, the King of Portugala€™s brother, had fitted out two vessels and found with all that was needed for two years, in order to find out what was beyond the St. In the year 734 of Christ when the whole of Spain had been won by the heathen of Africa, the above island Antilia called Septa Citade [Seven Cities] was inhabited by an archbishop from Porto in Portugal, with six other bishops and other Christians, men and women, who had fled thither from Spain by ship, together with their cattle, belongings and goods. Through the inspiration of Behaim the construction of globes in the city of Nuremberg became a new industry to which the art activities of the city greatly contributed.
The longitudinal extent of the old world accepted by Ptolemy was approximately 177 degrees to the eastern shore of the Magnus Sinus, plus an unspecified number of degrees for the remaining extent of China.
The new knowledge displayed is confined to Africa, or rather to the western coast for the names on the east coast, save for those taken from Ptolemy, are fanciful. Sources: Behaim informs us in one of the legends of his globe that his work is based upon Ptolemya€™s Cosmography, for the one part, and upon the travels of Marco Polo and Sir John Mandeville, and the explorations carried on by the order of King John of Portugal, for the remainder.
Ptolemy (#119): Behaim has been guided by the opinion of the a€?orthodox a€? geographers of his time and has consequently copied the greater part of the outline of the map of the world designed by the great Alexandrian. Isidore of Seville (#205), or one of his numerous copyists, is the authority for placing the islands of Argyra, Chryse and Tylos far to the east, to the south of Zipangu [Japan]. Marco Polo: One cannot fail to be struck by the extent to which the author of the globe is indebted to the greatest among medieval travelers. A comparison of this sketch with Behaima€™s globe, or indeed with other maps of the period, even including SchA¶nera€™s globe of 1520 (#328), shows clearly that a much nearer approach to a correct representation to the actual countries of Eastern Asia could have been secured had these early cartographers taken the trouble to consult the account which Marco Polo gave of his travels. The only contemporary map upon which the delineation of Eastern Asia including the place names is almost identical with that given on Behaima€™s globe is by Martin WaldseemA?ller (#310), and was published in 1507.
According to Marco Poloa€™s records, the longitudinal extent of the Old World, from Lisbon to the east coast of China, is approximately 142A°. Paolo Tosconelli in 1474 (#252), on the other hand, gives the old world a longitudinal extension of 230A° thus narrowing the width of the Atlantic to 130A°. Toscanelli may be deserving of credit, for having been the first to draw a graduated map of the great Western Ocean, but when we find that he rejected Ptolemya€™s critique of the exaggerated extent given by Marinus of Tyre to the route followed by the caravans in their visits to Sera, and failed to identify Ptolemya€™s Serica with the Cathaia of Marco Polo, as had been done before him by Fra Mauro, we are not able to rank him as high as a critical cartographer as he undoubtedly ranks as an astronomer. Sir John Mandeville: Jean de Bourgogne, a learned physician of Liege, declared on his death-bed (in 1475) that his real name was Jean de Mandeville, but that having killed a nobleman he had been obliged to flee England, his native country, and live in concealment.
Portolano Charts (#251): These nautical [sailing direction] charts were widely distributed in Behaima€™s time, and the fact that the Baltic Sea (Ptolemya€™s Mare Germanicum) appears on the globe as Das mer von alemagna, instead of Das teutsche Mer, is proof conclusive that one of these popular charts was consulted when designing the globe or preparing the map which served for its prototype.
But while improving Ptolemya€™s northern Europe with the aid of a portolano chart, he blindly followed the Greek cartographer in his delineation of the contours of the Mediterranean, and this notwithstanding the fact that the superiority of these portolano charts had not only long since been recognized by all seamen who had them in daily use, but also by the compilers of a number of famous maps of the world, including the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (#235), which the King of Aragon presented to Charles V. Portuguese Sources: When Behaim, in the spring of 1490, left Lisbon for his native Nuremberg, Bartolomeu Diaz had been back from his famous voyage round the Cape for over twelve months, numerous commercial and scientific expeditions had improved the rough surveys made by the first explorers along the Guinea coast, factories had been established at Arguim, S. There is no doubt that the early Portuguese navigators brought home excellent charts of their voyages. Behaim, of course, enjoyed many opportunities for examining the charts brought home by seamen not only, but also other curious maps, whose existence has been recorded although the maps themselves have long since disappeared. In addition to maps and charts a person of Behaima€™s social position and connections might readily have had access to the reports of contemporary explorers. Miscellaneous Sources: Foremost amongst these rank the maps in the Ulm edition of Ptolemy (1482), of which Domunus Nicolaus, a German residing in Italy, was the author.
Bartolomeo of Florence, who is said to have traveled for 24 years in the East (1401-1424), but whose name and reputation are other vise unknown, is quoted at length on the spice trade.
Behaim had access, likewise, to valuable collections of books and maps, most important among which was the library of the famous Johann MA?ller of KA¶nigsberg (Monteregio), who at the time of his death was engaged upon a revised edition of Ptolemy, which he intended to illustrate with modern maps, including one of the entire world. But long before WaldseemA?ller and Behaim, the same old map must have been accessible to Dom.
Be it known that on this Apple [Globe] here present is laid out the whole world according to its length and breadth in accordance with the art geometry, namely, the one part as described by Ptolemy in his book called Cosmographia Ptolemaei and the remainder from what the Knight Marco Polo of Venice caused to be written down in 1250. The ocean on Behaima€™s globe surrounds the continental mass of land, though covered around the North Pole with many large islands, so that in order to proceed from Iceland direct to the north coast of Asia it is necessary to pass through a narrow strait. The North Sea, the Oceanus Germanicus of Ptolemy, is described as das engelis mere [the English Sea], for by that name it was known to the sailors of Scandinavia and of northern Germany. Be it known that the sea called Ocean, between the Cape Verde Islands and the mainland, runs swiftly to the south; when Hercules had arrived here with his ships and saw the declivity (current) of the sea he turned back, and set up a column, the inscription upon which proves that Hercules got no further.
The Pillars of Hercules originally stood on the island of Gades [Cadiz], outside the Straits of Gibraltar, but in proportion as geographical knowledge extended so were these columns pushed ahead.
On a Catalan-Estense map of 1450 (#246), there are two small islands off Cape Verde described as Illa de cades: asi posa ercules does colones [Cades Island where Hercules set up two columns], and on Fra Mauroa€™s famous map of 1459 (#249) a legend to the south of Cabo rosso tells us that he had heard from many that a column stood there with an inscription stating that it was impossible to navigate beyond. Diogo Gomez, an old mariner, well known to Behaim, to whom he presented his account De prima inventione Guineae, tells us that JoA?o de Castro, on his homeward voyage in 1415, had to struggle against the current which swept round Cabo de Non, upon which Hercules had set up a column with the well-known legend, quis navigat ultra caput de Non revertetur aut non. Gregory of Nyssa (died 395) already knew of the existence of this current, which he ascribed to the excessive evaporation caused by the great heat of the southern sun and the absence of evaporation in the cool north. Behaima€™s Sinus arabicus corresponds to our Gulf of Aden, and this gulf as well as the das rod mer [the Red Sea], is, of course, colored red. Iceland: The story of the Icelanders selling their dogs and giving away their children is a fable invented by English and Hanseatic pirates and merchants, who kidnapped children, and even adults, and sold them into slavery.
Item, in Iceland are to be found men eighty years of age who have never eaten bread, for corn does not grow there, and instead of bread they eat dried fish. Insula de Brazil: The imaginary Jnfula de prazil, to the west of Ireland, appears for the first time on Dulcerta€™s chart (1339).
Antilia: An imaginary island of Antilia (also spelled, Antillia ) has found a place upon the charts since the 14th century and was at an early date identified by the Portuguese with the equally imaginary Ilha de sete cidades [the island of the seven cities] where the Archbishop of Oporto with his six bishops is imagined to have fled after the final defeat of King Roderick of the Visigoths on the Guadalete in 711 and the capture of Merida in 712 by the Arabs.
The historian Galvao (1862) reports that in 1447 a Portuguese vessel, driven westward by a storm, actually arrived at the island, the inhabitants of which still spoke the Portuguese tongue; other voyages to this island in the time of Prince Henry are referred to in the Historie of Fernand Colombo.
Antilia on the ancient maps is a huge island, quadrangular in shape, resembling in all respects the Zipangu of Behaima€™s globe.
In the year 734 of Christ, when the whole of Spain had been won by the heathen [Moors] of Africa, the above island Antilia, called Septe citade [Seven cities], was inhabited by an archbishop from Porto in Portugal, with six other bishops, and other Christians, men and women, who had fled thither from Spain, by ship, together with their cattle, belongings and goods.
Scandinavia: This area is almost wholly copied from a map in the Ulm edition of Ptolemy published in 1482. Marco Polo in the 38th chapter of the third book states that the mariners had verily found in this Indian Ocean more than 12,700 inhabited islands, many of which yield precious stones, pearls and mountains of gold, whilst others abound in twelve kinds of spices and curious peoples, concerning whom much might be written. There he shall find accounts of the curious inhabitants, of the islands, the monsters of the ocean, the peculiar animals on the land and of the islands yielding spices and precious stones. Many noble things are said about this island in ancient histories, how they (the inhabitants) helped Alexander the Great and went with the Romans to Rome in the company of the Emperor Pompey. The island Seilan, one of the best islands in the world, but it has lost in extent to the seas. Item, in past times the great Emperor of Cathay sent an ambassador to this King of Seilan, asking for this ruby and offering to give much treasure for it. The Three Holy Kings and Prester John: The three a€?holy kings a€? whose bones are exhibited to credulous visitors at Cologne Cathedral and whose memory is revived annually on Twelfth Day, were undoubtedly the King of Tarshish and the Isles, and the Kings of Sheba and Saba, of Psalm xxii. Closely connected with the legend of the Three Kings is the reported existence of a powerful Christian Prince, Presbyter or Prester John, in the center of Asia. The Tarshish of the Psalmist must be sought in the East, in maritime India, and not at Tartessus in the West; Sheba was in Southern Arabia, and Saba on the authority of Marco Polo probably in Persia. On Behaima€™s globe the Three Kings are localized in Inner Asia, on the Indian Ocean and in East Africa (Saba). On this mountain, the Mons victorialis (called Mount Gybeit by John of Marignola) the Three Kings watched for the appearance of the star which, according to Balaama€™s prophecy (Numbers xxiv. Below this we read Saba, which clearly stands for Shoa or Shewa, and to the west is a picture of this Prester John of Abassia with a kneeling figure in front of him. In this country resides the mighty Emperor known as Master John, who is appointed governor of the three holy kings Caspar, Balthazar and Melchior in the land of the Moors. Og to the west and Magog to the south of Tenduk are described by Marco Polo as being subject to the Prester. The country towards midnight is ruled by the Emperor Mangu, khan of Tartary, who is a wealthy man of the great Emperor, the Master John of India, the wife of the great King is likewise a Christian. All this land, sea and islands, countries and kings were given by the Three Holy Kings to the Emperor Presbyter John, and formerly they were all Christians, but at present not even 72 Christians are known to be among them. Mandeville, says that 72 provinces and kings were tributaries of Prester John, on the authority of an apocryphal letter supposed to have been sent to Manuel Commenus (1143-80), the Pope and others. Zipangu is the most noble and richest island in the east, full of spices and precious stones. Conclusion: Behaim is no doubt indebted to his globe, and to the survival of that globe, for the great reputation that he enjoys among posterity.
But we may well ask whether greatness was not in a large measure thrust upon Behaim by injudicious panegyrists; and if, on a closer examination of his work, he does not quite come up to our expectations, they, at all events, must bear the greater part of the blame. Maximilian, invincible King of the Romans, who, through his mother, is himself a Portuguese, intended to invite Your Majesty through my simple letter to search for the eastern coast of the very rich Cathay .
Before embarking upon his journey, Magellan himself stated he knew that south of America there was a sound that led to the Southern Sea which Balboa had discovered in I5I3 at the Isthmus of Panama: he, Magellan, had seen the sound on a map by Martin Behaim. No one has yet determined what connection the work of the Nuremberg scholar Behaim has with Magellana€™s great achievement. Martin Behaim has accordingly been repeatedly regarded in former times as the actual discoverer of the Magellan Straits and even of the whole of America. Later, in I786, Otto, a German who then resided in the United States, described Behaim as the actual discoverer of America. An outright struggle has been conducted for centuries concerning Behaima€™s claim to priority in the discovery of America (he himself had not the least idea of this strife).
This certainly does not do away with Magellana€™s peculiar statement that he already had seen on a map the straits which he set out to sail along. Magellana€™s conduct before his departure is depicted in greater detail in 1601 by the Spanish chronicler Herrera who, as Humboldt supposed, could use the notes made by Andrea de San Martin, the astronomer of the Magellan expedition. This report can certainly be assumed to be true, with the exception of Behaima€™s authorship.
Two years later the same SchA¶ner made a globe (Book IV, #328) which in a charming manner enriched the Behaim, globe of 1492 with the new discoveries in the western ocean. The definite assertions in the pamphlet of 1508, of Johann SchA¶ner and others, that at their time the Portuguese had already discovered a sound south of America were certainly bona fide but are nevertheless incredible. That Magellana€™s a€?advance knowledgea€? of the straits which he was to discover was doubtful is also indicated by a notice made by Pigafetta to the effect that in the austral winter of 1520 the explorer wintered with his crew on the coast on 49A° 8' S.
Thus one can today describe as well-established facts that the Magellan Straits are rightly called so, that prior to the Portuguese discoverer the hypotheses connected with Martin Behaima€™s name must be considered figments of imagination.
Breusing, Zur Geschichte der Geographie, Regiomontanus, Martin Behaim und der Jacobstab, Zeitsch, der Gesellsch.
Humboldt, Examen Critique de la€™Histoire de la Geographie du Nouveau Continent et des progres de la€™astronomie nautique dans les XVe et XVIe siecles, volume 1, pp.
Detail of the Atlantic Ocean, Zipangu [Japan} on the left, real and mythical islands such as Antilia and St.
The compilation of a printed mappamundi, which was used for the globe, naturally fell to the share of Behaim himself.
The globe is crowded with over 1,100 place-names and numerous legends in black, red, gold, or silver.A  The legends, in the south German dialect of the period, are very numerous, and are of great interest to students of history and of historical geography. Katie Ledecky is basically swimming against herself in her final tuneup for the US Olympic trials.
Ledecky won the 400-meter freestyle at the Atlanta Classic on Saturday night, grabbing the lead as soon as she dove in the water and stretching the margin with every lap. Katie Ledecky competes in Saturday's 400m freestyle final during the Atlanta Classic swim meet at Georgia Tech Aquatic Center. The Atlanta Classic is Ledecky's final meet before the Olympic trials, which begin June 26 in Omaha, Nebraska. Tellingly, Ledecky's time in Atlanta was nearly three seconds faster than the gold medal-winning performance by the late Camille Muffat in London four years ago. The American teenager will be an overwhelming favorite in both the 400 and the 800 free, and increasingly looks like the swimmer to beat in the 200 free. She's also added the 100 free to her repertoire, giving her a chance to add another individual event or at least claim a spot on two relays at the Rio Games. After warming down for 30 minutes in the adjacent diving well, Ledecky paused on deck to sign autographs and pose for phots with dozens of adoring young fans who were patiently waiting. In another event on Saturday night, Olympic gold medalist Nathan Adrian won the 50 free in a water-churning 21.93.
While that wasn't nearly fast enough to win an Olympic gold, it sets up Adrian to at least make a run at swimming the unpredictable event in Rio.
When the European Championships start on Monday at the London Aquatics Centre - which staged the swimming at the 2012 Olympics - there will be just 82 days before the Games start in Rio de Janeiro. Given the proximity, few who are competing in Rio will have rested before the London meet, but are instead in heavy training, eyes planted firmly on what lies ahead in August.
Britain's Adam Peaty is his country's major hope as the European Championships start on Monday in London. Prominent was 19-year-old Adam Peaty, two weeks after knocking Olympic champion Cameron van der Burgh of South Africa to second place in the 100m breaststroke at the Commonwealth Games in Glasgow. Peaty was a standout in Berlin, winning four gold medals and setting a world record in the 50m breaststroke, albeit not ratified due to an administrative error. Olympic 50m freestyle champion Florent Manaudou also made four visits to the top of the podium, while Sweden's Sarah Sjoestroem claimed three golds.
All three have had a stunning couple of years, but for Peaty the summer of 2014 was when he made a deafening entrance onto the international stage. He went on to obliterate Van der Burgh's 100m world record last year in London before three gold medals at the World Championships in Kazan, where he and the South African went toe to toe like prize fighters, trading 50m world records as boxers trade blows. FIFA's new second-in-command is no stranger to the kind of power struggles that brought FIFA to the brink, having served as the representative of the UNDP in post-coup Madagascar from 2010 to 2015 before moving to Nigeria. Samoura's years with the UN, including with the World Food Program, have taken her crisis-management skills to hotspots such as Afghanistan, Chad and Darfur. Samoura, who was named as the successor to disgraced Frenchman Jerome Valcke at a FIFA congress in Mexico on Friday, will take up her post by mid-June after undergoing an eligibility check administered by an independent review committee. She said she met Infantino, who was appointed to succeed Sepp Blatter in February, for the first time in November last year. A mother of three, whose husband's dreams of becoming a soccer pro were shattered when he broke his leg at age 20, Samoura has rubbed shoulders with soccer luminaries from an early age. The daughter of an army colonel, she went to school with Cheikh Seck, goalkeeper for the Senegalese national team in the 1980s, and befriended Cameroonian legend Roger Milla during a posting in Yaounde. Among her idols, she lists former Bayern Munich winger and now president Karl-Heinz Rummenigge and retired Malian striker Salif Keita, who played for Marseille. Gonzalo Higuain was in high spirits on Saturday after his hat-trick in a dramatic 4-0 rout of Frosinone set a new all-time record of 36 goals in a single Serie A season and fired Napoli into the Champions League.
Roma, despite a 3-1 win at AC Milan that has virtually ended the host's hopes of Europa League football, finished two points back in third, meaning it will enter the preliminary rounds of Europe's premier club competition. Champion Juventus, which secured a record-equaling fifth successive title last month, capped its campaign with a 5-0 rout of 10-man Sampdoria in Turin, where Paulo Dybala struck twice for the hosts. It left the Argentine striker with 23 goals in his first season at the club - one more than compatriot Carlos Tevez.
The results left the remaining European places for next season as all that was left to be decided, and Napoli and Sassuolo emerged the victors. Roma, runners-up the past two seasons, traveled to Milan looking for a win and hoping Napoli would stumble at home. In Napoli, fans packed San Paolo stadium hoping to see local hero 'Pipita' set a new record. Sitting at 33 goals going into the match, Higuain was still two short of Gunnar Nordahl's 1950 record of 35, scored in a 20-team Serie A campaign. In little under two years with Barcelona, Luis Suarez has won six trophies, silenced his critics with almost impeccable on-field behavior and now, most remarkably of all, left Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo in his shadow. Suarez fittingly scored a hat-trick as Barca retained its La Liga title on Saturday with a 3-0 win at Granada, lifting his tally for the season to a remarkable 59 goals and 26 assists. Barcelona's Luis Suarez celebrates completing his hat-trick in Saturday's 3-0 win over Granada that clinched the La Liga title.
Of those 59, 40 came in La Liga, making him the first man in seven years to depose Messi and Ronaldo and win the Pichichi award for Spain's top scorer.
Moreover, it's the most prolific season anyone other than Messi and Ronaldo has produced in the history of the Spanish top flight.
The Pichichi and golden boot for Europe's top scorer are individual awards where all that matters are the numbers and Suarez can't be discredited. He was sidelined as Neymar joined Messi and Ronaldo as FIFA's top three at the Ballon d'Or to crown the world's best player despite playing a pivotal role in turning Barca from trophyless in 2013-14 to treble winners a season later. The controversy and stigma of having bitten an opponent three times in his career continues to cost the Uruguayan in the popularity stakes.
However, in his first full season without a prolonged suspension in three years, Suarez has shown his devastating potential to leave Ronaldo, Messi and Neymar trailing in his wake.
Barca's title run was built once more around the thrilling talents of the South American 'MSN' triumvirate. When Messi was absent for two months due to knee ligament damage early in the season, Suarez scored 12 times in 10 games, including twice as Barca embarrassed Real Madrid 4-0 away.
Suarez also scored the winner as Barca beat Atletico Madrid 2-1 to open up a gap at the top in January and most memorably slotted home Messi's pass from the penalty spot to complete a hat-trick in the 6-1 rout of Celta Vigo in February. That character shone through in the final weeks of the season as Suarez lifted Barca out of an alarming April slump. Although he failed to find the net in any of Barca's three consecutive La Liga defeats for the first time in 13 years last month, Suarez responded with 14 in the last five games for the five wins Barca needed to hold off a late-season surge by Real. Two years removed from the pain of missing out on the Premier League and being kicked out of the World Cup for an infamous bite on Italy's Giorgio Chiellini, Suarez's redemption story continues with another trophy to show why he forced through a move to Barca. Moreover, he has the personal pride of leaving Ronaldo and Messi below him on the podium for the Pichichi they have made a personal duel for the past six years. After losing out by one point to title winners Barcelona in La Liga on Saturday, Real Madrid's attention turned to the Champions League final with Atletico Madrid in Milan in two weeks. Zinedine Zidane's side beat Deportivo La Coruna 2-0 in the final La Liga game of the season, recording a 12th straight win in the competition, but Barca clinched the title with a 3-0 victory at Granada. Real's hopes looked dead and buried after losing to Atletico at the end of February and falling 12 points behind Barcelona. At more than 1.8 meters tall and weighing 70 kilograms, Yang Yiguo is one of the best-known professional kickboxers at the Monster fight club. The event prompted him to beef up through martial arts, and he quickly fell in love with Thai boxing. Kickboxers compete in a bout at the Monster fight club in Chengdu, Sichuan province, on Dec 11. Monster was founded by two of Yang's friends in a converted bar in an upscale neighborhood of Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan province. Aside from using WeChat, the instant-messaging app, the club does no promotion, yet an increasing number of people are learning about it via word of mouth. Yang and Ma Huoche, a DJ who organizes events at the club, have devised a three-tiered system: knockout bouts, challenge bouts and exhibition matches.
Participants and the audience come from various walks of life, including office workers, teachers, doctors, tattoo artists, police officers, sailors, lawyers and college students. The fighters wear little in the way of protective equipment, apart from gum shields and boxing gloves.
Fight night lasts from 10 pm to midnight every Friday and Saturday, with each bout consisting of two to three rounds. Yang began offering one-on-one lessons in late February after returning to China from a 20-day training camp in Thailand.
Fighting, she adds, is a good way of relieving the pressures that accumulate in daily life, but it must be taken seriously. In February, a local newspaper published a report about the club that, according to its founders, intentionally misrepresented the venue to make it look like a shady, underground business. After the report, the police called several times to check whether the club was breaking any laws.
Yang adds that, although the fights are passionate and bloody affairs, the fighters always shake hands at the bell. Emotional fighters always lose because their skills and judgment are affected by their feelings, he says. Xiao Mo, a costume designer in his 20s, has good upper-body strength, but that didn't stop him from suffering a three-round defeat at the hands of a 30-something lawyer who boxed under the name "1942". Breathless and bathed in sweat, Xiao was too exhausted to speak as his friends supported him as he climbed slowly out of the ring. For Yang, it's all about restoring the martial spirit, which some say the Chinese people have lost.
He concedes that he felt humiliated when his coach put him in the weakest training group just because he was Chinese.


Serena Williams of the US hits a return to Anna Lena Friedsam of Germany in their second-round match at the Italian Open in Rome on Tuesday.
The gourmet food Serena Williams ordered off the hotel room-service menu for dogs looked good enough for her to eat. Williams posted a video Wednesday on Snapchat showing the salmon and rice dish she ordered for her Yorkshire Terrier at their hotel during the Italian Open. Williams says the bite tasted weird, "a little bit like a house-cleaner thing," but she ate it anyway. Coming from one of the most famous and successful women athletes in the world, the video raised eyebrows but Williams replied to queries on Thursday by saying: "I'm not the most serious person off the court. Admitting she was feeling no serious ill effects of the incident, she added: "No, thank God! Roger Federer said "time was ticking" in his battle to recover form and fitness for the French Open after he lost to rising Austrian Dominic Thiem 7-6 (2) 6-4 in the third round of the Italian Open on Thursday. Former world No 1 Federer still looks way short of his best after knee and back injuries and struggled to get to grips with the 22-year-old Thiem at the Foro Italico, a week after withdrawing from the Madrid Open. Thiem, ranked 15th, recovered from an early break and streaked into a 6-2 lead in the tiebreak before taking the opening set with a backhand winner. He broke the 34-year-old Federer's serve again midway through the second set as he claimed the 32nd victory of a breakthrough season that saw him rise to a career-high 13th. Federer, the winner of 17 majors, has missed 10 weeks of the season following knee surgery. Federer, a four-time finalist in Rome, missed last week's Madrid Open with a back problem but said there had been some encouraging signs this week.
World No 1 Novak Djokovic was on the wrong end of a love set for only the ninth time in his career, picking up just eight points.
From there, though, he moved to a smooth victory over the 37th-ranked Belluci and a quarterfinal meeting with Rafael Nadal, who defeated Australian Nick Kyrgios 6-7 (3), 6-2, 6-4. Bernard Tomic ruled himself out of representing Australia at the Rio Olympics in August due to his "extremely busy" playing schedule.
Tomic, who was warned by Australia's Olympic chef de mission Kitty Chiller he was among a group of athletes whose behavior was being monitored to judge their suitability for the Rio team, will instead play an ATP tournament in Mexico. Tomic drew heavy criticism last week following his exit from the Madrid Open when, on match point against Fabio Fognini, he held the racquet by the strings and did not offer a shot to the Italian's serve. The 23-year-old responded to the criticism by telling News Corp, "I don't care about that match point. The response was described as "appalling" by Chiller and the criticism intensified when he pulled out of his opening match in Rome after just eight minutes, citing illness. Joe Pavelski of the San Jose Sharks scores a goal past Shea Weber (6) and goalie Pekka Rinne of the Nashville Predators in the first period of Game 7 of the Western Conference semifinals of the NHL Stanley Cup playoffs at SAP Center on Thursday in San Jose, California. Captain Joe Pavelski and the rest of San Jose's big guns took little time to answer the questions about how this version of the Sharks would respond after a lackluster loss in a potential series clincher. Pavelski got San Jose off to a fast start in Game 7 with his franchise record-tying ninth goal of the playoffs to send the Sharks to their first Western Conference final in five years with a 5-0 victory over the Nashville Predators on Thursday night. Joel Ward, Logan Couture, Joe Thornton and Patrick Marleau also scored as San Jose shook off an overtime loss in Game 6 to reach the conference final for the fourth time in franchise history. After blowing a 3-0 series lead to Los Angeles in 2014 in their most noteworthy in a long list of playoff collapses and missing the postseason entirely last year, the Sharks are now one round away from advancing to the Stanley Cup final for the first time in franchise history. The Predators' most successful season ended in bitter disappointment as they were unable to repeat their Game 7 road win in the first round against Anaheim to make the conference final for the first time. Defensive miscues by Nashville's two top defensemen, captain Shea Weber and Roman Josi, led to early San Jose goals as Pekka Rinne got little help from his teammates. The Predators had just eight shots on goal in the first two periods and Rinne left after allowing goals to Thornton and Marleau early in the third period. Nashville remains one of three franchises, along with Columbus and the current Winnipeg franchise, to never make it to a conference final.
The Sharks got there in 2004, 2010 and 2011 - only to lose each time as a long run of regular-season success behind stars such as Thornton and Marleau has not yet led to the ultimate postseason goal. The 2014 collapse set the franchise back and led to Thornton losing his captaincy amid several other changes the past two years. The Sharks came out fast from the drop and completely dominated the opening period, outshooting Nashville 17-3 to take a 2-0 lead.
Tim Duncan of the San Antonio Spurs forces Russell Westbrook of the Oklahoma City Thunder to pass the ball during the second half of Game 6 of the NBA's Western Conference semifinals at the Chesapeake Energy Arena on Thursday in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.
Tim Duncan doesn't know yet where he's headed as the San Antonio Spurs face an uncertain future.
Kevin Durant scored 37 points, Russell Westbrook added 28, and Oklahoma City beat San Antonio 113-99 on Thursday night to win the Western Conference semifinal series 4-2. Oklahoma City lost 124-92 in Game 1, but first-year coach Billy Donovan led the Thunder to victory in four of the next five. Steven Adams had 15 points and 11 rebounds, and Andre Roberson added 14 points for the Thunder. The Spurs were trying to extend the winningest season in franchise history after going 67-15. In Game 6, Oklahoma City opened up a 47-29 lead late in the second quarter after a 3-pointer by Westbrook that brought a roar from the crowd.
The Thunder looked like the Spurs often do in the first half, running an efficient offense while committing just three turnovers. The veteran Spurs had one last surge left and got as close as 11, but a 3-pointer and a driving layup by Westbrook killed San Antonio's momentum for good. The Thunder dominated the boards in the series, winning the rebounding battle in five of the six games. Since Gregg Popovich became coach of the Spurs on Dec 10, 1996, there have been 233 coaching changes throughout the rest of the league.
There's only five coaches who were in their current NBA jobs before 2013: Popovich, Spoelstra, Carlisle, Toronto's Dwane Casey and Portland's Terry Stotts. Below is a breakdown of total coaching changes by team since Popovich took over as coach in San Antonio.
This doesn't include when coaches missed games for illness or personal reasons, or in situations where the head coach remained officially in place but was not at games (such as when assistant Ron Rothstein filled in for Pat Riley at times during 2006-07 and 2007-08 in Miami, or earlier this season when assistant Luke Walton guided Golden State while Steve Kerr recovered from back surgeries). The NBA superstar, who is making another run toward a title with the Cleveland Cavaliers, said Thursday that he will extend his playing career only as long as his three children will let him. James and his wife, Savannah, have two sons and a daughter: 11-year-old LeBron Jr, 8-year-old Bryce and 19-month-old Zhuri. The Cavs have been in limbo since completing a four-game sweep of the Atlanta Hawks, Cleveland's second sweep of these playoffs. James has never given a firm timetable on how long he intends to play, but the four-time MVP isn't showing any signs of slowing down. He has added reason for that optimism: Many of the Blazers said Thursday they'd be sticking around this summer to work out together. The Trail Blazers' theme this season emerged over time as the team kept surpassing expectations. From a preseason bonding trip to San Diego, where the team hammed for photos on the beach, to Lillard's team dinners and trips to a roller skating rink, the young Blazers became a cohesive group. Lillard was the lone starter to return from the 2014-15 Blazers, after LaMarcus Aldridge, Nicolas Batum, Robin Lopez and Wesley Matthews departed in the offseason. The group that was assembled was the third-youngest in the NBA and included players who, for whatever reason, hadn't really caught on elsewhere. Portland had a daunting task in the defending NBA champion Warriors and MVP Stephen Curry in the second round but put up a fight. Lillard averaged a career-high 25.1 points in the regular season, becoming just the third Portland player to average more than 25. CJ McCollum averaged 20.8 points in his first year as a starter, giving the Blazers their first backcourt duo with an average of 20 or more points apiece in a single season. McCollum was named the league's Most Improved Player for more than tripling his scoring average from the 2014-15 season.
Those two will almost certainly be back next season, as will fellow starters Al-Farouq Aminu and Mason Plumlee. The Blazers have a team option on coach Terry Stotts for the coming season, but the team is looking to quickly firm up a long-term deal. Robby Fabbri, their 20-year-old rookie center, became the youngest player in NHL history to score three points in a Game 7, with a goal and two assists, while captain David Backes added a goal and an assist. The Blues, in the playoffs for the 40th time and still in search of their first Stanley Cup, will have home-ice advantage in the Western Conference final against Nashville or San Jose - and for the Stanley Cup Final as well, if they advance.
Patrik Berglund and Vladimir Tarasenko also had goals to help the Blues win for the third time on the road in the matchup. It was the fourth straight game in the series, and fifth overall, won by the visiting team, and a lopsided finish to a second-round series matching the Western Conference's top two teams in the regular season. Coach Ken Hitchcock's Blues were only two points behind Dallas in the regular-season standings for the top seed. In this Game 7, the Blues were in firm control after the first period, even after having a goal disallowed because of a replay challenge by Dallas. The Blues were ahead to stay when Fabbri scored on a powerplay 5:23 into the game, whipping a backhander past after Kari Lehtonen after the Dallas goaltender was unable to control a loose puck. Tarasenko took a shot from in front of the left circle that somehow got behind Lehtonen and into the net with about two minutes left in the first period that appeared to make it 2-0, but replays showed Tarasenko was offside before the puck got in the zone, and officials wiped off the goal. Dallas coach Lindy Ruff used two goalies all season, and Lehtonen was replaced after allowing three goals on eight shots. And while Ovechkin has been in this position before, having never reached a conference finals in his 11-year NHL career despite eight trips to the postseason, the Washington captain is no more comfortable with the process. After years of playoff heartbreak, this season looked like it might hold a new ending for Ovechkin as the most dangerous scorer of his era helped the Caps lock up home-ice advantage throughout the playoffs with a month to spare. He kept up his solid play during the postseason, recording five points in the quarter-final win over the Philadelphia Flyers that lasted six games. Ovechkin then added seven points against Pittsburgh in the Eastern Conference semifinal that saw Washington storm back from a 3-0 second-period deficit only to lose 4-3 in overtime of Game 6. The heartbreaking end to the season has prompted some to suggest the Capitals need to make sweeping changes if they want to take the next step, while others feel a few complementary pieces are all that is needed.
As captain, Ovechkin often shoulders the blame when his team underperforms, and while he could have cashed in on more of his chances, few would argue he is to blame for Washington's early exit. Allardyce hailed the club's "miraculous" effort to secure its top-flight future with a game to spare after a 3-0 victory over Everton on Wednesday condemned neighbor Newcastle United and Norwich City to join Aston Villa in the Championship next season. Allardyce's future would have been uncertain had Sunderland failed to upset the odds by clambering out of the bottom three for a fourth straight season. But after guaranteeing a 10th consecutive Premier League campaign, the 61-year-old said he was relishing the challenge of helping to ensure "great escapes" become a thing of the past. The January additions of midfielders Wahbi Khazri and Jan Kirchhoff and Cote d'Ivoire defender Lamine Kone - who scored twice as Roberto Martinez's side was soundly beaten - have proved crucial in Sunderland's latest successful survival bid. Meanwhile, the beleaguered Martinez brushed off questions over his future after Everton again succumbed to defeat, sparked by Patrick van Aanholt's 38th-minute free kick. The Goodison Park side is in free-fall after one win in its past 10 games and now cannot secure a top-half finish.
The Spaniard said his club has found it difficult to come to terms with its FA Cup semifinal exit to Manchester United last month. Sunderland's Jermain Defoe celebrates with manager Sam Allardyce after beating Everton 3-0 at The Stadium of Light on Wednesday. The Canaries beat Watford 4-2 on Wednesday thanks to two goals from Dieumerci Mbokani, one from Nathan Redmond and an own goal by Hornets defender Craig Cathcart. But the result ended up counting for nothing as Sunderland beat Everton 3-0 to confirm neither Norwich nor Newcastle United can now climb out of the bottom three on Sunday's final day. That Sunderland was winning comfortably was known long before the final whistle at Carrow Road on a night when Troy Deeney and Odion Ighalo scored for the visitors. Whether he will still be in charge at the start of next season in the Championship remains to be seen, but the Scot was certainly moved by the acclaim he received. Remarkably, Watford manager Quique Sanchez Flores appears more likely to find himself in need of new employment. Watford came up with Norwich last season and never allowed itself to become embroiled in a relegation battle. Norwich City fans look dejected after Wednesday's match against Watford that relegated their club from the Premier League despite a 4-2 victory. The IOC said on Wednesday it remains in contact with French prosecutors following allegations of a secret $1.5 million payment made during Tokyo's winning bid for the 2020 Olympics. It said the account is linked to Papa Massata Diack, the son of disgraced former IAAF president Lamine Diack. French prosecutors confirmed in March they had widened their investigation into corruption at the IAAF to include Olympic bidding for the 2016 and 2020 Games. The International Olympic Committee said it has been in touch with French magistrates from the start and is now a civil party to the investigation.
The IOC said its chief ethics and compliance officer "will continue to be in contact with all interested parties to clarify any alleged improper conduct". French prosecutors have been investigating bribery and money-laundering involving doping cover-ups at the International Association of Athletics Federations. Papa Massata Diack, who worked as an IAAF marketing consultant, was banned for life by the IAAF ethics commission in January for corruption and cover-up allegations linked to Russian doping.
The elder Diack, who stepped down in August after 16 years as IAAF president, is accused by French prosecutors of pocketing more than 1 million euros ($1.1 million) from bribes in exchange for covering up doping cases. The Guardian reported in January it saw leaked e-mails linking Diack's son to alleged "parcels" to be delivered to six IOC members during the bidding for the 2016 Games, which were awarded to Rio de Janeiro. Possible wrongdoing involving Lamine Diack and the 2020 Olympic bid race was cited in a World Anti-Doping Agency commission report into IAAF corruption.
The report suggested Diack dropped his support for Istanbul's bid because Turkey refused to pay, and backed Tokyo after the Japanese paid.
Brazil will deploy only half the 9,000 elite police originally planned for the Olympics in Rio de Janeiro this August, a state official said on Wednesday. He said the federal government had informed him several days ago that he would receive only 4,500 officers from the elite police force. The Olympic security plan announced several months ago provided for a total of about 80,000 police and soldiers for the violence-plagued city, double the number deployed for the 2012 London Games. Brazil also published a presidential decree on Wednesday authorizing the military to shoot down any "hostile" aircraft threatening the Games.
The measure, similar to ones enacted for the 2014 World Cup and 2013 Confederations Cup, will apply nationwide. Arrieta is one of several players potentially affected by Strasburg's seven-year, $175 million deal with the Nationals, which prevents the right-hander from testing free agency after this season. Arrieta avoided arbitration with a one-year, $10.7 million, deal with Chicago in February and is not eligible for free agency until 2018. Arrieta is coming off a breakout season, helping the Cubs get to the NL Championship Series. Strasburg, the No 1 overall pick in the 2009 draft, was 11-7 with a 3.46 ERA in 23 starts for the Nationals in 2015.
His new contract, announced on Tuesday, includes opt-outs after the 2019 or 2020 seasons, and $70 million in deferred money. Strasburg was an All-Star in 2012, but his season was cut short by the team out of concern for his surgically repaired elbow.
Asked about Strasburg's deal as it relates to the Cubs, president of baseball operations Theo Epstein said it does not impact them too much.
Arrieta and Strasburg are represented by Scott Boras, who has a reputation for taking his players to free agency. A fifth-round pick in the 2007 draft, Arrieta has flourished since he was acquired by Chicago in a July 2013 trade with Baltimore. Chicago Cubs starting pitcher Jake Arrieta unwinds against the Washington Nationals at Wrigley Field in Chicago last week. Thompson scored 33 points with six 3-pointers, Curry added 29 and sealed it with a 3 with 24.9 seconds left and Golden State advanced to the West final for the second straight season with a 125-121 victory over the Portland Trail Blazers in Game 5 on Wednesday night. Draymond Green, who had his left ankle retaped in the fourth quarter, had 13 points, 11 rebounds and six assists after guaranteeing Golden State would advance from this game.
The Warriors got past Portland playing without Curry for the first three games as he recovered from a sprained right knee. Now, Golden State will wait for the conclusion of the Oklahoma City-San Antonio series, led 3-2 by the Thunder. Thompson shot 13 for 17 and became the first player to have at least five 3s in seven straight games, also recording his fourth 30-point game this postseason. Curry's 3-pointer to beat the third-quarter buzzer gave Golden State a 93-91 lead heading into the final 12 minutes, then the Warriors made sure their raucous crowd at Oracle Arena got to celebrate another series-clincher after they eliminated Houston at home - also winning that best-of-seven series 4-1.
The Trail Blazers were 16 of 36 on 3-pointers and, unlike their Game 2 loss at Oracle Arena, they stayed in this one for the entire 48 minutes. Allen Crabbe, who played at the University of California in nearby Berkeley, scored 20 points.
Curry's first points came at the 5:29 mark of the first quarter and then he got Golden State right back in it on one wild sequence.
He missed a long 3 off the front rim, Leandro Barbosa got the rebound and tried a backward pass to Curry that the point guard had to save. Green, who blocked a career-high seven shots on Monday, made good on his declaration to eliminate Portland.
Curry, donning a yellow "Strength in Numbers" T-shirts over his No 30 jersey, received his MVP award from commissioner Adam Silver before the game as fans chanted "M-V-P!" and video highlights of Curry's year were shown on giant monitors.
Stephen Curry of the Golden State Warriors runs down court during the final seconds of their win over the Portland Trail Blazers in Game 5 of the Western Conference semifinal on Wednesday at Oracle Arena in Oakland, California. DeRozan matched a playoff high with 34 points and Lowry had 25 as the Raptors beat the Miami Heat 99-91 to take a 3-2 lead in their Eastern Conference semifinal. Lowry and DeRozan made six of 28 shot attempts and scored 19 total points as Toronto lost 94-87 in overtime in Game 4. It was DeRozan's franchise-best 13th 20-point game in the playoffs and his sixth this postseason. Toronto led by 20 in the first half and by 13 to start the fourth quarter before its lead shrunk to 88-87 when Wade made a pair of free throws with 1:54 left. DeRozan made a pair of free throws and, after a Miami turnover, Lowry drained a long 3-pointer to put Toronto up 93-87 with 52 seconds left. DeRozan jammed his sore right thumb while fouling Miami's Tyler Johnson with 8:19 remaining in the fourth. England's Danny Willett readies for The Players Championship during Tuesday's practice round in Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida. Masters champion Danny Willett has been away from golf for a month and has been working harder than ever. The last box of about 200 yellow Masters flags for Willett to sign for players and charities arrived on Tuesday, bringing the total to what manager Chubby Chandler estimated at just short of 1,000 since the 28-year-old from England slipped on a green jacket. I've been thinking about it a lot recently - because my kids are going to go to school soon so we're trying to work that out - and realise how important that is, but I never had an inspirational teacher. Not just be left free to increase taxes willy-nilly whenever they want, with the slight chance they may be held accountable for it once every 4 or 5 years.
They get to know adopters as well as they ve gotten to know their four-legged charges: Liz and her team try to educate potential adopters and find the best match for everyone who walks through their doors.
Since the beginning of this year, there have been 705 casualties in this internal war, 45 more than had been killed by the same date last year.
In the Panthers' Horizon League championship win over Wright State, the tenacious forward had seven points and eight boards. They were sent text messages at the end of each day, informing them whether they were working or not. Unless otherwise specified in the prize notification, all prizes or prize certificates may be picked up at the office of the Promoter at the address below. Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, director of preventive cardiology at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester. They'll tell you what you need to know about whatever is going on in the world in five minutes or less. She recently helped a couple plan a wedding in Scotland and is currently working on a Fiji wedding. And after knocking each and every one down, Arrowhead is the Cinderella in the Division 1 field. ECHO units, which include efficiencies and one-bedroom cottages, enable older people to live independently and privately in their own homes, even while on the property of a family member or caregiver. On icy or slippery roads or when driving on wet off-road conditions, power is distributed to both the front and rear wheels to ensure a safe, stable and dependable drive. He said: “The last two games have been very difficult against two teams in form, Manchester City and Liverpool, but at home we’ve got to do much better. If you’re going to spend your time doing something, you should always do it with a smile. The income distribution reform, one that is closely related with China's overall social reform and development, is already receiving a great deal of attention.
2 in the final Wisconsin Volleyball Coaches Association Division 1 poll, was faced with arguably the toughest quarterfinal draw of the four area teams in the Division 1 state girls volleyball tournament but overcame a slow start to score a surprisingly one-sided, 3-1 victory over third-ranked Neenah at the Resch Center. His family came from Yugoslavia on a trip sponsored by the Lutheran Church, and several times during his remarks, he mentioned his faith, as when he mentioned moving to North Carolina.
Mallon was instrumental in demolishing good homes all over Middlesbrough particularly central Middlesbrough. Nicky Featherstone broke into the area and rolled the ball across goal and out of reach of Paynter.
Nepal's four major political parties -- Nepali Congress (NC), Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist (CPN-UML), Unified Communist Party of Nepal-Maoist (UCPN-Maoist) and Madhesi Janadhikar Forum-Loktantrik (MJF-L) -- on Saturday night came up with a six-province model in the new federal set up, a key contentions issue of Nepal's constitution-making process that started in 2008 when the first Constituent Assembly was elected.
He says while Waitrose already champions English wines and Marks Spencer is considering offering domestically-produced tipples, he has turned down offers to export his wines to far flung countries. The Midlands Area champion and former English title challenger in two weight divisions had too much, however, and claimed the win. A weaker yuan may counter a slump in exports, but prolonged depreciation would trigger capital flight, disturb the financial system and slash investors' confidence in the yuan. If you want to be richer, instead of lying around teaching or nursing or driving trains, do some graft and sell short for an afternoon. The soft-feel grained plastics and sensible switchgear have trickled down from the larger (and no longer available in the UK) Laguna model. In 2014, LVMH’s leather and fashion brands grew by 10 percent year-on-year and in 2015 it estimates sales will grow by another 19 percent, with a forecast of 7 percent growth in 2016 and 2017. Scotland, where they were of the best middle class and interested in the manufacture of iron.
Guthriea€™s American Guthrie and Allied Families, and back track just a bit to add more information about the progress of this family, that was not contained in the above account, or that was quickly skimmed over. Jackson already had two sisters who lived in the Waxhaw valley with their families and this had always been their family destination when sailing to America.A  They found a place to claim as their own, but sadly, the father, Andrew, died shortly after their arrival, and just prior to the birth of his third son--Mar.
James Adams during 1776 for a three-month tour against the Indians.A  In 1778, he was under Capt. He took advantage of the opportunities which were offered him for travel, though, according to both E.G.
It was the suggestion of George Holzschuher, member of the City Council, and himself somewhat famed as a traveler, that eventually brought special renown to this globe maker, for he it was who proposed to his colleagues of the Council that Martin Behaim should be requested to undertake the construction of a globe on which the recent Portuguese and other discoveries should be represented.
This map was subsequently mounted upon two panels, framed and varnished and hung up in the clerka€™s office of the town hall. This was fortunate, for had it remained, uncared for, in the town hall it might have shared the fate of so many other a€?monumentsa€? of geographical interest, the loss of which the living generation has been fated to deplore. In the course of time, however, the once brilliant colors darkened or faded, parts of the surface were rubbed off; many of the names became illegible or disappeared altogether. Volkhamer, and Nicholas Groland, this globe was devised and executed according to the discoveries and indications of the Knight Martin Behaim, who is well versed in the art of cosmography, and has navigated around one-third of the earth. The chief magistrate induced his fellow citizen to give instruction in the art of making such instruments, yet this seems to have lasted but a short time, for we learn that not long after the completion of his now famous Erdapfel, Behaim returned to Portugal, where he died in the year 1507. The globe has also great importance in the perennial controversy over the initiation of Columbusa€™ great design and the subsequent evolution of his ideas on the nature of his discoveries. Ravenstein has shown that Behaim possibly made a voyage to Guinea in 1484-5, but that he was certainly not an explorer of the southern seas and a possible rival of Columbus, and his cartographical attainments were distinctly limited. Behaim accepted more or less Ptolemya€™s 177A° and added 57A° to embrace the eastern shores of China.
We are justified in assuming on these and other grounds that Behaim had not gone directly to the authorities he quotes, but had merely amended an existing world map. The main features of the west coast are more or less recognizable, though Cape Verde is greatly over-emphasized. Other sources were, however, drawn upon by the compiler, and several of these are incidentally referred to by him or easily discoverable, but as to a considerable part of his design scholars have been unable to trace the authorities consulted by him. He has, however, rejected the theory of the Indian Ocean being a mare clausum [closed sea] and although he accepted Ptolemya€™s outline for the Mediterranean, the Black Sea and the Caspian, he substituted modern place names for most of those given by ancient geographers.
Accounts, in manuscript, of Poloa€™s travels in Latin, French, Italian and German, were available at the time the globe was being made at Nuremberg, as well as three printed editions. One may conclude from this that both Behaim and WaldseemA?ller derived their information from the same source, unless, indeed, we are to suppose that the Lotharingian cartographer had procured a copy of the globe that he embodied in his own design.
This encouraged Columbus to sail to the west in the confident hope of being able to reach the wealthy cities of Zipangu and Cathay. He may have been the a€?initiatora€? of the voyage that resulted in the discovery of America, but cannot be credited with being the a€?hypotheticala€? discoverer of this new world. Further evidence of such use is afforded by the outline given to the British Isles, and possibly also by a few place names in western Africa, which are Italian rather than German or Portuguese. Jorge da Mina, Benin and, far within the Sahara, at Wadan, trading expeditions had gone up the Senegal and Gambia, and relations established with Timbuktu, Melli and other states in the interior.
Columbus, who saw the charts prepared by Bartolomeu Diaz, speaks of them as a€?depicting and describing from league to league the track followeda€? by the explorer.
He might have learned much from personal intercourse with seamen and merchants who had recently visited the newly discovered regions or were interested in them. Behaima€™s laudable reticence as to mirabilia mundi has been referred to already, but he does not disdain to introduce long accounts concerning the a€?romancea€? of Alexander the Great, the myth of the a€?Three Wise Mena€? or kings, the legends connected with Christian Saints, such as St. Nicolaus Germanus, for in the map of the world in the edition of Ptolemy published in 1482 he introduces a third head stream of the Nile, which is evidently derived from it. The worthy Doctor and Knight Johann de Mandavilla likewise left a book in 1322 which brought to the light of day the countries of the East, unknown to Ptolemy, whence we receive spices, pearls and precious stones, and the Serene King John of Portugal has caused to be visited in his vessels that part to the south not yet known to Ptolemy in the year 1485, whereby I, according to whose indications this Apple has been made, was present. The Arctic Ocean, called das gesrore mer septentrionel [the frozen sea of the North] is surrounded on all sides by land.
The Baltic, the Mare Germanicum of the learned, is called das mer von alemagna, [the German Sea], which proves conclusively, according to Ravenstein, that Behaim in delineating that part of the world was guided by an Italian or Catalan portolano chart. Albertus Magnus (died 1280) in his Meteorologia ascribed the current to the same cause, namely, a difference in the level of the ocean due to differences of evaporation, but believed the current thus produced to be steady and almost imperceptible. As an instance may be mentioned the misdeeds of William Byggeman, the captain of the a€?Trinity,a€™ who was prosecuted in England in 1445, for having committed this offense. It is the custom there to sell dogs at a high price, but to give away the children to (foreign) merchants, for the sake of God, so that those remaining may have bread. Subsequently, in the Medicean Portolano Chart of 1351 (#233), it figures as one of the Azores, usually identified with Terceira, a cape of which still bears the name of Morro do Brazil. Two flags fly above these islands from the same flagstaff, the upper one with the arms of Nuremberg, the lower with those of Behaim. These voyages, however, are purely imaginary, or, at all events, led to no actual discoveries. Brandon in his ship came to this island where he witnessed many marvels, and seven years afterwards he returned to his country. The author of the globe was well aware that the three northern kingdoms, since the Union of Calmar (1397), were ruled by the King of Denmark, for the standard of that kingdom flies at the mouth of the Elbe, at the westernmost point of Norway and on Iceland. And if anyone desires to know more of these curious people, and peculiar fish in the sea or animals upon the land, let him read the books of Pliny, Isidore (of Seville), Aristotle, Strabo, the Specula of Vincent (of Beauvais) and many others. This island has a circuit of 4,000 miles, and is divided into four kingdoms, in which is found much gold and also pepper, camphor, aloe wood and also gold sand. But the King replied that this stone had for a long time belonged to his ancestors, and it would ill become him to send this stone out of the country. It was not doubted that these a€?kingsa€? were descended from the three wise men from the East, who, according to Matthew ii. This rumor first reached Europe through the Bishop of Gabala in 1145, and it was supposed that this Royal Priest was a direct successor or descendant of the Three Kings. Saba Ethiopie, however, in course of time, was transferred to Abyssinia, and its Christian ruler was accepted as the veritable and most popular Prester John. Here is a royal tent with the following legend: The kingdom of one of the Three Holy Kings, him of Saba. But while the undoubted beauties of that globe are due to the miniature painter Glockenthon, according to Ravenstein the purely geographical features do not exhibit Behaim as an expert cartographer, if judged by modern standards. The globe by Behaim was designed to demonstrate the ease with which one could sail westward to Japan and China, to the Zipangu and Cathay of Marco Polo. Unknown to Behaim, Columbus had discovered the Bahamas and the Antilles and had returned to Spain by March 1493.
Otto's arguments seemed so convincing that Benjamin Franklin had a letter which Otto had written him printed in the works of the Philosophical Society of Philadelphia. Postela€™s Cosmography speaks outright of Martini Bohemi fretum and in 1682 Wagenseil demanded that the Magellan Straits be called the Behaim Straits. The following took place according to Herrera: a€?(When Magellan) appeared for the first time at the Spanish court in Valladolid, he showed the Bishop of Burgos a painted globe on which he had traced his planned route.
12 years prior to Magellana€™s discovery, there was printed a pamphlet which spoke of the circumnavigability in the south of the newly discovered south American country.
The whole of South America - as much as was discovered of it by that time - appears on this globe under the name of Paria sive Brasilia, south of it the sea rises in a broad front against the continent. If Magellan had ever come across it, he would, as can be understood, have believed that Behaim was its author. However, due to the verities of time, many legends and place-names are illegible.A  In his book on the life and work of Behaim, Ravenstein provides a complete listing of all decipherable place-names and legends, along with a translation and discussion where his interpretation differs from previous scholars. The 19-year-old brought the crowd to its feet with a blistering final lap to win the event. She'll wrap up the competition with two more events - the 100 free and the 200 individual medley - on Sunday but won't tackle the 800 free, probably her signature event. At that time he was not yet a candidate for the FIFA presidency and was busy preparing Michel Platini's campaign.
I'm delighted, it's been a great day and we get to lift the trophy in front of the fans," said Dybala. But despite goals from Mohamed Salah, Stephan El Shaarawy and a late Emerson strike, with Carlos Bacca hitting a late consolation for the Rossoneri, it was not enough for Luciano Spalletti's men. However, his well-honed physique is a far cry from when, at 16, he was beaten up during a basketball game. Now in his 20s, he has been fighting professionally for six years and has lost just four of his 30 bouts. In November, Yang joined them as a Thai boxing coach and, using his connections, arranged bouts featuring several well-known boxers.
The fighters register for free via WeChat and are assigned to different levels depending on weight and experience.
They are allowed to strike their opponents with their fists, elbows, knees, legs and feet, and the bout is only stopped if a boxer yields or if the referee steps in to stop the fight. Cut eyebrows and bloody noses are the most common wounds, while no fighter has sustained serious injuries, Yang says. The events draw audiences of about 50 people, with tickets costing 100 to 200 yuan ($15 to $30; 13 to 26 euros).
Given the large number of people who have contacted him through WeChat, the boxing training market is far larger than the one for organizing fights.
That's because the Chinese all elbow themselves into casinos, transexual shows, restaurants and shops," he says. She recovered in time to beat fellow American Christina McHale 7-6 (7), 6-1 in the third round Thursday. He shrugged off the defeat, saying his immediate priority was the French Open that begins on May 22. The frustration boiled over as he slammed his stick against the post and tossed it aside after Marleau's goal made it 5-0. But with only 10 players remaining from that disappointment and a new coach in Peter DeBoer, the Sharks believed this team was different and are showing that through two rounds of the playoffs. Oklahoma City now will face defending NBA champion Golden State, starting Monday in Oakland, California.
The 40-year-old Duncan struggled for much of the series before scoring 19 points as San Antonio tried to fight back in the fourth quarter. San Antonio lost just once at home during the regular season, but the Thunder beat the Spurs twice in San Antonio during the series.
Durant's 3-pointer with 2.3 seconds left in the half pushed the lead to 55-31 at the break. San Antonio shot 31.1 percent from the field before the break and missed all nine of its 3-pointers.
The team has spent the past two days practicing while waiting to see if it will play the Toronto Raptors or Miami Heat in the Eastern Conference finals.
Many never thought the Blazers would win more than 30 games, let alone make the playoffs, but Portland went on to finish 44-38 with the fifth seed in the Western Conference. After dropping the first two in Oakland, Portland claimed the third at home but lost the fourth in overtime - with Curry coming back from a knee injury and scoring 40 points, including 17 in the OT.
Forward Maurice Harkless, who started all 11 postseason games, backup guard Allen Crabbe and reserve forward Meyers Leonard are all restricted free agents. Louis also went seven games to win its quarterfinal series, beating the defending Stanley Cup champion Chicago Blackhawks 3-2 on Brouwer's winning goal in the Game 7 clincher at home.


He was pulled late in the first period of Game 6 after giving up three goals on seven shots and Dallas held on to win 3-2 and set up its first Game 7 at home since 2000.
Louis Blues goalie Brian Elliott makes a save against the Dallas Stars during the third period of Wednesday's Game 7 of the NHL's Western Conference semifinal at American Airlines Center in Dallas, Texas. We have the best goalie in the league, we have a solid group of guys on the defensive side, and all four lines can play well. Our signings in that window have proved crucial and now the next set of recruitment over the summer is just as important," said former Newcastle manager Allardyce.
Neil, at 34, is one of the youngest in the profession and elevated the club from the second tier in his first season in charge. But despite a satisfying season, he is expected to be replaced by the Pozzo family, which owns the club. He is wanted for questioning by prosecutors in France, and Interpol has issued a wanted notice for him.
The e-mails were reportedly sent by Papa Massata Diack to a Qatari business executive in May 2008.
A footnote to the report indicated Diack was prepared to sell his vote in exchange for a $5 million sponsorship of IAAF events. It will be a challenge, but we're ready for it," Rio state security secretary Mario Beltrame told newspaper O Globo. He added 11 assists after returning to the starting lineup for the first time all series because of a knee injury. Marreese Speights provided key minutes off the bench and made a 3-pointer with 8:19 to play after a layup the previous possession. The ball went to Bogut, who turned toward the baseline and handed off to Curry from close range and buried a 3 over his tall teammate with 4:34 to go.
Toronto can clinch its first appearance in the conference final with a win in Game 6 in Miami on Friday.
They shot 20 for 47 overall and scored 59 points, their highest total this postseason, even with DeRozan battling a bad thumb that took another hard hit in the second half.
The factory-inspired modern building is honest, hard-working architecture that sits in what was the industrial heart of Milwaukee. Roy Blunt, R-Mo., said it Obama is making the right move but said the president should have sought a congressional vote on this issue earlier.
Overtime would be paid only after an employee had worked more than his allocated annual hours. It put the Bears in front, to stay, at 48-46, and clearly saved the day in the win-or-go-home scenario. The winner will forfeit any prize or prize certificate not claimed within thirty 1 day of winning. Pardew adhered to it more often than not and, overall, has done a decent enough job during his four years in charge. Scott Walker's administration could hold demonstrators at the Capitol liable for the cost of extra police or cleanup and repairs after protests, under a new policy unveiled Thursday. Brett and I were obviously on the same staff at Drake and we've developed an unbelievable bond. Of the more than two-thirds of exchange enrollees reporting dissatisfaction with their plans, paying too much was cited as the top reason. The technology also works perfectly to give a smooth and safe departure when driving away from a standstill on a steep slope, while a lock mode distributes power equally between the front and rear wheels at speeds below 25mph to optimise traction.
Then there is my husband (French billionaire Francois-Henri Pinault) also who takes me to many places. On Tuesday, the authorities repeated their earlier statement that the results would be released soon . Whether or not some breakthroughs will be achieved in this area will produce decisive influences on the country's consumption-based economic transformation, which is now in an important period of historical opportunities.
The Red, Orange and Light Green subway lines converge in Chistiye Prudy, and buses, trams and marshrutki (gypsy vans) run frequently along the neighborhood's traffic arteries.
The town centre needs investment people need to be encouraged to live there not on the outskirts. 6 when Iowa City Officer Ben Hektoen noticed "an odor of ingested alcohol" coming from the vehicle,the Iowa City Press-Citizen reported. If the issue of state restructuring will resolve the ossue, Nepal will ensure a new constitution and there will be a new president, vice president, prime minister and other major political posts, sources said. To be honest, it hasn't sunk in yet,” said Lowry who held off the challenges of overnight leaders Justin Rose and Jim Furyk, as well as Watson – all three of them Major champions – to become the first non-PGA Tour member to win the prestigious event since Martin Kaymer in 2011.
Stuart says: "We don't make massive batches, the largest amount of anything will be 2,000 bottles. But if you're going to give quarterback Matthew Stafford the help he needs and a guy to take heat off of budding star defensive tackle Ndamakong Suh, the Lions did it. Repeat offenders , guarded and supervised by Military Police should be cleaning up grot spots like this instead of sitting on their butts for hours in the nick some playing on Pool tables and Game Boys for hours on end.. Tzipi Hotovely a charg l ambassadeur d Isra l en Suisse de pr senter une demande officielle au Conseil f d ral et la municipalit de Z rich de retirer leur soutien financier la conf rence de l ONG Breaking the Silence dans la capitale.
The game, which is inspired by ancient apocryphal biblical texts, tasks you as an agent of God to track down several fallen angels. In February, hundreds of children were forcibly conscripted in the northeastern town of Malakal by a government-aligned militia. A spokeswoman for the commission says the plan limits participation in the Jonah crab fishery to fishermen who hold an American lobster permit or can prove previous participation in the crab fishery. From a record on the globe itself, placed within the Antarctic Circle, we learn that the work was undertaken on the authority of three distinguished citizens, Gabriel Nutzel, Paul Volckamer, and Nikolaus Groland.
Johann SchA¶ner, in 1532, was paid A?5 for a€?renovatinga€? this map and for compiling a new one, recording the discoveries that had been made since the days of Behaim. Having covered the mould with successive layers of paper, pasted together so as to form pasteboard, he cut the shell into two hemispheres along the line of the intended Equator. The mechanician Karl Bauer, who, aided by his son Johann Bernhard, repaired the globe in 1823, declared to Ghillany, that it had become very friable (mA?rbe), and that he found it difficult to keep it from falling into pieces.
The whole was borrowed with great care from the works of Ptolemy, Pliny, Strabo, and Marco Polo, and brought together, both lands and seas, according to their configuration and position, in conformity with the order given by the aforesaid magistrates to George Holzschuer, who participated in the making of this globe, in 1492.
Ravenstein describes this remarkable cartographic monument of a period that represented the beginning of a rapid expansion of geographical knowledge (in summary): Martin Behaima€™s map of the world was drawn on parchment that had been pasted over a large sphere. The ships thus provisioned sailed continuously to the westward for 500 German miles, and in the end they sighted these ten islands. All the available evidence tends to show that he was a successful man of business who made a certain position for himself in Portugal, and who, like many others of his time, was keenly interested in the new discoveries. No special knowledge of Contia€™s narrative is shown, but a certain Bartolomeo Fiorentino, not otherwise known, is quoted on the spice trade routes to Europe. To Cape Formoso, on the Guinea coast the nomenclature differs little from contemporary usage. The edition of Ptolemy of which he availed himself was that published at Ulm in 1482, and reprinted in 1486, with the maps of Dominus Nicolaus Germanus. Sri Lanka though unduly magnified would have occupied its correct position, and the huge peninsula beyond Ptolemya€™s a€?Furthest,a€? a duplicated or bogus India, would have disappeared, and place names in that peninsula, and even beyond it, such as Murfuli, Maabar, Lac or Lar, Cael, Var, Coulam, Cumari, Dely, Cambaia, Servenath, Chesmakoran and Bangala would have occupied approximately correct sites in Poloa€™s India maior. A comparison of the two shows, however, that such cannot have been the case, for there are many names upon the map that are not to be found on the globe. The author of the Laon globe went even further, for he reduced the width of the Atlantic to 110A°. That honor, if honor it be, in the absence of scientific arguments is due to Crates of Mallos (#113), who died 145 years before Christ, whose Perioeci and Antipodes are assigned vast continents in the Western Hemisphere, or to Strabo (66 B.C.
Behaim, however, erred in good company, and for years after the completion of his globe the mistaken views of Ptolemy respecting the longitudinal extent of the Mediterranean were upheld by men of such authority as WaldseemA?ller (1507), SchA¶ner (1520), Gerhard Mercator (1538), and Jacobus Gastaldo (1548). In addition to all this, ever since the days of Prince Henry and the capture of Ceuta, in 1417, information on the interior had been collected on the spot or from natives who were brought to Lisbon to be converted to the Christian faith.
But not one of these original charts has survived, and had it not been for copies made of them by Italians and others, our knowledge of these early explorations would have been even less perfect than it actually is. Fernando, the son of King Manuel, in 1528, and which had been brought to the famous monastery of Alcoba, ca.
His contemporary, the printer, Valentin Ferdinand, was thus enabled not only to consult the manuscript Chronicle of Azurara, and the records of Cadamosto (credited with the discovery of the Azores) and Pedro de Cintra (his account of a voyage to Guinea), but also to gather much valuable information from Portuguese travelers who had visited Guinea. There are three sections of the globe, upon the origins of which much light might be thrown by the discovery of ancient maps formerly in the possession of John MA?ller. Towards the west the Sea Ocean has likewise been navigated further than what is described by Ptolemy and beyond the Columns of Hercules as far as the islands Faial and Pico of the Azoreas occupied by the noble and valiant Knight Jobst de HA?rter of Moerkerken, and the people of Flanders whom he conducted thither.
It is the Mare concretum of Pierre da€™Aillya€™s Imago mundi, and of the Ulm edition of Ptolemy printed in 1482. Later charts, like that of Pizzigani (1367), contained three islands of the name, the one furthest north lying to the west of Ireland. We are told nothing about the a€?burning mountaina€? and the great earthquake which happened in 1444. Two more flags are merely shown in outline and may have been intended for the arms of Portugal and Hurter.
It is certain, however, that FernA?o Telles, in 1475, and FernA?o Dulmo, in 1486, were authorized to sail in search of this imaginary island.
Brandan, who, after a seven yearsa€™ peregrination over a sea of darkness, penetrated to an Island of Saints, a terra repromissionis sanctorum, was very popular during the Middle Ages. The ruby is said to be a foot and a half in length and a span broad, and without any blemish.
1-10, were guided by a star to Bethlehem, and there worshipped the newborn a€?King of the Jews.a€? The Venerable Bede (died 735) already knew that the names of these kings were Caspar, Melchior and Balthasar. Friar John of Marignola (1338-53) is the first traveler who mentions an a€?African archpriest,a€? and on a map of the world that Cardinal Guillaume Filastre presented in 1417 to the library of Reims we read Ynde Pbr Jo at the easternmost cape of Africa. 8), but Polo says that they are known to the natives as Ung and Mongul, that is, the Un-gut, a Turkish tribe, and the Mongols. The above information as well as that given in the remaining legends may have been taken from Mandeville, who himself is indebted to Haiton, Friar Odorico and others.
He was not a careful compiler, who first of all plotted the routes of the travelers to whose accounts he had access, and then combined the results with judgment.
It showed Zipangu as only 80 degrees to the west of the Canaries and Cathay some 35 degrees more.
It sets a problem: two men with identical plans to reach Asia, at the same time in history and with similar cosmographical concepts.
The map has either been lost or, as already assumed by Humboldt, there was a mistake on the part of the Portuguese discoverer. It cannot be proved that Behaim had under-taken any longer sea-journey to the west from Fayal (Azores) where he mostly resided from 1486 to I507 with some intervals. As late as 1859 Ziegler and in 1873 the American Mytton Maury designated Behaim as Americaa€™s actual discoverer.
However, it is altogether possible that Magellan had come across a map with the entry in question, as such maps have actually existed!
The supplementary text - Magistralis - indicates however that it is a question of straits whose length and width cannot as yet be stated.
It can be inferred that Magellan had no clear idea on which latitude the longed for sea route was to be found.
The mechanician Karl Bauer, who, aided by his son Johann Bernhard, repaired the globe in 1823, declared to Ghillany, that it had become very friable (mA?rbe), and that he found it difficult to keep it from falling into pieces.A  In his opinion it could not last much longer.
He starred in the most glorious parts of the campaign and, most tellingly, made the difference when the team most needed him. She says Yang started by teaching her the basics, but he soon discovered she had a good foundation in the sport and remarkable physical strength. He just wanted to try," says Xiao's wife, who watched the bout and wiped the sweat from her husband's face during the breaks between the rounds. Take away Popovich's two-decade-and-counting run, and the average time that an NBA coach has been able to keep a head-coaching gig around the league is about two and a half years. So what am I, the second-longest-tenured?" Spoelstra, who rose from the Heat video room to head coach, said earlier this month when asked about the lack of job security in the field. The Raptors lead the Heat - James' former team - 3-2 in their series, which continues Friday night. He's led the Blazers to the playoffs in each of the last three years, and to the conference semifinals twice. The Blues routed the top-seeded Dallas Stars 6-1 on Wednesday night to advance to their first Western Conference championship round since 2001.
Stastny scored first and then Berglund on a shot from just inside the blue line with only 3.4 seconds left before intermission. The crisp, hard edges of the building, which takes on a tire tread-like texture, show deference to the supple shapes and sheen of the bikes that park along the open-air streets, meant to re-create the feel of annual bike rallies in places like Sturgis, S.D. That tragedy led to the country s first Disaster Management Act, followed eight months later by the establishment of the Disaster Management Centre. Prize or prize certificates will not be mailed to the winner without the winner s prior written consent in which the winner shall agree to assume its risk of loss. The caller told authorities that one person had made it out, but two people were still inside the residence. Tensions between Egypt and Iran heightened when the Islamic Republic named a street after Khalid Islambouli, who assassinated Egyptian President Anwar Al-Sadat in October 1981.
Last week, it widened thecorridor by5 kopeks andsaid that it will continue toadd 5 kopeks tothe corridor foreach $600 million ofintervention money it spends onkeeping theruble inthe corridor.
22, 2013, the Philippines unilaterally initiated compulsory arbitration proceedings with respect to the relevant issues between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea. While both treatments relieved the hot flashes these drugs are designed to treat, in neither case did the scientists find any changes in cognition or thinking, for better or worse. Thehouse's chef serves fine grilled meat, boiled sprats, andFrench fries, among many other treats. Phelps admitted to smoking marijuana before driving his car and agreed to take a breath test and evaluation for marijuana intoxication.
At a press conference in Kathmandu on Tuesday afternoon, the political parties appealed for calm after violent protests erupted in the western region of the country against the proposed six-state federal set-up. Tel Aviv defines such goods as dual use - meaning that while they are needed for the civilian population, they could also potentially be used by militant groups in attacks.
Le but de cet v nement, qui est aussi celui de ce groupe financ par des capitaux trangers, tant de diaboliser et de diffamer l arm e isra lienne.Il semble donc que le gouvernement ait finalement d cid de r pondre aux provocations. The game is striking in both its anime-style art style and its attitude, which includes God checking in on your progress by calling your guardian angel over a mobile phone.
All his 12 children are to be beneficiaries, but the deciding votes will be held by his wife and one of his children. There is still no official number of dead since the fighting started, but officials estimate in the tens of thousands, while an additional 1.5 million people have been internally displaced and 500,000 have fled abroad. It has two other LNG developments on its books a 5-mtpa plant at Vladivostok that could be on line by 2018 and could expand to 10 mtpa in the 2020s; and the 10 mtpa Baltic LNG project that could be producing in 2018. Stevenson, it is hardly probable that he is entitled to that renown as an African coast explorer with which certain of his biographers have attempted to crown him, nor does it appear that he is entitled to a very prominent place among the men famed in his day for their astronomical and nautical knowledge. The hemispheres were then taken off the mould, and the interior having been given stability by a skeleton of wooden hoops, they were again glued together so as to revolve on an iron axis, the ends of which passed through the two poles.
It was left by the said gentleman, Martin Behaim, to the city of Nuremberg, as a recollection and homage on his part, before returning to meet his wife (Johanna de Macedo, daughter of Job de Huerter, whom he married in 1486) who lives on an island (at Fayal) seven hundred leagues from this place, and where he has his home, and intends to end his days.
The globe itself has a circumference of 1,595 mm, consequently a diameter of 507 mm or 20 inches, resulting in a scale of 1:25,138,000. On landing they found nothing but a wilderness and birds that were so tame that they fled from no one.
The effect of this was to reduce the distance from Western Europe westwards to the Asiatic shores to 126A°, in place of the correct figure of 229A°. Southeast Asia is represented as a long peninsula extending southwards and somewhat westwards beyond the Tropic of Capricorn.
Beyond it, though a good deal can be paralleled in the two other contemporary sources, Soligo and Martellus (#256), there are elements peculiar to Behaim, e.g. An intermediate position between these extremes is occupied by Henricus Martellus, 1489 (#256), who gives the Old World a longitudinal extent of 196A°. Cooley describes as a€?the most unblushing volume of lies that was ever offered to the world,a€? but which, perhaps on that very ground, became one of the most popular books of the age, for as many as sixteen editions of it, in French, German, Italian and Latin, were printed between 1480 and 1492.
It is curious that not one of these learned a€?cosmographersa€? should have undertaken to produce a revised version of Ptolemya€™s map by retaining the latitudes (several of which were known to have been from actual observation), while rejecting his erroneous estimate of 500 stadia to a degree in favor of the 700 stadia resulting from the measurement of Eratosthenes (#112). These copies were made use of in the production of charts on a small scale, the place names upon which, owing either to the carelessness of the draftsmen or their ignorance of Portuguese, are frequently mutilated to an extent rendering them quite unrecognizable. Foremost among these was JoA?o Rodriguez, who resided at Arguim from 1493-5, and there collected information on the Western Sahara. It is this northern island that retained its place on the maps until late in the 16th century, and, together with the islands of St. John of Hildesheim (died 1375) wrote a popular account of their story, which was first printed in German in 1480.
Oppert has satisfactorily shown that this mysterious personage was Yeliutashe of the Liao dynasty, which ruled in Northern China from 906 to 1125. In the Sinus magnus of Ptolemy we also read: This sea, land and towns all belong to the great Emperor Prester John of India. Had he done this, the fact of India being a peninsula could not have escaped him; the west coast of Africa would have appeared more accurate.
Behaim had hopes of leading a voyage westward to Asia and sought the backing of the Emperor Maximilian. At your pleasure you can secure for this voyage a companion sent by our King Maximilian, namely Don Martin Behaim, and many other expert mariners, who would start from the Azores islands and boldly cross the sea.
Columbus, in the copy of the Toscanelli letter (made on the flyleaf of the Historia Rerum of Pope Pius II) gave Cathay as 130A° west of Lisbon and Zipangu as ten spaces, or 50A°, west of the legendary island of Antillia.
Previously no doubts were entertained with respect to Magellana€™s statement, since it undoubtedly was well supported.
He may have participated in a minor exploration trip which one Fernan Dulmo planned in I486 and which had to have Azores as the point of departure. When the Kinga€™s Ministers assailed him with questions, he confided to the Ministers that he planned to land first on the promontory of St.
It states inter alia with respect to the Land of Brazil: a€?The Portuguese have circumnavigated this land and they have found a sound which practically tallies with that of our continent of Europe (where we live). On the other hand, SchA¶nera€™s drawings may very well be re- produced more or less exactly in other maps which took into consideration the discoveries in America. Yet the globe has survived, and its condition seems in no manner worse than it was when it was under treatment by the Bauers. Panicker submitted that it was mandatory for units with more than 10 workers and engaged in continuous processing, manufacturing, and distribution of any product to come within the ambit of the Act. The Promoter, its sponsor, or promotional partner are not responsible for the safe arrival of a prize or prize certificate. The next day, while inaugurating a road while Scioli stood at her side, she said: "We could have saved so much time if (the opposition) had realized just a little sooner" the value of the policies. Inother words, theCentral Bank is revving up tomanage acontrolled, slow-moving devaluation ofthe ruble that will soften theblow ofan external crisis andpreserve Russia's hard currency reserves: If Greece has acontrolled default, Russia will respond with acontrolled devaluation.
Since then, the Philippines has obstinately pushed for the above-mentioned arbitration proceedings despite repeated objections of China.
Here's an idea for MBC, start collecting the rates from those that don't pay rather than hammering the ones that do pay. Phelps then asked Hektoen if he would take a Snapchat selfie, according to the criminal complaint.
A Republican rewrite without Democratic input will not inspire broad confidence that elected representatives will put the public's interest over their own or those of special interests financing their campaigns. In addition, 16 of the 33 Senate seats are up in the November election under the new legislative districts more favorable for Republicans, meaning their party could pick up enough seats to regain the majority. In May-June last year, a Chinese naval task force held military exercises with Cameroon and Nigeria, the first time that the Chinese navy appeared in the west coast of Africa. The world of El Shaddai ' is mesmerizing and beautiful and an amazing place to escape for hours. Another product is an antibiotic foam for treatment of Impetigo, an infectious disease, which is due to begin a Phase III trial after talks with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Hugh Coffee and Colonel Kershaw and was in the battles at Rocky Mount and Sumtera€™s Surprise.
It was doubtless, for reasons primarily commercial, that he first found his way to Portugal, where, shortly after his arrival, probably in the year 1484, he was honored by King John with an appointment as a member of the junta dos mathematicos [a nautical or mathematical council]. The sphere was then coated with whiting, upon which was laid the vellum that was to bear the design. Only two great circles are laid down upon it, the equator, divided into 360 degrees (unnumbered), and the ecliptic studded with the signs of the zodiac.
But of men or of four-footed animals none had come to live there because of the wildness, and this accounts for the birds not having been shy. There is no indication on the globe of what Behaim considered the length of a degree to be, but even if he did not go as far as Columbus in adopting the figure of 562 miles for a degree, he presented a very misleading impression of the distance to be covered in reaching the east from the west. It is a relic of the continuous coastline that linked Southeast Asia to South Africa in Ptolemaic world maps that displayed a land-locked Indian Ocean, and it needs a name to identify it in argument. In the original French the author is called Mandeville, in German translations Johannes or Hans von Montevilla, in the Latin and Italian Mandavilla.
But even of maps of this imperfect kind illustrating the time of Behaim and of a date anterior to his globe, only two have reached us, namely the Ginea Portugalexe ascribed to Cristofero Soligo, and a map of the world by Henricus Martellus Germanus (#256). To Ferdinand we owe, moreover, the preservation of the account that Diogo Gomez gave to Martin Behaim of his voyages to Guinea.
As to the first it is remarkable that although Ptolemya€™s outlines of lakes and rivers have been retained, his place names have for the most part been rejected and others substituted. The far-off places towards midnight or Tramontana, beyond Ptolemya€™s description, such as Iceland, Norway and Russia, are likewise now known to us, and are visited annually by ships, wherefore let none doubt the simple arrangement of the world, and that every part may be reached in ships, as is here to be seen. Brandan and of the Septe citez [the Seven Cities] it still appears on Mercatora€™s chart of the world in 1587. Having been expelled by the Koreans, Yeliutashe went forth with part of his horde, and founded the Empire of the Kara Khitai, which at one time extended from the Altai to Lake Aral, and assumed the title of Korkhan. His delineation is rather a€?hotch-potcha€? made up without discrimination from maps that happened to fall in his hands. The Emperor shrugged it off by passing it on to King John of Portugal in a letter written by Dr. Pigafetta, Magellana€™s fellow-traveller and the chronicler of the world trip, has noted this fact. This trip referred however only to the discovery of new islands in the Azores waters and may not have been performed at all. Satirical Voltaire, displaying a truly French superficiality of judgment, expressed in 1757 his disbelief in that a€?one (!) Martin Behem of Nuremberga€? had travelled in 1460 (Behaim was born in I459) a€?from Nuremberg to the Magellan Straitsa€? on a mission for the Duchess of Burgundy(!).Voltaire was followed, as result of substantially more thorough studies, by Tozen in 1761, v.
We have from 15I5, the year when SchA¶nera€™s globe was made, also the so-called of Leonardo-representation the countries in the west (Book IV, #327).
This can be inferred with certitude from the statement made in the pamphlet of 1508 to the effect that one had found Americaa€™s southern cape south of the 40A° S. Indeed, on examining the globe, a beholder may feel surprise at the brightness of much of the lettering. He alleged that the unit processes used syringes and gloves and transports them to Coimbatore to be sold to medical equipment manufacturing units without proper licence from the DFB. The decision to federate the country into six provinces with tentative demarcation of borders sparked protests in various parts of the country. It's a quiet performance yet so assured that it takes you mere seconds to learn to read his silences. Reid Ribble, a Wisconsin Republican, and his Democratic colleague in the House, Jim Cooper of Tennessee, unveiled a pair of bills back in March that got little notice but could go a long way to making the nation's reapportionment process less partisan.
Shapcott is one of the world’s leading researchers on how to effectively market to, and teach, women the game of golf. During his earlier years in Portugal he was connected with one or more expeditions down the coast of Africa, was knighted by the king, presumably for his services, and made his home for some years on the island of Fayal.
The vellum was cut into segments resembling the gores of a modern globe, and fitted the sphere most admirably. The Tropics, the Arctic and the Antarctic circles are likewise shown and in the high latitudes the lengths of the longest days are given. On this ground the islands were called dos Azores, that is, Hawk Islands, and in the year after, the king of Portugal sent sixteen ships with various tame animals and put some of these on each island there to multiply. The coast swings abruptly to the east at Monte Negro, placed by Behaim in 38A° south latitude. Behaim calls him Johann de Mandavilla, as in Italian, although six editions of his work printed in German, at Strasburg and Augsburg, were at his command. MA?ntzer, in 1495, saw hanging on a wall of the royal mansion in which he resided as the guest of Joz da€™Utra; and lastly, the map which Toscanelli is believed to have forwarded to King Affonso in 1474 in illustration of his plan of reaching Cathay and Zipangu by sailing across the Western Ocean. Eastern Asia, with its islands, and Africa have, however, been copied from a map or maps which were also at the command of WaldseemA?ller (#310). It is this northern island that was searched for in vain between 1480 and 1499, and figures on Behaima€™s globe. Brandona€™s Island retained a place upon the maps, notwithstanding Vincent of Beauaisa€™ disbelief in the legend, until the days of Ortelius (1570) and Mercator; and as late as 1721 the Governor of the Canaries sent out a vessel to search for this imaginary island. The King George in Tenduk, whom Marco Polo describes as a successor of Presbyter John, was actually a relative of this Yeliutashe who had remained in the original seats of the tribe not far from the Hwang-ho, and of Kuku-kotan, where the Kutakhtu Lama of the Mongols resided when Gerbillon visited the place in 1688. In this respect, however, he is not worse than are other cartographers of his period: Fra Mauro and WaldseemA?ller, SchA¶ner and Gastaldo, and even the famous Mercator, if the latter be judged by his delineation of Eastern Asia. He writes: a€?But Hernando knew that is was the question of a very mysterious strait by which one could sail and which he had seen described on a map in the Treasury of the King of Portugal, the map having been made by an excellent man called Martin di Boemiaa€?. Apart from this there is nothing to indicate that he had undertaken from Fayal sea trips other than those to Europe.
Murrin 1778, Cancellieri in 1809 and others, and more recently, above all by Ghillany in 1842, v.
The Magellan Straits are on the other hand on 52A° and prior to Magellan had no expedition, of which we know, sighted land near there. This, however, is due to the action of the a€? renovators,a€? who were let loose upon the globe in 1823, and again in 1847; who were permitted to work their will without the guidance of a competent geographer, and, as is the custom of the tribe, have done irreparable mischief.
On another note perhaps Mallon might reflect on the cost of investigations into his behaviour that of his ex-colleagues that cost the town a fortune under Lancet!
It is the second largest town in North Sinai and the only major population centre remaining in the restive corner of the peninsula, which borders the Gaza Strip and Israel. Three people were killed and over half a dozen injured in violence that broke out in Surkhet district in mid-western Nepal.
1842; after which he married a 4th time, Jane Pittman, who was about 17 years younger than the aging John, and she outlived him.
A smith supplied two iron rings to serve as meridian and horizon, a joiner and a stand, and there was provided a lined cover as a protection against dust. The only meridian which is drawn from pole-to-pole 80 degrees to the west of Lisbon is graduated for degrees, but also unnumbered.
Arthur Davies, in his discussion of the Martellus map refers to it as the Tiger-leg peninsula; in others it is referred to as Catigara.
This is the point reached by CA?o in 1483, and its true position is 15A° 40a€™ south; a Portuguese standard marks the spot.
Pipinoa€™s Latin version, on the other hand, is divided in this manner, and Behaim in seven of his legends quotes these divisions correctly.
One could conclude from this that he is indebted to an Italian map and not to a perusal of his Travels for the two references on the globe. A comparison of that cartographera€™s map with Behaima€™s globe leaves no doubt as to this, unless we are prepared to assume that WaldseemA?ller took his information from the globe, which Ravenstein concludes to be quite inadmissible.
The island Seilan has a circuit of 2,400 miles as is written by Marco Polo in the 19th chapter of the third book. Tarsis (Tarssia) is shown on many medieval maps in a similar position, for instance, on the Catalan Atlas of 1375, where the three kings are shown on horseback about to start for Bethlehem. His famous globe which he made in I491-92 in Nuremberg does not show even the slightest trace of a knowledge of countries or islands beyond the Azores. A smith supplied two iron rings to serve as meridian and horizon, a joiner and a stand, and there was provided a lined cover as a protection against dust.A  In 1510 the iron meridian was displaced by one of brass, the work of Johann Verner, the astronomer. As a result numerous place-names have been corrupted past recognition, and if one desires to recover the original nomenclature of the globe we must deal with it as a palimpsest.
Present at the conference were Prime Minister Sushil Koirala, CPN-UML chairman Jhala Nath Khanal, UCPN (Maoist) chairman Pushpa Kamal Dahal and MJF-L chairman Bijayakumar Gachhadar.
Chaque ann e, les Pays-Bas consacrent plusieurs millions d euros au financement, direct ou indirect, d organisations dont le seul objectif est la diabolisation d Isra l. The sea is colored a dark blue, the land a bright brown or buff with patches of green and silver, representing forests and regions supposed to be buried beneath perennial ice and snow. This feature is a remnant of Ptolemya€™s Geography that evolved when the Indian Sea was opened to the surrounding ocean. On the eastward trending coast, there are names that seem to be related to those bestowed by Diaz, and the sea is named oceanus maris asperi meridionalis, a phrase which doubtless refers to the storms encountered by him.
We should naturally conclude from this that this was the version consulted if on other occasions he had not quoted the chapters as given in the version which was first printed in Ramusioa€™s Navigationi e viaggi in 1559. The first of these (near Candyn) refers to the invisibility of the Lodestar in the Southern Hemisphere and the Antipodes, and is one of the four original statements of the learned doctor, and the second describes the dog-headed people of Nekuran, which he has borrowed from Odoric of Portenone and enlarged upon.
It was on the same map that Ritter von Harff, who returned to Germany in 1499 after a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, performed his fictitious journey from the east coast of Africa, across the Mountains of the Moon and down the Nile to Egypt.
Brandana€™s Island is generally associated with the Canaries, as on the Hereford map of 1280 (Book II, #226), but Dulcerta€™s Insulla Scti Brandani sive puellarum (1339) lies further north, while Pizzigania€™s San Brandany y ysole Pouzele lie far to the west (1367).
Finally, in 1939 the problem was definitively clarified as regards the connection between Americaa€™s discovery and the great Nuremberg scholar by answering it in the negative. He was all the more sure to find a sound as he had seen it on a sea map made by Martin de Bohemia. He owned the map, but the master-drawer did made this representation which is extremely poorly executed. Such a process, however, might lead to the destruction of the globe, whilst the result possibly to be achieved would hardly justify running such a risk. L ambassade isra lienne La Haye et le ministre des Affaires trang res doivent exiger un arr t imm diat de cette campagne subversive et diffamatoire. 16, 1767--who was also named Andrew Jackson, in honor of his deceased father, and who grew up to later become the President of the United States.
Perhaps the most attractive feature of the globe consists of 111 miniatures, for which we are indebted to Glockenthona€™s clever pencil.
The placing of Madagascar and Zanzibar approximately midway between this peninsula and the Cape must be another feature of some antiquity. Owing to the exaggeration of the latitudes, Monte Negro falls fairly near the position that the Cape of Good Hope should occupy. On Behaima€™s globe may be traced twenty-one names, out of about forty to be found on WaldseemA?llera€™s map of 1507, and four of them mark stages of the worthy knighta€™s journey. The evidence which carried the greatest weight was doubtlessly the letter which on July 14th, 1493 was written to King John II of Portugal by Hieronymus Miinzer who was a friend of Behaim and was in close touch with him. Also this representation of the newly discovered South America shows a wide sound that separates America from the hypothetical southern continent of Ptolemy. The vacant space within the Antarctic circle is occupied by a fine design of the Nuremberg eagle with the virgina€™s head, associated with which are the arms of the three chief captains by whose authority the globe was made, namely, Paul Volckamer, Gariel NA?tzel and Nikolaus Groland, Behaim and Holzschuher. It is noticeable that the Soligo chart ends in 14A° south, which is near the limit of Behaima€™s detailed knowledge.
Behaim had ample opportunity to study the proposals of Columbus and the map(s) that accompanied them. This letter which knew nothing about Columbusa€™ discovery was written to suggest to King John a western trip across the ocean in order to reach East Asia.
Another contemporary map, designed by the Turkish map-maker Piri Rea€™is in 1513 (Book IV, #322) even regarded South America as a peninsula of the southern continent and therefore did not contain any separating sound.
The vacant space within the Antarctic circle is occupied by a fine design of the Nuremberg eagle with the virgina€™s head, associated with which are the arms of the three chief captains by whose authority the globe was made, namely, Paul Volckamer, Gariel NA?tzel and Nikolaus Groland, Behaim and Holzschuher.A  There are, in addition, 48 flags (including ten of Portugal) and five coats of arms, all of them showing heraldic colors. We might conclude, therefore, that Behaima€™s contribution was to reproduce this coast from a similar chart, and to add some gleanings from the Diaz voyage round the Cape. This was the origin of Behaima€™s later plan to sail to Asia and the source of his concepts of the distances involved.
This letter would of necessity have referred to Behaima€™s legendary discoveries in the western ocean, if such discoveries had been made, since Behaim certainly knew about the letter and approved of it.
This shows that individual mapmakers used their imagination arbitrarily in their efforts to combine cartographically the new countries of which only fragments were known. The two personal names are not to be found on any other map: in conjunction with the attempt made to associate Behaima€™s own voyage with the discovery of the Cape, we are justified in assuming that this portion of the globe at least was designed in a spirit of self-glorification. Leonardoa€™s map conceived all the new western countries as islands: the islands and coasts of the mainland which were discovered by Columbus, Labrador-Newfoundland in the north, found by Cabot, and the coast line of North America, cursorily explored by Cabral, Verrazano and others. Forty-eight of them show us kings seated within tents or upon thrones; full-length portraits are given of four Saints (St.
How arbitrary were the designs of the drawers of these earliest maps of America is shown inter alia by the Ruysch map of 1508 (Book IV, #313) which had inserted a connecting water way even between Honduras and Yucatan or also the much-discussed Anian Strait in northern America which were sought even late as the beginning of the 19th century.
As far as he knew in 1492, Columbus had not gained support for his enterprise in Portugal or Spain and there was no logical or moral reason why he should not seek German support. Eleven vessels float upon the sea, which is populated by fishes, seals, sea lions, sea-cows, sea-horses, sea-serpents, mermen, and a mermaid. The land animals include elephants, leopards, bears, camels, ostriches, parrots, and serpents.A  The only fabulous beings that are represented among the miniatures are a merman and a mermaid, near the Cape Verde Islands, and two Sciapodes in central South Africa, but syrens, satyrs, and a€?men with dogsa€™ heads are referred to in some of the legends. Nor do we meet with the a€?Iudei clausi,a€™ or with a a€?garden of Eden,a€™ still believed in by Columbus.A  There is a curiously faulty representation of the Portuguese arms, especially for someone like Behaim who had lived in and sailed for that country for many years.



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