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Check the image above which shows you how to give the command and where the ip address and MAC address are shown to you. Subscribe to UpdatesEnter your email address below to receive updates each time we publish new content. I started with my blog in September 2010, at that time as a side project of my studies for Cisco certification. As the days went by, I added tutorials about emulation of various network devices from different vendors using GNS3.
Tallinn, April 22, 2016 - The team from Slovakia won Locked Shields 2016, the world’s largest and most advanced international live-fire cyber defence exercise. Although they are several dictionary password attack tools available for Linux such as Hydra, Ncrack, I have decided to practice BASH scripting and write a script getsshpass.sh that can perform dictionary attack against SSH server.
The script can be started either in a serial mode that opens only single SSH session to SSH server or in a parallel mode which allows multipe SSH sessions to be opened at the same time. The goal of this article is to introduce a script that automates a process of collecting MAC and IP address of hosts connected to Cisco switches using Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). All virtual network and host devices are running inside GNS3 project and they are emulated by Qemu emulator and virtualizer. This part shows configuration of SNMP agents on Cisco switches and an example of using snmpwalk command that is used to query SNMP agents. The switches configured with SNMP version 3 contain different security levels configuration. As I have mentioned before, I was only successful with collecting MACs of host connected to switchports in VLAN 1 of virtual switches (running vIOS-L2 image). If we want to query CAM (MAC) address table we have to specify particular VLAN for which we want to collect entries.
Note: Collecting data from switch CAM table using SNMP protocol is not as straightforward as collecting data from ARP table.
SNMP configuration below provides a read access to the switch for NMS with configured security level AuthnoPriv (auth).
We want the script to support an old SNMP version 1 n 2c as it is still used by some network devices.
The argument -f determines a path to the file where IPv4 addresses and SNMP credentials of switches are stored.
The argument -n tells the script what is a maximum number of MACs (hosts) allowed on a single switchport.
The tutorial shows configuration of OSPF routing protocol, GRE and IPSec tunnel on Cisco 7206 VXR router and appliance running VyOS network OS. Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP), is the negotiation protocol that lets two hosts agree on how to build an IPsec security association. First we create isakmp policy and select encryption, the hash algorithm, type of authentication, Diffie-Hellman group and lifetime.
Note: You can check these parameters in the Transform payload located in first and the sixth packet  of the attached pcap file. In phase two we create  IPSec transform set and configure encryption and the hash algorithm. It is recommend to use the Cisco online IPSec overhead calculator to calculate Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) for IP packet.
The maximum Segment Size (MSS) for TCP segments is always 40 Bytes (IP 20B + TCP 20B) lower than MTU. Generic Routing Encapsulation - GRE is a tunneling protocol originally developed by Cisco that encapsulates various network protocols inside virtual point-to-point tunnel. The goal of the tutorial it to show configuration of GRE tunnel on a Cisco router and a device with OS Linux. The Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) is the largest size of  IP packet and it is  1500 Bytes. To help building OSPF adjacency we will use the command ip ospf network broadcast on a tunnel interface.
The MTU on both sides of a tunnel must match in order to establish OSPF adjacency so we need to set MTU for the interface tun0 to 1476 Bytes. Two weeks ago I finished creating a network host based on Linux Core 6.3 installed on WMware x86-64 virtual machine. Then I went further with the ?project and my goal was to build L3 switch and router based on  Core Linux 6.3 loaded with Open vSwitch, Quagga, Bird and Keepalived extension. The R&S appliance I built can be used for learning networking on Linux, routing and switching. For those who are interested in installation steps the whole process of extension installation  is described in this article. Here I share one of my lab based on my Linux Core L3 switch and router appliance for your inspiration.


The Core Linux is a small modular Linux distribution that provides only a command line interface and tools that allows you to build your own application extensions. Recently, I have been asked to find a way how to clone Linux machines running in a remote virtual lab. There are many reasons why you might want to hide your IP Address when surfing the Internet using any browser, but especially when using Google Chrome. Google Chrome also allows you to enter Incognito Mode, which is not the same as hiding your IP Address, but it helps keep your computer free of “evidence.” Follow these pictorial steps to engage Incognito Mode.
Step 3: Confirmation will be in the form of a new browser window with the Incognito welcome blurb. In case that you are looking for articles about running devices such as Cisco CSR 1000v, Quagga, VyOS, Open vSwitch, Atista, Alcatel-Lucent and others on Linux, the blog is the right place to start reading. The script reads usernames and passwords from dictionaries (the one for usernames and the one for passwords) and uses them one-by-one during its login attempt to remote SSH server. We will configure SNMP version 2c and 3 on Cisco switches and create a BASH script that collects required data for us.
The only exception is a Cisco Catalyst 3550 switch that is connected to topology via GNS3 network cloud device. It is an old hardware switch and I use it in a lab for collecting MAC and IP addresses of hosts connected to switchports that are assigned to VLANs different from VLAN 1.
For this reason I had to connected Catalyst 3550 switch to GNS3 lab in order to  tell the script to collect data from other VLANs.
The configured security level is AuthPriv (priv) which means that either MD5 or SHA hash protocol is used for authentication and either DES or AES symmetric encryption algorithm for encryption of SNMP messages. Overall four SNMP GET requests must be sent from NMS to single SNMP agent to get info about MAC addresses of hosts and the switchports the hosts are connected to.
The big advantage of GRE protocol is that it encapsulates L3 and higher protocols inside the GRE tunnel so routing updates and other multicast traffic can be successfully transferred over the tunnel. Devices are running inside GNS3 lab an they are emulated by Dynamips (Cisco) and Qemu (VyOS). You can easily build your own VyOS Qemu appliance using the Expect and Bash script shared in the article. This is also a place where we define IPSec mode - either a tunnel (default) or transport mode.
It transports multicast traffic via GRE tunnel so it allows passing of routing information between connected networks. Then we will configure static routes on routers R1 and R2 to achieve full connectivity between these routers.
I loaded Core Linux with several network extensions that allows host to generate, measure, route network traffic and scan networks.
Those are the right extensions that turn a network host  to routing and switching appliance. Thanks to these extensions you can easily turn your Core installation to a custom appliance such as network host, router, switch, server. I installed the latest 64 bit Linux Core 6.3 on VMware virtual disk and loaded Core with extensions that can generate traffic, measure bandwidth, route, forward and filter traffic. The machines have single disks, they all are accessible over SSH and configured with the same login credentials. I have used this command together with 'ssh' and 'gzip' commands to copy and compress remote disks and send them on the fly to a local disk over SSH connection.
The script reads IP addresses from a file and uses credentials you provide as command-line arguments for SSH connection (options -u and -p). The utility 'sshpass' is used to enter password during establishing SSH connection. I work as a professional soldier of the Slovak Armed Forces. I've been a Linux enthusiast since 2005.
You will also find here information about installation of machine emulators and virtualizers such as Qemu, KVM, VirtualBox, VMware Workstation on Debian and Fedora Linux. Once correct username and password are found, the script save them to the file result.txt and displays them on the desktop.
In case of parallel mode is used (-l parameter) it is recommended to use -l parameter together with -n parameter.
Using a hardware switch in the lab is a must as vIOS-L2 instances can only provide info about hosts connected to VLAN 1.
The AuthPriv security level is a recommended to configure because it offers both authentication and encryption of SNMP messages therefore it is is the most secure level. It is not recommended to configure SNMP v2 as it does not provide authentication nor encryption of SNMP messages.
In the tunnel mode a completely new IP delivery header is inserted in each IPSec packet while in a transport mode IP header stays untouched (except of the changed protocol type  - 50 for ESP).


To avoid fragmentation by devices on the path we have to decrease MTU from 1500 to 1400 bytes. As it lacks of security it is very often used in conjunction IP SEC VPN that on the other hand is not capable to pass multicast traffic.
GRE tunnel interface is configured on router R1 (Cisco 7206VXR) and Core Router (Core Linux with Quagga routing daemon installed). Furthermore routing daemons Quagga and Bird and multilayer switch Open vSwitch are used in many large production networks so it is certainly worth to be familiar with them.
Moreover choosing the Core Linux as an operating system for your appliance significantly reduces the size of the appliance.
The goal is to make identical copies of their disks, download the disks and rebuild machines locally in the virtual lab. The benefit of using sshpass command is that a password can be provided as a command-line argument and it is obfuscated as string 'zzzz' in the output of  'ps' command.
You will need to create an account, and you will want to keep track of the password and user name that you choose when you open your account. The -n parameter slows down generating SSH sessions by inserting fixed number of seconds before a new SSH session is generated.
The topology consists of three Cisco virtual switch appliances running vIOS-L2 and one network management station (NMS) based on Kali Linux. I wrote a script that parse output from SNMP requests sent to query  CAM and ARP tables and create an output file for each switch.
But in case they are two or more hosts connected to a single switchport, we need to increase the 'n' value.
Data are transferred in plain-text over the tunnel and peers are not authenticated (no confidentiality). The both routers have their outside interfaces connected to a router R3 that is located in the "Internet". My relationship with my beloved Fedora was broken in 2013 when I started using Linux Debian.
For instance if we have a computer connected to a Cisco VOIP phone and the phone is connected to a switchport, they are two MAC addresses presented in CAM table for the switchport. In this case we have to set argument 'n' to 2.
To prove that GRE tunnel is working and transporting multicast traffic, the OSPF routing protocol is started on R1 and Core routers and configured on tunnel interfaces and interfaces pointing to local networks. According to my findings during an attack against SSH server running on Core Linux I was always safe with a value 0.05 (seconds). In that case, it took about 15 seconds to find a password located on the 1000th line of a password dictionary file. They use that information to place ads in your email, and on every single page that you visit. TIP: Before connecting your computer with the VPN, make sure you delete all of your computers cookies. Cookies like to tattle on you and sometimes they will reveal your true IP Address without telling you. They carry over the spy campaign to include everything that you search for when using Chrome.
Clearly what you do on the Internet is your own business, and if anyone should be profiting from it, it should be you.
Gmail, like all email providers, logs your IP address when you create your account as well as every time you log in.
Moreover, Gmail requires SMS authentication from your mobile phone upon sign-up and may delete your account if it detects too many IP addresses accessing it. This is a protection against spammers, but it can also prevent you from using anonymizing software like Tor (link in Resources), which routes your traffic through anonymous IP addresses. Keep in mind, though, to remain anonymous you must always use Tor software when accessing this account.
If the message was sent from Gmail's Web interface, the originator's IP address will be hidden, but if she sent it through an email client such as Thunderbird, it's possible to see her IP address. View Article Stay Fashionably on Trend This Season Explore a range of beautiful hues with the year’s must-have colors. View Article Explore Angelina Jolie's Favorite Color See if her signature black pairs well with your personal style. He has written short fiction and film scripts, with several short stories published and a screenplay sold.



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