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Comment:I would have thought selling an item on buy now would mean you would have it available. There are numerous important revolutions that have dramatically changed the world that we live in.
The decline of feudalism, the emergence of the Renaissance and the Reformation, the expansion of trade with other distant countries and continents, and the discovery and exploration of new cultures awakened a desire to explore the nature and workings of the universe that surrounds mankind.
And so, appearing on the scene in Europe at the same time the explorers were searching for new routes to the Spice Islands, to China and India, others were engaged in new scientific studies.
In 1491, Nicholas enrolled at the University of Cracow (Poland), where he took an interest in astronomy. Copernicus is the first to propose a new view of the solar system--the heliocentric view of the solar system in contradiction to the traditional geocentric view. Because Copernicus merely stated his ideas as a hypothesis, he was not considered dangerous to the Roman Church, as Galileo was a generation later. Even though Copernicus made sense to some, the traditional geocentric scheme simply would not disappear. Kepler was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, and, although a student of Brahe, disagreed with his teacher. He was also one of the first to say that Ptolemy was wrong (Ptolemy taught the traditional geocentric view of the solar system) and maintained that Copernicus was correct--the earth did revolve round the sun, and not vice versa. These announcements, published in his work, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, brought Galileo (1564-1642) into conflict with the Roman Church.
In 1992, 350 years later, Pope John Paul II stated that errors were made in condemning Galileo.
The case of Galileo is perhaps the best-known illustration of the tension between science and religion.
Bacon is considered by many historians to be the a€?founder of modern science,a€?A  although by training and vocation he was not a practicing scientist.
Empiricism -- the theory that reality is discovered through the senses, through experimentation and testing. Induction -- drawing conclusions from onea€™s observations and testing and from that developing general principles.
By Bacona€™s rejection of ancient authorities, namely Aristotle and Ptolemy, a new science exploded on the scene, producing a plethora of discoveries and inventions that has continued nonstop to this day.A Under Ptolemy, there would likely not be television, iPhones, or space shuttles.
What Bacon attacked was medieval scholasticism--the idea that everything we need to know has already discovered in the past.
Scholasticism denied the very idea of experimentation and taught that the only thing left for the learned mind to do was to clarify was had already been discovered in the past!
Sir Francis believed that, in fulfillment of Daniela€™s prophecy, man would increase in knowledge in the last days by casting off unbiblical authorities like Aristotle and investigating Goda€™s natural revelation (creation) with minds that had been created in His image. His major works were The Advancement of Learning (1605), Novum Organum (1620) [the New Order], and New Atlantis (1627). Harvey was a physician in England and was a lecturer at the Royal College of Physicians in London and a Christian. Following his death on April 1727, Isaac Newtona€™s body lay in state in great honor n Westminster Abbey for an entire week. He developed the answer, he believed, and published his work in his masterpiece, Principia, published in 1687. Among the greatest scientific geniuses of all times, Isaac Newton made major contributions to mathematics, optics, physics, and astronomy. To Newton, the very orderliness and design of the universe spoke of God's awesome majesty and wisdom. Seeking to further understand God's methods, Newton studied and developed formulas for specific phenomena such as ocean tides, paths of comets, and the succession of the equinoxes. Newton spent a tremendous amount of time studying the Bible, especially the prophetic portions of Scripture.
Though he outwardly conformed to the church of England, Newton privately was an Arian Christian. List and explain what new social and political conditions existed in Europe to make possible the scientific revolution. Explain why the Copernican hypothesis was so startling to the populace and so threatening to the Vatican and to Luther and Calvin.
Explain how the relationship of Galileo to Copernicus was so similar to that between Hubble and Einstein in the 20th century and how they had similar impacts on the thinking of their generations. Describe how the scientific discoveries impacted the world of politics and urged men like Hobbes to pursue a new course of reasoning. The dissatisfaction by many with patterns of government and the practices of absolute monarchies in Europe and Asia created a hunger to find (1) new and better ways to govern, (2) ways that would better cultivate tolerance for diversity in religion and thought, (3) ways that would promote and value progress rather than tradition for traditiona€™s sake, and (4) where processes of social justice would acknowledge and protect natural rights of the individual. In simpler terms revolutionary thinking emerged especially in France, England, Scotland, and Germany which generally sought the following: (1) eliminate absolutism in government, (2) toleration for faith and thought, (3) openness to progress, and (4) freedom for the the individual.
Major events in the late 17th century set the conditions in Europe for a revolution in thought. The New Attitude: By the 1700s Europeans were quite certain that they could make the world a better, more comfortable place to live.
The New Question: If there are natural laws that govern the physical universe, certainly then must there not also be natural laws that govern the spheres of religion and rationality?
The new conclusion: If we must use mathematics and the scientific method to discern the natural laws of the physical universe, we must use the same tools to discover the natural laws of the spiritual world.
In other words, what can be known about God, eternity, spiritual laws and commandments, and other related items, can be discovered through human reason using the tools of the scientific method. And if we can discover the natural laws of the spiritual world, we can also discover the natural laws of how to live with each other in this world, including how to govern and to be governed. The Renaissance questioned traditional thoughts and principles and sought to discover better principles by studying the ancient Greek and Roman philosophers. The Enlightenment, likewise, questioned the traditional ideas about how to discover truth and how to live together on earth. If we are to discover the natural laws governing the spiritual world, how will we discover them? If human reason with the scientific method as its tool can discover the natural laws of the physical universe, why not the same for the spiritual world? They met to discuss and debate, in the spirit of the scientific revolution, what the natural laws were that were to govern all people in their personal, social, and community lives.
There were the common people who knew and cared little about those philosophers fortunate enough to sit around and debate natural laws!
The printing press that had aided the Protestant Reformation now became the instrument to spread the ideas of the Philosphes. The Philosphes and their disciples tended to occupy seats in the faculties of the universities. They also tended to arrive at a new conclusion about religion: If we must use mathematics and the scientific method to discover the natural laws of the physical universe, then we must use the same tools to discover through human reason the natural laws of the spiritual world. The Renaissance questioned traditional beliefs and principles and sought to discover better principles by studying the ancient Greek and Roman philosophers. If we are to discover the natural governing the spiritual world, how will we discover them?
While the leaders the scientific revolution were for the most part orthodox Christians (and believed that they were discovering evidences of Goda€™s intelligent design expressed through the laws they discovered and described), many of those who became leaders in the revolution in thought were deists.
However, as we shall see, the new thinkers in the Age of Reason were not the only people in town. In France the philosophes (a€?the philosophersa€?) gathered often in private homes (salons) hosted by wealthy women to read their latest essays. Although they dealt with a variety of topics, for our discussion we will concentrate primarily on their views dealing with politics and government.
He viewed government to be ideally a function of free and rational men -- not simple-minded men who lived as serfs within feudalism or blindly obeyed the dictates of a prince or king. Obviously, his ideas were a direct threat to Roman authority and to the absolutism of Louis XIII and Louis XIV. Baron de Montesquieu was a member of nobility in France, a judge in a French court, and one of the most influential political thinkers of the 18th century. In his major work, The Spirit of the Laws (1748), (French, De la€™esprit des lois) he concluded that when all power rests with one leader or even several leaders, despotism inevitably develops and human freedoms disappear.
Yet, Montesquieua€™s political thought was one of several basic ideas that was used to found the Constitution of the United States of America. His openness to ideas and toleration was exemplified in his marriage in 1715 as a Roman Catholic to a French Huguenot woman. Montesquieu believed that if natural laws were found that could best explain the natural world, then certainly there are laws that can teach us how to live with one another in peace and harmony in the world of culture and society. He also believed that educated persons best discover what these natural laws are that produce harmony, and, therefore, educated people govern best.
Governments are best shaped by the people and their surroundings, the climate, the environment. Voltaire was an opponent of Roman Catholic religious dogma and spoke strongly against blind obedience to the pope.
One of his major and most important works was A Treatise on Toleration (1782) that raised havoc when it was circulated within the last days of the reign of King Louis XVI. After returning to France in 1734 he had to again flee imprisonment due to comments made about the absolutists French government in Letters to the English. These personal examples created in him a hatred for oppression of any kind, whether by a despotic king or a democratic mob rule. Concerning politics, if Voltaire could choose one best form of government, it would be an enlightened monarchy.
He opposed war of any kind and called it a€?sophisticated murder.a€? This did not sit well with many in France who basked in the glory of Francea€™s hegemony under Louis XIV, which was achieved in large measure through warfare. Perhaps his best known work was the novel, Candide (1758), in which the central character, Candide, is a joyful, optimistic world traveler. Organized religion is led by charlatans who exploit the weak and who foist ignorance on the uneducated. Religious leaders maintain power by oppressing anyone who disagrees with them on even the simplest theological matters. Material wealth provides some comforts and power but in the long run drifts away at he hands of corrupt government officials (taxes, bribery) and dishonest merchants. A great earthquake takes place in the story of Candide which was based on a real earthquake that hit Lisbon, Portugal in 1755 with great loss of life. Voltaire expressed in Candide the opinion that God is either indifferent towards, or lacks the power to prevent evil within human history. As a youth he was educated by Jesuits, and was not an atheist, as some maintain, but bitterly opposed religious oppression of individual rights, and who believed that what can be known about God comes not through revelation and church dogma but through human reason.
It can probably be said that Voltaire was at best an agnostic, that the God who was championed by religion, as Voltaire experienced it, was at the core of a suppression of individual thought and freedom and therefore should be discarded.
Voltaire maintained that the only places on earth where there was true freedom of religion and speech were in England, the Netherlands, Prussia, and Switzerland.
Diderot was an atheist who believed that all mankind are born with a totally free will to live life as they wish, with no accountability to a divine being.
His Encyclopedia was a critical attack on and mocking of Christianity and resulted in his flight from France to Russia where he was protected and supported by the a€?enlighteneda€? ruler, Catherine the Great.
Born in Geneva, Rousseau was orphaned while young and placed in the care of a strict uncle.
Rousseau was a brilliant thinker who is claimed by Geneva today as one of its most prominent sons. Probably as a result of the harsh upbringing he experienced while living under his strict uncle, Rousseau had much to say about education and how young children develop. He promoted the idea that children develop through specific stages and should be raised and educated accordingly. The truly educated person is one who has been trained to be self-governing by making rationale choices.
Rousseau was among the first of the French to promote the ideal family as being a nuclear family (father, mother, and children) with a mother serving at home as the manager of the family affairs. Rousseau promoted the concept of a democratic, Christian Republic where the rights of the individual were carefully protected and where the Christian faith was part of culture. In his Social Contract (1762) Rousseau describes man as being inherently good, born both free and innocent, who is increasingly corrupted by culture and society.
He personally had deep religious roots, first as a boy who was born and lived in Calvinist Geneva, then as a Roman Catholic while living in France, and then returned to Calvinism when he moved back to Geneva in his later years. A great faith arose about the ability of human reason to think, weigh, argue, and conclude rather than mere faith on the one hand and the mere gathering of knowledge on the other. By observing human behavior we can discover natural laws that govern how we are to live together and then use these laws to draw up patterns for communities and patterns for governments that will produce harmony, order, and the preservation of individual rights and dignity. Once these natural laws are discovered and agreed upon, the common people are to be taught these newly found laws and trained in the use of reason. Once this system is at work, old institutions that rely upon traditions, unjust rules, and unreasonable patterns will be swept away for they keep the human race from progress. A new world will be created, a new society will be built, governments will be reshaped, and there will follow unlimited human progress. Every person is (1) capable of reason and the human mind can discover any truth and the human spirit can achieve any ambition; (2) innately good, potentially virtuous, and every society can become perfect. While some rejected religion altogether (Descartes and Hume), most still held to the values and principles of traditional Christianity.
The printing press, which greatly promoted the ideas of the Reformation, now also greatly enabled the philosophes to spread their ideas quickly, inexpensively, and widely throughout Europe.
Locke lived during the time of the restoration of the monarchy under Charles II and James II and was a strong supporter of the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
Locke taught that all people have innate, natural rights that no one has the right to diminish or deny. Locke transferred these observations about the nature of each person to how he or she is to be governed--each person is to be in charge of how he or she is governed and to participate in how society as a whole is governed. Lockea€™s ideas about government were contained in his work, Two Treatises of Civil Government.
He also opposed the idea held by those who supported the divine right of kings, that men are not naturally born to be free.
However, in order to preserve his life and his property a man has to choose to enter into society and to live happily with others in a government where the will of the majority rules. Government, therefore, is a social contract between those who govern and those who are governed. Because men tend to misuse one another, Locke saw the necessity for a government that contained (1) a written code of laws, (2) laws that exist for only one purpose -- to protect the good of the people, (3) legislative and judicial branches in government to enforce and define those laws, (4) no taxation without the consent of the people, and (5) no war or treaty powers are given to anyone without the consent of the people. Together with Montesquieu, Locke provided three of the foundational concepts that formed the new United States: (1) the necessity for a division of powers (Montesquieu and Locke), (2) the necessity of government to protect the natural rights and property of the individual (Locke), and (3) the formation of a commonwealth as a social contract where those who govern are selected by the people and remain in office so long as the people agree to such (Locke).
Locke was not an atheist, but he resisted any religion that did not grant freedom of thought and belief, especially the Roman Church.
He pictured in his work, Leviathan (1651), the all encompassing necessity of a strong central government that extended into every area of life. And yet Hobbes also called for the preservation by government of the natural rights of all citizens, and viewed the monarchy as existing only at the will of the people through a social contract. The absolute monarchies of Europe, and France in particular under Louis XIV, tended to practice mercantilism in the realm of economics and industry.
Adam Smith took on the mercantilistic establishment with the publication of his work, The Wealth of Nations in 1776. In his work, Smith maintained that man is at heart selfish in the sense that if given the opportunity, he will use industry to further his own economic well-being. Smith maintained that mercantilism is contrary to human nature and is ultimately destructive to a nationa€™s economy.
Rather than the governmenta€™s hand, there would be an invisible hand to guide a free market, marked and fueled by competition. Competition among producers to acquire the best workers raises the level of salaries of workers. Competition among producers increases not only their own wealth but that of the nation which taxes their profits. Producers, if allowed to reinvest their profits back into increased machinery, workers, research and development, produce a better quality of goods, sell more of their products, and make a greater profit. Money should circulate freely among men as blood does in the human body, a concept he learned from the revolution in science. Colonies in North America where free enterprise was either allowed to occur, or occurred because the people were too remote to be controlled, tended to become more prosperous than the economies they left behind in Europe. Adam Smitha€™s theory became the economic policy of the newly formed United States of America.
Deism was a popular religious belief based on a God who created the universe, set it in motion with a set of specific, orderly, natural laws, then stepped back to let it operate itself. The Deists often compared their view of God to that of a clockmaker who, having once created a clock, then wound it up, moved off, and let it operate in an orderly fashion on its own, governed by natural laws. Deists believed that all religions could be reduced to the worship of an orderly, rational God who does not perform the miraculous in violation of or apart from his natural laws (hence, no virgin birth, no miracles, no resurrection), and a moral code that human reason and common sense can agree on. While some of the philosophes rejected the notion of any kind of God at all and became atheists, most remained loyal to the Christian church. To Diderot and the contributors to the Encyclopedia all religious dogma was absurd and the result of human imagination.
Voltaire disagreed with the atheists and said their atheism had a religious dogma of its own. If religion is either not important for good government or not important for good society, and if principles for living together in society is based upon a commonly accepted set of values derived from common sense, what happens to people who my their own free choice choose not to live by those principles or standards? The general conclusion was that if someone disobeys a€?reasona€? or what the majority decides is a€?natural law,a€? that person has to be either removed from the perfect society or be a€?re educateda€? so that they use more enlightened reason. The Enlightenment thinking led not only to societies and governments where great, unheard of levels of human freedom were to be realized (which took place in Englanda€™s Glorious Revolution and which we will see in the American and French Revolutions), but in reality also produced some of the most cruel and totalitarian governments ever before realized in human history.
The Enlightenment that helped to produce both the United States of America also led, as well, to Hitlera€™s Nazi Germany!! The Big Question: Was this really an a€?enlightenmenta€? or is it better called the age of deifying human reason? There was another side to the Age of Reason where Christian men and women lived and taught and where spiritual movements took place at the same time as Locke, Voltaire, and Rousseau. The outbreak of Christian revivals in England and America in the 18th century greatly impacted the social, moral, financial, spiritual, and political aspects of culture in Great Britain and America so that these cultures differed significantly from those of Italy and France. The Great Awakening in America turned the colonies upside-down and prepared the way for independence from Great Britain. The Baroque Age in Music broke with tradition, and produced a radical departure from the music of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Spener was born in Alsace, whichat that time was a part of Germany, but is now a province in Eastern France. Later posts in Berlin exposed Spener to much criticism from other Lutheran ministers because of his emphasis upon personal transformation and cleansing through a spiritual rebirth. Although he is called the a€?father of pietism,a€? he, himself, did not teach nor practice what the later pietists called for--an emotional experience of salvation as a proof of conversion and the separation of the Christian from all secular life. Spener founded the University of Halle, a center of opposition to the ideas of the French philosophes. Early in his career Spener became widely known as a vocal opponent of the philosophy of Thomas Hobbes (see Hobbes above). The Age of Reason had begun to infiltrate Lutheran Germany and presented a new threat to the Lutheran churches. Spener taught that the cure for the cold dogma in the Roman Church and the dogma increasingly developing in German Lutheranism was not rationalism or human reason, but a deeper, personal commitment to Christ. His grandfather moved the family to Germany to avoid forced conversion to the state-religion, Catholicism. With wealth received from his family Zinzendorf purchased an estate in East Saxony, Germany (at the intersection of Saxony, Poland, and Czechoslovakia) where his intention was to create a community of people who desired to follow the teachings of Spener and to publish books which might awaken Lutheranism from what he felt was its stupor. Within months a request came from Moravia and Bohemia, now sections of present-day Czechoslovakia, from a group of Protestants who were the dominant group in Moravia and Bohemia before the Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648), but were now a persecuted minority. Zinzendorf worked diligently to unite the various groups coming from a variety of cultures and Christian backgrounds into a unified Christian community. Zinzendorf continued to view the new community, not as a new reformation, but as a means to breath new life into the Lutheran churches.
When civil authorities grew suspicious and concerned about Zinzendorfa€™s community, they banished them from the estate. Zinzendorf is mentioned here because, like his godfather, Spener, he emphasized the necessity of the new birth and of an intimate, personal relationship with Christ as the cure for the cold dogmas of Rome and the increasing coldness of the Lutheran Churches.
Rather than an emphasis on human reason, Zinzendorf was faithful to biblical teachings and to cultivating the spirit and the new heart. Edwards is considered to be one of the most brilliant Amercian-born philosophers and theologians. Edwards was a Calvinist minister in Northampton, Massachussetts and preached during some of the first revivals connected with the Great Awakening in (c. As with pietism in Europe, the Great Awakening emphasized an intensely personal relationship with Christ, brought the Christian faith to the common man, and was marked by prayer, bible study, intense introspection, and a personal commitment to a biblical standard of morality. The Great Awakening impacted the attitudes of the colonists towards authority and especially to the government of England.
The impact of the Awakening produced a revolution in the American colonies that was totally distinct from the revolution in France that occurred about 15 years later. At Oxford he joined the Holy Club, a group of deeply committed Christian students who met regularly to pray and study the Bible. Because he was not assigned a pulpit by the Anglican Church, Whtiefield preached wherever people would gather, in parks, in public squares, in marketplaces.
One of Whitefielda€™s most ardent supporters was Benjamin Franklin, who published all of Whitefielda€™s sermons and tracts in his Gazette.
On one occasion in Philadelphia, Franklin walked from the outdoor pulpit area where Whitefield was preaching on Market Street down to the Delaware River, just to see how far his booming voice would carry. Although Franklin did not agree personally with Whtiefielda€™s message of repentance and faith, he nevertheless admired him as a friend. It is said that Whitefield preached to more people in his lifetime than another other person prior to Billy Graham, and all without the benefit of air conditioning, PA systems, and closed circuit TV!
Whitefield crossed the Atlantic to the American colonies numerous times to conduct preaching campaigns from Massachusetts to Georgia. His preaching in Wales and England did much to prevent English society from being impacted by the humanism of the French philosophes. Earlier, the Wesleys had traveled to Georgia in the American colonies to do missionary work among the native Americans. It is understandable, therefore, that under the direction of the Wesleys many of their followers became leaders in major service projects and organizations, leading the way in prison, orphanage, hospital, and social reform. The Wesleys were abolitionists and were friends of William Wilberforce and John Newton, other English leaders in the anti-slavery movement in England.
It can be safely stated that the words of John Wesleya€™s hymns have been sung by millions around the world and are words memorized by millions.
List five major members of the Philosophes in France, England, and Scotland and explain their particular contributions to the Age of Reason. Explain the roles that natural reason and the newly discovered laws of nature played on the thinking of the leaders of the Age of Reason. Discuss specific Christian thinkers of the 18th century who opposed the French philosophes.
In a brief statement be able to summarize the impact of Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Locke on the framing of the American government. Explain how Hitlera€™s Nazism and Americas democracy could flow from the same fountain called the Age of Reason. Explain why many of the philosophes had trouble accepting the claims of the Scriptures concerning the virgin birth, the resurrection, Jesus walking on water, etc.
And so, appearing on the scene in Europe at the same time the explorers were searching for new routes to the Spice Islands,A  to China and India, others were engaged in new scientific studies.
The introduction of the Linnaean sexual system of plant classification in 1737 and its almost universal acceptance gave a tremendous impetus to the production of illustrated botanical books. IN the art of botanical illustration, evolution was by no means a simple and straightforward process. There are a number of other manuscript herbals in existence, illustrated with interesting figures.
This work contains coloured drawings of exceptional beauty, which are smaller than those in the Vienna manuscript, but quite equally realistic.
It is however with the history of botanical figures since the invention of the printing press that we are here more especially concerned. Botanical wood-engravings may be regarded as belonging to two schools, but it should be understood that the distinction between them is somewhat arbitrary and must not be pressed very far. The first school, of which we may take the cuts in the Roman edition of the ` Herbarium' of Apuleius Platonicus (?
The illustrations of the ` Herbarium' of Apuleius were copied from pre-existing manuscripts, and the age of the originals is no doubt much greater than that of the printed work. Colouring of the figures was characteristic of many of the earliest works in which wood-engraving was employed.
The engravings in the ` Herbarium' of Apuleius are executed in black, in very crude outline. The figures in the ` Herbarium' are characterised by an excellent trait, which is common to most of the older herbals, namely the habit of portraying the plant as a whole, including its roots. We now come to a series of illustrations, which may be regarded as occupying an intermediate position between the classical tradition of the ` Herbarium' of Apuleius, and the renaissance of botanical drawing, which took place early in the sixteenth century. Das puch der natur' of Konrad von Megenberg occupies a unique position in the history of botany, for it is the first work in which a wood-cut representing plants was used with the definite intention of illustrating the text, and not merely for a decorative purpose. A wood-cut, somewhat similar in style to that just described, but more primitive, occurs in Trevisa's version of the medi?val encyclop?dia of Bartholomaeus Anglicus, which was printed by Wynkyn de Worde before the end of the fifteenth century. The illustrations to the Latin 'Herbarius' or ` Herbarius Moguntinus,' published at Mainz in 1484 (Text-figs.
A more interesting series of figures, also illustrating the text of the Latin ` Herbarius,' was published in Italy a little later. In 1485, the year following the first appearance of the Latin `Herbarius,' the very important work known as the German `Herbarius,' or ' Herbarius zu Teutsch,' made its appearance at Mainz. A pirated second edition of the `Herbarius zu Teutsch' appeared at Augsburg only a few months after the publication of the first at Mainz. In the `Ortus Sanitatis' of 1491, about two-thirds of the drawings of plants are copied from the ` Herbarius zu Teutsch.' They are often much spoiled in the process, and it is evident that the copyist frequently failed to grasp the intention of the original artist. The use of a black background, against which the stalks and leaves form a contrast in white, which we noticed in the Book of Nature,' is carried further in the ` Ortus Sanitatis.' This is shown particularly well in the Tree of Paradise (Text-fig. An edition of the `Ortus Sanitatis,' which was published in Venice in 151 I, is illustrated in great part with woodcuts based on the original figures.
During the first three decades of the sixteenth century, the art of botanical illustration was practically in abeyance in Europe. Brunfels' illustrations represent a notable advance on any previous botanical wood-cuts, so much so, indeed, that the suddenness of the improvement seems to call for some special explanation. The engravings in Brunfels' herbal and the fine books which succeeded it, should not be considered as if they were an isolated manifestation, but should be viewed in relation to other contemporary and even earlier plant drawings, which were not intended for book illustrations. In Italy, Leonardo da Vinci's exquisite studies of plants, of which Plate XVI I I is an example, must also have pointed the way to a better era of herbal illustration. We are thus led to the conclusion that, though the engravings in Brunfels' herbal are separated from previous botanical figures by an almost impassable gulf, they should not be regarded as a sudden and inexplicable develop-ment. The illustrations in Brunfels' herbal were engraved, and probably drawn also, by Hans Weiditz, or Guiditius, some of whose work has been ascribed to Albrecht Durer. The title ` Herbarum vivae eicones'—` Living Pictures of Plants '—indicates the most distinctive feature of the book, namely that the artist went direct to nature, instead of regarding the plant world through the eyes of previous draughtsmen. In one respect the welcome reaction from the conventional and generalised early drawings went almost too far.
Our chronological survey of the chief botanical wood-cuts brings us next to those published by Egenolph in 1533, to illustrate Rhodion's ' Kreutterbuch.' These have sometimes been regarded as of considerable importance, almost comparable, in fact, with those of Brunfels.
It is interesting to notice that, as the third part of Brunfels' great work had not appeared when Egenolph's book was published, the latter must have been at a loss for figures of the plants which Brunfels had reserved for his third volume. In the third volume of Brunfels' herbal (which appeared after his death) there is a small figure, that of Auricula muris, which differs conspicuously in style from the other engravings, and which appears to represent a case in which the tables were turned, and a figure was borrowed from Egenolph. In his later books, Egenolph used wood-cuts pirated from those of Fuchs and Bock, which we must now consider. In the work of Leonhard Fuchs (Frontispiece) plant drawing, as an art, may be said to have reached its culminating point. Fuchs' figures are on so large a scale that the plant frequently had to be represented as curved, in order to fit it into the folio page.
Sometimes in Fuchs' figures a wonderfully decorative spirit is shown, as in the case of the Earth-nut Pea (Text-fig. The figures here reproduced show how great a variety of subjects were successfully dealt with in Fuchs' work.
We have so far spoken, for the sake of brevity, as if Fuchs actually executed the figures himself.


The drawing and painting of flowers is sometimes dismissed almost contemptuously, as though it were a humble art in which an inferior artist, incapable of the more exacting work of drawing from the life, might be able to excel. As far as concerns the pictures themselves, each of which is positively delineated according to the features and likeness of the living plants, we have taken peculiar care that they should be most perfect, and, moreover, we have devoted the greatest diligence to secure that every plant should be depicted with its own roots, stalks, leaves, flowers, seeds and fruits.
How dull and colourless the phrases of modern scientific writers appear, beside the hot-blooded, arrogant enthusiasm of the sixteenth century! Fuchs' wood-cuts were extensively pirated, especially those on a reduced scale, which were published in his edition of 1545.
In general character, Bock's illustrations are neater and more conventional than those of Brunfels or Fuchs. In point of time, the illustrations to the early editions of Mattioli's Commentaries on the Six Books of Dioscorides follow fairly closely on those of Fuchs, but they are extremely different in style (Text-figs. Another remarkable group of wood-engravings consists of those published by Plantin in connection with the work of the three Low Country herbalists, Dodoens, de l'Ecluse and de l'Obel. There is little to be said about de l'Obel's figures, which partook of the character of the rest of the wood-cuts for which Plantin made himself responsible.
The wood-cuts illustrating the comparatively small books of de l'Ecluse are perhaps the most interesting of the figures associated with this trio of botanists. The popularity of the large collection of blocks got together by the publishing house of Plantin is shown by the frequency with which they were copied.
Professor Treviranus, whose work on the use of wood-engravings as botanical illustrations is so well known, considered that some of the drawings published by Camerarius in connection with his last work (` Hortus medicus et philosophicus,' 1588) were among the best ever produced. A number of wood-blocks were cut at Lyons to illustrate d'Alechamps' great work, the ' Historia generalis plantarum,' 1586-7.
Among less important botanical wood-engravings of the sixteenth century we may mention those in the works of Pierre Belon, such as `De arboribus' (1553). Some specimens of the quaint little illustrations to Castor Durante's `Herbario Nuovo' of 1585 are shown in Text-figs. The engravings in Porta's 'Phytognomonica' (1588) and in Prospero Alpino's little book on Egyptian plants (1592) are of good quality. Passing on to the seventeenth century, we find that the ` Prodromos' of Gaspard Bauhin (162o) contains a number of original illustrations, but they are not very remarkable, and often have rather the appearance of having been drawn from pressed specimens. Parkinson's ` Paradisus Terrestris' of 1629 contains a considerable proportion of original figures, besides others borrowed from previous writers.
Among still later wood-engravings, we may mention the large, rather coarse cuts in Aldrovandi's `Dendrologia' of 1667, one of which, the figure of the Orange, or Mala Aurantia Chinensia, is reproduced in Text-fig. In the present chapter no attempt has been made to discuss the illustrations of those herbals (e.g. This brief review of the history of botanical wood-cuts leads us to the conclusion that between 1530 and 1630, that is to say during the hundred years when the herbal was at its zenith, the number of sets of wood-engravings which were pre-eminent—either on account of their intrinsic qualities, or because they were repeatedly copied from book to book—was strictly limited.
At the close of the sixteenth century, wood cutting on the Continent was distinctly on the wane, and had begun to be superseded by engraving on metal. In the seventeenth century, a large number of botanical books, illustrated by means of copper-plates, were produced. In 1615 an English edition of Crispian de Passe's work was published at Utrecht, under the title of `A Garden of Flowers.' The plates are the same as those in the original work.
The purchaser of ` The Garden of Flowers' receives detailed directions for the painting of the figures, which he is expected to carry out himself.
As we have already mentioned, it is not our intention to deal with the books published in the latter part of the seventeenth century. In the plates which illustrate Blankaart's herbal, a landscape and figures are often introduced to form a back-ground, and the low horizon, to which we referred in speaking of the ` Hortus Floridus,' is a very conspicuous feature. Etching and engraving on metal are well adapted to very delicate and detailed work, but from the point of view of book-illustration, wood-engraving is generally more effective. The History of Botanical Prints  What is a Botanical Print? The first school, of which we may take the cuts in the Roman edition of the ` Herbarium’ of Apuleius Platonicus (?
The illustrations of the ` Herbarium’ of Apuleius were copied from pre-existing manuscripts, and the age of the originals is no doubt much greater than that of the printed work. The engravings in the ` Herbarium’ of Apuleius are executed in black, in very crude outline.
The figures in the ` Herbarium’ are characterised by an excellent trait, which is common to most of the older herbals, namely the habit of portraying the plant as a whole, including its roots. We now come to a series of illustrations, which may be regarded as occupying an intermediate position between the classical tradition of the ` Herbarium’ of Apuleius, and the renaissance of botanical drawing, which took place early in the sixteenth century. Das puch der natur’ of Konrad von Megenberg occupies a unique position in the history of botany, for it is the first work in which a wood-cut representing plants was used with the definite intention of illustrating the text, and not merely for a decorative purpose. A wood-cut, somewhat similar in style to that just described, but more primitive, occurs in Trevisa’s version of the medi?val encyclop?dia of Bartholomaeus Anglicus, which was printed by Wynkyn de Worde before the end of the fifteenth century.
A more interesting series of figures, also illustrating the text of the Latin ` Herbarius,’ was published in Italy a little later. A pirated second edition of the `Herbarius zu Teutsch’ appeared at Augsburg only a few months after the publication of the first at Mainz.
An edition of the `Ortus Sanitatis,’ which was published in Venice in 151 I, is illustrated in great part with woodcuts based on the original figures.
Brunfels’ illustrations represent a notable advance on any previous botanical wood-cuts, so much so, indeed, that the suddenness of the improvement seems to call for some special explanation. The engravings in Brunfels’ herbal and the fine books which succeeded it, should not be considered as if they were an isolated manifestation, but should be viewed in relation to other contemporary and even earlier plant drawings, which were not intended for book illustrations. In Italy, Leonardo da Vinci’s exquisite studies of plants, of which Plate XVI I I is an example, must also have pointed the way to a better era of herbal illustration.
We are thus led to the conclusion that, though the engravings in Brunfels’ herbal are separated from previous botanical figures by an almost impassable gulf, they should not be regarded as a sudden and inexplicable develop-ment.
The illustrations in Brunfels’ herbal were engraved, and probably drawn also, by Hans Weiditz, or Guiditius, some of whose work has been ascribed to Albrecht Durer. Fuchs’ figures are on so large a scale that the plant frequently had to be represented as curved, in order to fit it into the folio page. Sometimes in Fuchs’ figures a wonderfully decorative spirit is shown, as in the case of the Earth-nut Pea (Text-fig. We need styles that are quick and easy to maintain without having to wake up at the break of dawn every morning to get it right.
No longer were men and women content to simply trust the traditional explanations for what seemed to drive the universe around them. The magnetic compass and astrolabe and new maps were enabling ships captains to better navigate the uncharted waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
He then continued his studies at the University of Bologna (Italy) where he met scholars who challenged Aristotle's traditional cosmologya€”that the earth was at the center of the universe known as geocentrism. It was thought to be genuinely a€?Christiana€? and a€?biblical.a€? Brahe came up with a variation of an earth-centered model that was satisfactory to many. He disagreed with the Copernican idea that the planets travel in circular routes around the earth. He heard of a new spyglass that had been invented in the Netherlands and set out to build his own.
The Jesuits saw in his teaching the worst consequences for the Church of Rome--they would be seen to have been in error and that their interpretation of the Bible was in error! There were others before and since, but whenever the topic of science and Christianity is discussed, Galileo usually is introduced into the argument as the primary example of one who proved the Church wrong.
He is credited with being the first researcher in the Western world to describe in exact and correct detail the circulatory system of the human body and the process used by the heart in pumping blood around within the body.
At the funeral, his coffin was carried by three earls, two dukes, and the Lord Chancellor of Great Britain.
If the planets revolve around sun in elliptical orbits, and all at different rates of speed and tracking different pathways, how is it that this is all so orderly?
Everything tells us mathematically, said Newton, that once on a trajectory, the planets they should continue on out in a straight line, like an arrow or a missile, and never return. He concluded that the same force that drew the apple downward was the same force that kept the planets and the earth in orbit -- gravity.
He discovered the law of gravitation, formulated the basic laws of motion, developed calculus, and analyzed the nature of white light.
This theory explained quite fully everything from the movement of the planets through the skies, to the movements of the tides, to the velocity of falling objects--and more.
The design of the eye required a perfect understanding of optics, and the design of the ear required a knowledge of sounds. He believed history was under the dominion of the Creator, and prophecy showed how the Creator was to establish His earthly kingdom in the end. He believed Jesus Christ was the Savior of the world, but he did not believe He was very God. Whatever forms of government the nations had used to govern, it seemed to the new thinkers that inevitably they always resulted in war.
The so-called Enlightenment began in the late 17th century and continued through most of the 18th century. In other words, what can be known about God, about eternity, about spiritual laws and commandments, can be discovered through human reason using the tools of the scientific method. The Reformation questioned the traditional beliefs, teachings, and authority of the Roman Church. A deist is one who believes in a God who created the universe, wound it up like a clock, and then walked away from it, allowing it to operate on its own under fixed laws. The common people of Europe knew and cared little about the philosophers who could sit around and debate natural laws: a€?We have to work for a living!a€? There were also great ministers and Christian theologians, especially in England and Scotland, who challenged the conclusions of the new thinkers. It was more or less an undercover exchange of ideas within the context of an absolute French monarchy that was generally opposed to the ideals being discussed by the philosophes. Some were committed to the basic truths of the Bible but knew that something other than absolutism had to be embraced (whether absolutism in government or the Roman Church) if God-given individual rights were to be set free. Although he did not fully develop his ideas concerning government, the later philosophes claimed Descartes as their forerunner. The most fundamental idea of Montesquieu was the idea that all men are prone to evil and men with power are exceptionally prone to evil. For in his day, Rome was enamored with absolutism--especially if the Roman Church was in charge or if one of its hand-picked monarchs was on the throne.
Montesquieu was widely read by the American colonists and was the most frequently quoted author in the letters and books of colonial writers in the period 1740-1780. Her belief system greatly impacted his view of government and faith, and he saw no reason why she should be suppressed and censored because of her beliefs.
If we can tame the natural world, then we can do the same with government, society and culture. Thomas Jefferson picked up on these ideas from Montesquieu and championed the idea that in the new America only the educated should be given the right to vote and to serve in public office. There is no one system that fits all, he concluded, BUT whatever form of government is used, it MUST grant freedom to all of its citizens. He advocated religious freedom for all and the guarantee of civil liberties, fair trials and freedom of thought and speech. There he learned to admire the freedoms that the English enjoyed under the parliamentary monarchy, where, he said, "The English, as a free people choose their own road to heaven.
He distrusted a democracy as much as a despotic king, because mob rule, to Voltaire, was as despotic as one-man rule. What he soon finds is hardship, disappointment, and treachery everywhere as part of the human condition. That it occurred is an indication of to Voltaire of Goda€™s indifference towards mankind and perhaps even his cruelty. The true God of heaven was suppressed by the false gods created by religions--especially the Roman Catholic Church.
Of all the philosophes, Diderot was the most outspoken critic of all religion, not simply because of the arguments raised by Voltaire and others, but simply because he believed that human reason excelled all forms of human religion. She did so in exchange for his willingness to sell to her his extensive and expensive art collection, something needed, she felt, if Russia was to enter the 19th century as an enlightened nation of Europe. As suggested by Locke earlier, both the rulers and those ruled should live by means of a social contract. His trust in the general will of the majority to do and to rule in a good fashion was viewed as extremely idealistic.
They valued the concept that all men were created in the image of God with certain innate, inalienable rights. Each person enters the world as a blank page, a tabula rasa, but as each grows older his or her experiences in life shape their personalities. Second was a mana€™s right to work his property and to own and control what he makes from it. This was an excuse, per Locke, to justify some men ruling over other men without their consent. One of his important works was the defense of the Christian faith in his work, On the Reasonableness of Christianity (1695).
Written during the English Civil War (1642-1651), Leviathan presented an absolute monarchy as the only hope to prevent mankind from self-destruction.
In this system the government controlled production of goods, the pricing of goods, setting of tariffs and taxes to control the flow of goods in and out of the country, and in general controlled most aspects of the economy.
If the government allows its citizens to use personal greed in production and in buying and selling, it will motivate towards great economic progress.
The most healthy and prosperous economies, said Smith, would be those were government takes its hands off of the economy. Investors will purchase stock to enable the producer to even further invest in machinery, workers, and research and development.
When Thomas Paine moved to France from America, where, complained, the new nation was too religious, he joined them. While many of the concepts of Locke and Montesquieu helped shape the new government that was created in the United States of America, the message of the philosophes in France created an increasing agitation that led to the French Revolution and to the European revolutions of 1848. So heavily involved were ministers in this movement towards American independence, that the resulting war between Great Britain and America was called a€?the Presbyterian Revolta€? in the Parliament of England. Music in England and Germany tended to strengthen the spiritual dimensions of culture and inspired people to faith. It resulted in new musical forms: polyphonic music, the opera, the ballet, the oratorio, the symphony, and compositions where instruments accompanied vocal music. He was troubled by the worldly attitudes of many Lutherans, by the wide-spread reliance upon infant baptism as a guarantee of salvation, and by the seeming coldness of many towards private communion with God. Any idea that unaided human reason could arrive at absolute truth, or that mankind could achieve harmony and a just society apart from God, were ludicrous for Spener.
He began to advocated communal living and taught that the community was more important to onea€™s spiritual and emotional development than even the nuclear family. Many resettled in other areas of Germany, but many settled in the new colony of Pennsylvania in English America. He was among the first 29 persons to be inducted in 1900 into the Hall of Fame of Great Americans.
Edwards son-in-law, David Brainard, became a missionary to the native Americans in New England. Because he had no funds, he entered Oxford University as a sevitor, or student of the lowest rank who earned his tuition by serving the needs of tuition-paying students.
There he met the two brothers, Charles and John Wesley, and together with them formed the Methodist movement within the Anglican Church, which later separated and became the Methodist Church. And on another occasion when Whtiefiled urged the immense crowd to give financially to the spread of the Gospel, Franklin emptied his wallet!
He once admitted to Whitefield that, a€?You have almost persuaded me!a€? Franklin once remarked that after Whitefield had preached in Philadelphia, Franklin walked through the streets and almost everywhere heard families in their homes singing psalms. Together with his brother Charles he framed an outline of Christian disciplines, which, if followed, could lead a person into a deeper, more intimate relationship with Christ.
Upon returning home, however, they both realized a deep emptiness in their hearts, and spoke about this with a Moravian in England who was waiting for a ship to sail to Georgia. They are still sung today and remain to form far more vibrant ideas than anything written by their contemporaries, the French philosophes.
Benefiting from improved printing techniques, botanical depiction in the latter half of the 18th century saw the marriage of beauty and scientific accuracy. This period saw the publication of many botanical magazines modeled on the success of William Curtis's Botanical Magazine.
The transfer of the artist's image to the printing plate was now achieved by mechanical processes, rather than the plate being worked on directly by the artist or craftsman.
The quality of the printmaking techniques used (now associated with fine art prints) and the quality of the papers will soon make apparent to the beginning collector the reason genuine antique prints (as opposed to modern reproductions) are sought after. We do not find, in Europe, a steady advance from early illustrations of poor quality to later ones of a finer character. The Library of the University of Leyden possesses a particularly fine example', which is ascribed to the seventh century A.D. From this epoch onwards, the history of botanical illustration is intimately bound up with the history of wood-engraving, until, at the extreme end of the sixteenth century, engraving on metal first came into use to illustrate herbals. One of these may perhaps be regarded as representing the last, decadent expression of that school of late classical art which, a thousand years earlier, had given rise to the drawings in the Vienna manuscript. 1484) as typical examples, has, as Dr Payne has pointed out, certain very well-marked characteristics. Those here reproduced are taken from a copy in the British Museum, in which the pictures were coloured, probably at the time when the book was published. In cases where uncoloured copies of such books exist, there are often blank spaces in the wood-cuts, which were left in order that certain details might afterwards be added in colour.
Figures of the animals whose bites or stings were supposed to be cured by the use of a particular herb, were often introduced into the drawing, as in the case of the Plantain (Text-fig. This came about naturally because the root was often of special value from the druggist's point of view.
These include the illustrations to the ` Book of Nature,' and to the Latin and German Herbarius,' the ` Ortus Sanitatis,' and their derivatives, which were discussed in Chapters II and III.
It was first printed in Augsburg in 1475, and is thus several years older than the earliest printed edition of the ` Herbarium' of Apuleius Platonicus which we have just discussed. 57) there is an attempt to represent the tuberous roots, which are indicated in solid black.
As we pointed out in Chapter II, its illustrations, which are executed on a large scale, are often of remarkable beauty.
The figures, which are roughly copied from those of the original edition, are very inferior to them.
They have, however, a very different appearance, since a great deal of shading is introduced, and in some cases parallel lines are laid in with considerable dexterity. The oft-repeated set of wood-cuts, ultimately derived from the ` Herbarius zu Teutsch,' were also used to illustrate Hieronymus Braunschweig's Distillation Book (Liber de arte distillandi de Simplicibus, 1500). On taking a broader view of the subject, we find that, at the beginning of the sixteenth century, there was a marked advance in all the branches of book illustration, and not merely in the botanical side with which we are here concerned. Some of the most remarkable are those by Albrecht Durer, which were produced before the appearance of Brunfels' herbal, during the first thirty years of the sixteenth century.
In his work, the artistic interest predominates over the botanical to a greater extent than is the case with D Durer's drawings. The art of naturalistic plant drawing had arrived independently at what was perhaps its high-water mark of excellence, but it is in Brunfels' great work that we find it, for the first time, applied to the illustration of a botanical book. This characteristic is best appreciated on comparing Brunfels' figures with those of his predecessors.
Many of Brunfels' wood-cuts were done from imperfect specimens, in which, for example, the leaves had withered or had been damaged by insects.
A careful examination of these wood-engravings leads, how-ever, to the conclusion that practically all the chief figures in Egenolph's book have been copied from those of Brunfels, but on a smaller scale, and reversed.
It is true that, at a later period, when the botanical importance of the detailed structure of the flower and fruit was recognised, figures were produced which conveyed exacter and more copious information on these points than did those of Fuchs. 87) which fills the rectangular space almost in the manner of an all-over wall-paper pattern. The falsity of this view is shown by the fact that the greatest of flower painters have generally been men who also did admirable figure work. Furthermore we have purposely and deliberately avoided the obliteration of the natural form of the plants by shadows, and other less necessary things, by which the delineators sometimes try to win artistic glory : and we have not allowed the craftsmen so to indulge their whims as to cause the drawing not to correspond accurately to the truth. The crowns of the trees are often made practically square so as to fit the block (Text-fig. In the original edition of Dodoens' herbal (` Cruydeboeck,' published by Vanderloe in 1554), more than half the illustrations were taken from Fuchs' octavo edition of 1545. Many of these figures were taken from the herbals of Fuchs, Mattioli and Dodoens, but they were often embellished with representations of insects, and detached leaves and flowers, scattered over the block with no apparent object except to fill the space. In this book there are some graceful wood-cuts of trees, one of which is reproduced in Text-fig. Some curious examples of the former, which will be discussed at greater length in the next chapter, are shown in Text-figs. We might almost say that there were only five collections of wood-cuts of plants of really first-rate importance—those, namely, of Brunfels, Fuchs, Mattioli, and Plantin, with those of Gesner and Camerarius, all of which were published in the sixty years between 1530 and 1590. The earliest botanical work, in which copper-plate etchings were used as illustrations, is said to be Fabio Colonna's ` Phytobasanos' of 1592.
The majority of these were published late in the century, and thus scarcely come within our purview. The artist is particularly successful with the bulbous and tuberous plants, the cultivation of which has long been such a specialty of Holland. The book is divided into four parts, appropriate to the four seasons, and each part is preceded by an encouraging verse intended to keep alive the owner's enthusiasm for his task.
We may, however, for the sake of completeness, mention two or three examples in order to show the kind of work that was then being done. In the latter the lines are raised, and the method of printing is thus exactly the same as in the case of type, while in the former the process is reversed and the lines are incised. This period saw the publication of many botanical magazines modeled on the success of William Curtis’s Botanical Magazine. The transfer of the artist’s image to the printing plate was now achieved by mechanical processes, rather than the plate being worked on directly by the artist or craftsman.
This came about naturally because the root was often of special value from the druggist’s point of view. It was first printed in Augsburg in 1475, and is thus several years older than the earliest printed edition of the ` Herbarium’ of Apuleius Platonicus which we have just discussed.
Some of the most remarkable are those by Albrecht Durer, which were produced before the appearance of Brunfels’ herbal, during the first thirty years of the sixteenth century. In his work, the artistic interest predominates over the botanical to a greater extent than is the case with D Durer’s drawings. The art of naturalistic plant drawing had arrived independently at what was perhaps its high-water mark of excellence, but it is in Brunfels’ great work that we find it, for the first time, applied to the illustration of a botanical book. This characteristic is best appreciated on comparing Brunfels’ figures with those of his predecessors.
Many of Brunfels’ wood-cuts were done from imperfect specimens, in which, for example, the leaves had withered or had been damaged by insects. A careful examination of these wood-engravings leads, how-ever, to the conclusion that practically all the chief figures in Egenolph’s book have been copied from those of Brunfels, but on a smaller scale, and reversed.
87) which fills the rectangular space almost in the manner of an all-over ” wall-paper pattern.
They are mankinda€™s achievements as we attempt to fulfill Goda€™s command to subdue the earth and have control over it -- germs, bacilli, water, weather, steam, fire and all the other resources that God has so graciously given to us.
But an increased interest in astronomy to further assist navigation also resulted in a re-thinking of astronomy itself. Medieval theologians embraced the teaching that the earth was the center of the solar system, proof that humankind was the center of God's attention. He proposed a model in which the eartha€™s moon and the sun revolved around the earth, while the planets revolved around the sun. His mathematical calculations convinced him that the planets moved in elliptical orbits around the sun. Man, created in Goda€™s image, said Bacon, has the responsibility to observe Goda€™s creation and learn from it and learn about it. Behind all his science was the conviction that God made the universe with a mathematical structure and He gifted human beings' minds to understand that structure.
His Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended used astronomical data to argue that the Bible was the oldest document in the world and that the events of Biblical history preceded all other ancient histories. Newton believed the Athanasian creed and the doctrine of the Trinity diminished the sovereign dominion of the Almighty and corrupted the purity of the church for centuries.
The lives of common people were turned upside-down, agriculture and industry destroyed, and all of Europe involved in military buildup. The Enlightenment, or Age of Reason, questioned the traditional ideas about how to discover truth and how to live together in harmony on earth. Some of the philosophes were skeptics, questioning much of everything, including Christianitya€™s basic claims. He also concluded that not only religious people can do this but all can engage in it, hence, religion is not necessary to harmony in society. Here the nobles are great without insolence, and the people share in the government without disorder" (Voltaire, Letters on the English, 1733).
In the end, these events do not seem to achieve any apparent good except to point out clearly the cruelty and folly of mankind and the apparent indifference of the natural world and its God. However, he also predicted that Newtona€™s law of gravity would eventually (within one century) overthrow Christianity as it was then known and practiced. He advocated allowing children to set their own agendas in school and granting them freedom to study what was of interest to them. In his own personal life, Rousseau had four children by his live-in a€?wifea€? who bore him four children. This was in opposition to the Calvinism of Geneva with its twin doctrines of original sin and predestination. Every person, if allowed to live a life of freedom, has the innate ability and capacity to reach perfection here on earth and to share that perfection with his or her fellow humans! The duty to preserve onea€™s life is so strong that he neither has the right to end his own life or to subject his life to slavery. As creatures of God each person has the capacity to take charge of their own destiny and can regulate and improve their situation in life. However, he did not say that a man could amass property without limits or to the hurt of others. The king and queen would be subject to the input, the laws, and the regulations of those who they governed.
His view of government, therefore, called for a strong central government necessary to thwart mindless revolts.
Although Austria was a Roman Catholic country and Vienna was the seat of the Holy Roman Empire, the Zinzendorfs had converted to Lutheranism. His father was an official in the government of Saxony but died several weeks after Nikolausa€™ birth. The American War for Independence was heavily impacted by the Great Awakening, and whatever impact the French philosophes and the Enlightenment had on American thinking, it was greatly tempered by Edwards, the Wesleys, and George Whitefield. They later parted company with the Moravians because they rejected the a€?quietisma€? emphasized by the Moravians. The hymns emphasized the free grace of God expressed through the death and resurrection of Jesus, emphasized the personal relationship that the Christian is intended to enjoy with God through Christ, and those practices of the Christian life that Methodism developed.
Both black-and-white and color reproduction reached a standard that has never since been surpassed, largely owing to the skills developed by artists, engravers and printers, in response to the demands of the botanists. While allowing for great accuracy, the aesthetic appeal of the manual printmaking processes (woodcut, wood-engraving, intaglio engraving, and lithography) is lacking in these process prints. On the contrary, among the earliest extant drawings, of a definitely botanical intention, we meet with wonderfully good figures, free from such features as would be now generally regarded as archaic. During the seventeenth century, metal-engravings and wood-cuts existed side by side, but wood-engraving gradually declined, and was in great measure superseded by engraving on metal.
Probably no original wood-cuts of this school were produced after the close of the fifteenth century.
The origin of wood-engraving is closely connected with the early history of playing-card manufacture. It is to be regretted that, in modern botanical drawings, the recognition of the paramount importance of the flower and fruit in classification has led to a comparative neglect of the organs of vegetation, especially those which exist underground. The single plant drawing, which illustrates it, is probably not of such great antiquity, however, as those of the ` Her-barium,' for its appearance suggests that it was probably executed from nature for this book, and not copied and recopied from one manuscript to another before it was engraved. The figures are much better than those of the ` Herbarium' of Apuleius, but at the same time they are, as a rule, formal and conventional, and often quite unrecognisable. Dr Payne considered some of them comparable to those of Brunfels in fidelity of drawing, though very inferior in wood-cutting. That the conventional figures of the period did not satisfy the botanist is shown by some interesting remarks by Hieronymus at the conclusion of his work. But, in 1530, an entirely new era was inaugurated with the appearance of Brunfels' great work, the ` Herbarum viv? eicones,' in which a number of plants native to Germany, or commonly cultivated there, were drawn with a beauty and fidelity which have rarely been surpassed (Text-figs.


This impetus seems to have been due to the fact that many of the best artists, above all Albrecht Durer, began at that period to draw for wood-engraving, whereas in the fifteenth century the ablest men had shown a tendency to despise the craft and to hold aloof from it. In each of his coloured drawings of sods of turf, known as das grosse Rasenstuck, and das kleine Rasenstuck, a tangled group of growing plants is portrayed exactly as it occurred in nature, with a marvellous combination of artistic charm and scientific accuracy. It is strange to think that numerous editions of the ' Ortus Sanitatis' and similar books, with their crude and primitive wood-cuts, should have been published while such an artist as Leonardo da Vinci was at the zenith of his powers.
It is true that the style of engraving is different, and that, as Hatton has pointed out, Egenolph's flowing, easy, almost brush-like line is very distinct from that of Weiditz. Nevertheless, at least in the opinion of the present writer, the illustrations to Fuchs' herbals (` De historia stirpium,' 1542, and ` New Kreziterbuch,' 1543) represent the high-water mark of that type of botanical drawing which seeks to express the . 30, 31, 32, 58, 69, 70, 86, 87, 88) do not give an entirely just idea of their beauty, since the line employed in the original is so thin that it is ill-adapted to the reduction necessary here. It must not be forgotten, when discussing wood-cuts, that the artist, who drew upon the block for the engraver, was working under peculiar conditions.
30) is realised in a way that brings home to us the intrinsic beauty of this somewhat prosaic subject. He employed two draughtsmen, Heinrich Fullmaurer, who drew the plants from nature, and Albrecht Meyer, who copied the drawings on to the wood, and also an engraver, Veit Rudolf Speckle, who actually cut the blocks. Fantin-Latour is a striking modern instance, and one has but to glance at the studies of Leonardo da Vinci (e.g. Vitus Rudolphus Specklin, by far the best engraver of Strasburg, has admirably copied the wonderful industry of the draughtsmen, and has with such excellent craft expressed in his engraving the features of each drawing, that he seems to have contended with the draughtsman for glory and victory. 55, Hieronymus Bock [or Tragus] undoubtedly made use of them in the second edition of his `Kreuter Buch' (1546) which was the next important, illustrated botanical work to appear after Fuchs' herbal.
Details such as the veins and hairs of the leaves are often elaborately worked out, while shading is much used, a considerable mastery of parallel lines being shown. Daydon Jackson has pointed out that the wood-cut of the Clematis, which first appeared in Dodoens' ` Pemptades' of 1583, reappears, either in identical form, or more or less accurately copied, in works by de l'Obel, de l'Ecluse, Gerard, Parkinson, Jean Bauhin, Chabr?us and Petiver. 92, Gesner's drawings were not published during his lifetime, but some of them were eventually produced by Camerarius, with the addition of figures of his own, to illustrate his ` Epitome Matthioli' of 1586 (Text-figs.
109 and i 1o, and the Glasswort, one of the best wood-cuts among the latter, is reproduced in Text-fig.
They are poor in quality, and the innovation of representing a number of species in one large wood-cut is not very successful. In the majority of such cases, the source of the figures has already been indicated in Chapter IV. The wood-blocks of the two botanists last mentioned cannot be considered apart from one another ; from the scientific point of view they show a marked advance, in the introduction of enlarged sketches of the flowers and fruit, in addition to the habit drawings. Plate X I X is a characteristic example, but only part of the original picture is here re-produced.
The stanza at the beginning of the last section seems to show some anxiety on the part of the author, lest the reader should have begun to weary over the lengthy occupation of colouring the plates. Paolo Boccone's Icones et Descriptiones' of 1674 was illustrated with copper-plates, some of which were remarkably subtle and delicate, while others were rather carelessly executed.
As a result, there is a harmony about a book illustrated with wood-cuts which cannot, in the nature of things, be attained, when such different processes as printing from raised type, and from incised metal, are brought together in the same volume.
The single plant drawing, which illustrates it, is probably not of such great antiquity, however, as those of the ` Her-barium,’ for its appearance suggests that it was probably executed from nature for this book, and not copied and recopied from one manuscript to another before it was engraved.
The figures are much better than those of the ` Herbarium’ of Apuleius, but at the same time they are, as a rule, formal and conventional, and often quite unrecognisable.
8o), for instance, is lamentably inferior to that in the `Herbarius zu Teutsch’ (Text-fig.
It is true that the style of engraving is different, and that, as Hatton has pointed out, Egenolph’s flowing, easy, almost brush-like line is very distinct from that of Weiditz. Chinese and Arab insights and discoveries often suggested new explanations for natural phenomena. The telescope, first produced in the Netherlands and improved by Galileo in Italy, led to the discovery and confirmation of the new way to conceive of our solar system--heliocentrism (literally: a€?sun-centereda€™). He was the first to discover the moons of Jupiter, the first to see spots on the sun, the first to realize that the Milky Way is made up of a myriad of stars and to suggest that the moon is mountainous. If something is empirically true, it has been proven to be so through the senses, through experimentation and testing.
Man is to trust God for new insights and new revelations about Himself and his created universe. They remain in motion due to an immense force that set them into motion and, they remain in their course because of a law that holds them in orbit.
Therefore, onea€™s religious beliefs should not be the test of being a good, acceptable citizen. Corrupt government officials work hand in hand with dishonest clergy against the common people.
Violating his own stated ideal for children and the family, he required her to place them in homes for orphans. Coupled with this was the notion that a nationa€™s economic health was directly measured by the amount of gold and silver it was able to accumulate. His mother requested Philipp Jakob Spener to serve as Nikolausa€™ godfather, and sent the child to live with her mother, who was a godly, pietistic Lutheran. The development of lithography in the early 1800s allowed many botanical artists to produce their own plates, which played no small role in this artistic burgeoning. With every print in a collection there is the pleasure of establishing the name and origin of the plant, the artist and printmaker, the type of printing technique and the purpose of the publication.
The finest period of plant illustration was during the sixteenth century, when wood-engraving was at its zenith. In the second phase, on the other hand, which culminated, artistically, if not scientifically, in the sixteenth century, we find a renaissance of the art, due to a more direct study of nature. Playing-cards were at first coloured by means of stencil plates, and the same method, very naturally, came to be employed in connection with the wood-blocks used for book illustration. Brown appears to have been used for the animals, roots and flowers, and green for the leaves.
In this figure the cross-hatching of white lines on black—the simplest possible device from the point of view of the wood-engraveris employed with good effect. The illustration in question is a full-page wood-cut, showing a number of plants, growing in situ (Plate III). 65) is remarkable for its rhizome, on which the scars of the leaf bases are faithfully represented. They are distinctly more realistic than even those of the Venetian edition of the Latin ` Herbarius,' to which we have just referred. He tells the reader that he must attend to the text rather than the figures, for the figures are nothing more than a feast for the eyes, and for the information of those who cannot read or write. If internal evidence alone were available, it might plausibly be maintained that the engravings in the ' Ortus Sanitatis' and the drawings of Leonardo da Vinci were centuries apart. 66), for example, contrasts notably with that of the same subject from the Venetian ` Herbarius' (Text-fig. Regarded from the point of view of decorative book illustration, the beautiful drawings of the period under consideration sometimes failed to reach the standard set by earlier work.
If the drawings have any fault, it is perhaps to be found in the somewhat blank and unfinished look, occasionally produced when unshaded outline drawings are used on so large a scale. It was impossible for him to be unmindful of the boundaries of the block, when these took the form, as it were, of miniature precipices under his hand.
Fuchs evidently delighted to honour his colleagues, for at the end of the book there are portraits of all three at work (Text-fig. An examination of the wood-cuts in Bock's herbal seems, however, to show that his illustrations have more claim to originality than is often supposed. The figures in earlier works, such as the ` Ortus Sanitatis,' are recalled in Kandel's dis-regard of the proportion between the size of the tree, and that of the leaves and fruits.
41, 42, 93, 94), but in some later editions, notably that which appeared at Venice in 1565, there are large illustrations which are reproduced on a reduced scale in Text-figs.
After this, Plantin took over the publication of Dodoens' books, and in his final collected works (` Stirpium historie pemptades sex,' 1583) the majority of the illustrations were original, and were carried out under the author's eye (Text-figs.
The actual blocks themselves appear to have been used for the last time when Johnson's edition of Gerard's herbal made its final appearance in London in 1636. Treviranus pointed out that one of their great merits lay in the selection of good, typical specimens as models. 51, appears also in the illustrations of a book on Simples, by Joannes Mesua, published in Venice in 1581. Plantin's set included those blocks which were engraved for the herbals of de I'Obel, de l'Ecluse, and the later works of Dodoens. In 1611 Paul Renaulme's 'Specimen Historia Plantarum' was published in Paris, but though this work was illustrated with good copper-plates, the effect was somewhat spoilt by the transparency of the paper. The soil on which the plants grow is often shown, and the horizon is placed very low, so that they stand up against the sky. Among slightly later works, we may refer to a quaint little Dutch herbal by Stephen Blankaart, and to the ' Paradisus Batavus' of Paul Hermann, both of which belong to the last decade of the century. As showing the complete revolution in the style of plant illustration in two hundred years, it is interesting to compare this drawing with that of the same subject in the German 'Herbarius' of 1485 (Text-fig. They are distinctly more realistic than even those of the Venetian edition of the Latin ` Herbarius,’ to which we have just referred.
66), for example, contrasts notably with that of the same subject from the Venetian ` Herbarius’ (Text-fig.
If human reason coupled with the scientific method can discover the natural laws of the physical universe, why not the same for the spiritual world? Montesquieu attributed Polybius, ancient Greek philosopher, for many of his foundational principles. Newtona€™s discovery completely overturned ancient superstitions, including those of the Roman Church.
Dead formalism was replaced by excitement, enthusiasm, spiritual fervor, and individual commitment to Christ. Practically every print will have a fascinating story attached to it, and the pleasure is of course in discovering these stories, while admiring the beauty of the object.
They show no sign of having been drawn directly from nature, but look as if they were founded on previous work. Sometimes the essential character of the plant is seized, but the way in which it is expressed is curiously lacking in a sense of proportion, as in the case of Dracontea (Plate X V I), one of the Arum family. 3), in which the leaves are represented as if they had no organic continuity with the stem. These drawings are more ambitious than those in the original German issue, and, on the whole, the results are more naturalistic. There is often a tendency, in the later work, to make the figures occupy the space in a more decorative fashion ; for instance, where the stalk in the original drawing is simply cut across obliquely at the base, we find in the ` Ortus Sanitatis' that its pointed end is continued into a conventional flourish (cf.
In some cases there seems to have been an attempt at the convention, used so successfully by the Japanese, of darkening the underside of the leaf, but, sometimes, in the same figure, certain leaves are treated in this way, and others not.
It is interesting to recall that the date 1530 is often taken, in the study of other arts (e.g. Killermann has been at pains to identify the genus and species of almost every plant represented, and has described the drawings as das erste Denkmal der Pflanzenukologie.
The artist's ambition was evidently limited to representing the specimen he had before him, whether it was typical or not. The very strong, black, velvety line of many of the fifteenth century wood-engravings, and the occasional use of solid black backgrounds (cf.
88) the fruit and a dissection of the inflorescence are represented, so that, botanically, the drawing reaches a high level. Plate XVII) to feel that the finest plant drawings can only be produced by a master hand, capable of achieving success on more ambitious lines. Some of the drawings suggest that they may have been done from dried plants, and in others the treatment is over-crowded.
These figures are very much more botanical than those of any previous author ; in fact—as Hatton has pointed out in ` The Craftsman's Plant-Book '—they are beginning to become too botanical for the artist !
In certain other wood-cuts in d'Alechamps' herbal, solid black is used in an effective fashion. 55 shows a twig of Barberry, which is but a single item in one of these large illustrations.
The details of the flowers and fruit are often shown separately, the figures, in this respect, being comparable with those of Gesner and Camerarius, though, owing to their small size, they do not convey so much botanical information.
Two years later appeared the `Hortus Eystettensis,' by Basil Besler, an apothecary of Nuremberg. This convention seems to have been characteristic, not only of the plant drawings of the Dutch artists, but also of their landscapes.
The latter, which is an Elzevir with very good copper-plates, was published after the author's death, and dedicated, by his widow, to Henry Compton, Bishop of London. The artist’s ambition was evidently limited to representing the specimen he had before him, whether it was typical or not. We would have no plastics, no machinery, no cures for infection, no successful surgeries, we would walk everywhere, and have very limited knowledge about and communication with the rest of the world -- and even with communities that exist only 100-200 miles away! It dates back to the end of the fifth, or the beginning of the sixth century of the Christian era. They have a decorative rather than a naturalistic appearance ; it seems, indeed, as if the principle of decorative symmetry controlled the artist almost against his will.
For instance, in the first cut labelled Vettonia, each of the lanceolate leaves is outlined continuously on the one side, but with a broken line on the other. Ranunculus acris, the Meadow Buttercup, Viola odorata, the Sweet Violet, and Convallaria majalis, the Lily-of-the-Valley) are distinctly recognisable. Some of the figures are wonderfully charming, and in their decorative effect recall the plant designs so often used in the Middle Ages to enrich the borders of illuminated manuscripts. The fern called Capillus Veneris, which is probably in-tended for the Maidenhair, is represented hanging from rocks over water, just as it does in Devonshire caves to-day (Text-fig. In some of the genre pictures, Noah's Ark trees are introduced, with crowns consisting entirely of parallel horizontal lines, decreasing in length from below upwards, so as to give a triangular form. In 1526, Durer carried out a beautiful series of plant drawings, among the most famous of which are those of the Columbine, and the Greater Celandine.
In the former the artist has caught the exact look of the leaves and stalks, buoyed up by the water. The notion had not then been grasped that the ideal botanical drawing avoids the peculiarities of any individual specimen, and seeks to portray the characters really typical of the species. It may be that Fuchs had in mind the possibility that the purchaser might wish to colour the work, and to fill in a certain amount of detail for himself. It is not surprising, under these circumstances, that the artist who drew upon the block should often seem to have been obsessed by its rectangularity, and should have accommodated his drawing to its form in a way that was unnecessary and far from realistic, though sometimes very decorative. Fuchs' wood-cuts are nearly all original, but that of the White Waterlily appears to have been founded upon Brunfels' figure. But, in spite of these defects, they form a markedly individual contribution, which is of great importance in the history of botanical illustration. These wood-cuts resemble the smaller ones in character, but are more decorative in effect, and often remarkably fine. A few (namely those marked in the Pemptades, Ex Codice Caesareo ) are copied from Juliana Anicia's manuscript of Dioscorides to which we have more than once referred. Camerarius often gives detailed analyses of the flowers and fruit on an enlarged scale (Text-fig. In a later book of Colonna's, the ` Ekphrasis,' analyses of the floral parts are given in even greater detail than in the `Phytobasanos.' Colonna expressly mentions that he used wild plants as models wherever possible, because cultivation is apt to produce alterations in the form. In the paintings of Cuyp and Paul Potter, the sky-line is sometimes so low that it is seen between the legs of the cows and horses.
It must be confessed that the fifteenth-century wood-cut, though far less detailed and painstaking, seizes the general character of the plant in a way that the seventeenth-century copper-plate somewhat misses.
In some of the genre pictures, Noah’s Ark trees are introduced, with crowns consisting entirely of parallel horizontal lines, decreasing in length from below upwards, so as to give a triangular form.
It is illustrated with brush drawings on a large scale, which in many cases are notably naturalistic, and often quite modern in appearance (Plates I, II, XV).
These drawings are somewhat of the nature of diagrams by a draughtsman who generalized his know-ledge of the object. It has been suggested that the illustrations in the ` Herbarium' are possibly not wood-engravings, but rude cuts in metal, excavated after the manner of a wood-block. It is noticeable that, in two cases in which a rosette of radical leaves is represented, the centre of the rosette is filled in in black, upon which the leaf-stalks appear in white. We may, I think, safely conclude that the draughtsman knew quite well that he was not representing the plant as it was, and that he intentionally gave a conventional rendering, which did not profess to be more than an indication of certain distinctive features of the plant. The former is reproduced on a small scale in Plate XVI I ; it is scarcely possible to imagine a more perfect habit drawing of a plant.
Throughout the work, the drawing seems to be of a slightly higher quality than the actual engraving; the lines are, to use the technical term, occasion-ally somewhat rotten or even broken.
81) give a great sense of richness, especially in combination with the black letter type, with which they harmonise so admirably.
The existing copies of this and other old herbals often have the figures painted, generally in a distressingly crude and heavy fashion.
This is exemplified in the figure of the Earth-nut Pea, to which we have just referred and also in Text-figs. Whereas in the work of Brunfels and Fuchs, the beautiful line of a single stalk is often the key-note of the whole drawing, in the work of Mattioli, the eye most frequently finds its satisfaction in the rich massing of foliage, fruit and flowers, suggestive of southern luxuriance. Some are also borrowed from the works of de l'Ecluse and de l'Obel, since Plantin was publisher to all three botanists, and the wood-blocks engraved for them were regarded as, to some extent, forming a common stock.
Trew published a collection of Gesner's drawings, many of which had never been seen before ; but even then, it proved impossible to separate the work of the two botanists with any completeness, since Gesner's drawings and blocks had passed through the hands of Camerarius, who had incorporated his own with them.
1o1, which is also interesting since two of the leaves bear the initials M and H, which were possibly those of the artist.
The decorative border, surrounding each of the figures reproduced, was not printed from the copper.
In the succeeding year, 1614, a book was published which has been described, probably with justice, as containing some of the best copper-plate figures of plants ever produced. This treatment was no doubt suggested by life in a flat country, but it was carried to such an extreme that the artist's eye-level must have been almost on the ground ! It has been suggested that the illustrations in the ` Herbarium’ are possibly not wood-engravings, but rude cuts in metal, excavated after the manner of a wood-block. THESE VERY SAME ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES, WHO HAVE SWORN TO PROTECT AND SERVE, OUR COUNTRY, AND CITIZENS ,ARE BUT SOME, OF THE CORRUPT,GREEDY TRAITORS .ENGAGED IN THE TYRANNY AND TORTURE. The general habit of the plant is admirably expressed, and occasionally, as in the case of the Bean (Plate XV), the characters of the flowers and seed-vessels are well indicated. In Dr Payne's own words, Such figures, passing through the hands of a hundred copyists, became more and more conventional, till they reached their last and most degraded form in the rude cuts of the Roman Herbarium, which represent not the infancy, but the old age of art. Another delightful wood-cut, almost in the Japanese style, is that of an Iris growing at the margin of a stream, from which a graceful bird is drinking. This attitude of the artist to his work, which is so different from that of the scientific draughtsman of the present day, is seen with great clearness in many of the drawings in medi?val manuscripts. Among the original figures many, as we have already indicated, represent purely mythical subjects. A page bearing such illustrations is often more satisfying to the eye than one in which the desire to express the subtleties of plant form, in realistic fashion, has led to the use of a more delicate line. 89) show that the talents of the artists whom he employed were not confined to plant drawing, but were also strong in the direction of vigorous and able portraiture.
27), here reproduced, are markedly different from those of Fuchs, although, in the case of the first, Fuchs' wood-cut may have been used to some extent. Many of his figures would require little modification to form the basis of a tapestry pattern. In fact it is often difficult to decide to which author any given figure originally belonged. A few wood-cuts however, which appeared as an appendix to Simler's Life of Gesner, are undoubtedly Gesner's own work.
This was the ` Hortus Floridus' of Crispian de Passe, a member of a famous family of engravers.
Uncouth as they are, we may regard them with some respect, both as being the images of flowers that bloomed many centuries ago, and also as the last ripple of the receding tide of Classical Art. For instance, a plant such as the Houseleek may be represented growing on the roof of a house—the plant being about three times the size of the building. However, the primary object of the herbal illustrations was, after all, a scientific and not a decorative one, and, from this point of view, the gain in realism more than compensates for the loss in the harmonious balance of black and white.
In the octavo edition of Fuchs' herbal published in 1545, small versions of the large wood-cuts appeared. The writer has been told by an artist accustomed, in former years, to draw upon the wood for the engraver, that to avoid a rectangular effect required a distinct effort of will.
The artist employed by Bock, as he himself tells us, was David Kandel, a young lad, the son of a burgher of Strasburg. This difficulty is enhanced by the fact that some were actually made for one and then used for another, before the work for which they had been originally destined was published. 100) in which the seedling of the Rose of Jericho is drawn side by side with the mature plant, and another (Text-fig. Like Parkinson's 'Paradisus Terrestris,' into which some of the figures are copied, it is more of the nature of a garden book than a herbal.
In the octavo edition of Fuchs’ herbal published in 1545, small versions of the large wood-cuts appeared.
No one would imagine that the artist was under the delusion that these proportions held good in nature. I t is perhaps invidious to draw distinctions between the work of Fuchs and that of Brunfels, since they are both of such exquisite quality. At the present day, when photographic methods of reproduction are almost exclusively used, the artist is no longer oppressively conscious of the exact outline of the space which his figure will occupy. The little house was merely introduced in order to convey graphic information as to the habitat of the plant concerned, and the scale on which it was depicted was simply a matter of convenience. However, merely as an expression of personal opinion, the present writer must confess to feeling that there is a finer sense of power and freedom of handling about the illustrations in Fuchs' herbal than those of Brunfels.
For instance, the picture of an Oak tree includes, appropriately enough, a swine-herd with his swine, the Chestnut tree gives occasion for a hedgehog (Text-fig.
However, merely as an expression of personal opinion, the present writer must confess to feeling that there is a finer sense of power and freedom of handling about the illustrations in Fuchs’ herbal than those of Brunfels.
92) and, in another case, a monkey and several rabbits are introduced, one of the latter holding a shield bearing the artist's initials.
It would be as absurd to quarrel with the illustrations we have just described, on account of their lack of proportion, as to condemn grand opera because, in real life, men and women do not converse in song.
The idea of naturalistic drawings, in which the size of the parts should be shown in their true relations, was of comparatively late growth. 29), is a highly imaginative production which clearly shows that neither the artist nor the author had ever seen the plant in question. The school district has moved to a biometric identification program, saying students will no longer have to use an ID card to buy lunch.A  BIOMETRICS TO TRACK YOUR KIDS!!!!!i»?i»?A TARGETED INDIVIDUALS, THE GREEDY CRIMINALS ARE NOW CONDONING THEIR TECH!
Paul Weindling, history of medicine professor at Oxford Brookes University, describes his search for the lost victims of Nazi experiments. The chairman of the board at ESL a€” then proprietor of the desert wasteland in Nevada known as a€?Area 51a€? a€” was William Perry, who would be appointed secretary of defense several years later. EUCACH.ORG PanelIn a 2-hour wide-ranging Panel with Alfred Lambremont Webre on the Transhumanist Agenda, Magnus Olsson, Dr.
Henning Witte, and Melanie Vritschan, three experts from the European Coalition Against Covert Harassment, revealed recent technological advances in human robotization and nano implant technologies, and an acceleration of what Melanie Vritschan characterized as a a€?global enslavement programa€?.Shift from electromagnetic to scalar wavesThese technologies have now shifted from electromagnetic wave to scalar waves and use super quantum computers in the quantum cloud to control a€?pipesa€? a reference to the brains of humans that have been taken over via DNA, via implants that can be breathed can breach the blood-brain barrier and then controlled via scalar waved on a super-grid.
Eventually, such 'subvocal speech' systems could be used in spacesuits, in noisy places like airport towers to capture air-traffic controller commands, or even in traditional voice-recognition programs to increase accuracy, according to NASA scientists."What is analyzed is silent, or sub auditory, speech, such as when a person silently reads or talks to himself," said Chuck Jorgensen, a scientist whose team is developing silent, subvocal speech recognition at NASA Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley. We numbered the columns and rows, and we could identify each letter with a pair of single-digit numbers," Jorgensen said.
People in noisy conditions could use the system when privacy is needed, such as during telephone conversations on buses or trains, according to scientists."An expanded muscle-control system could help injured astronauts control machines. If an astronaut is suffering from muscle weakness due to a long stint in microgravity, the astronaut could send signals to software that would assist with landings on Mars or the Earth, for example," Jorgensen explained. These are processed to remove noise, and then we process them to see useful parts of the signals to show one word from another," Jorgensen said.After the signals are amplified, computer software 'reads' the signals to recognize each word and sound. Our Research and Development Division has been in contact with the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the California Department of Corrections, the Texas Department of Public Safety, and the Massachusetts Department of Correction to run limited trials of the 2020 neural chip implant.
We have established representatives of our interests in both management and institutional level positions within these departments.
Federal regulations do not yet permit testing of implants on prisoners, but we have entered nto contractual agreements with privatized health care professionals and specified correctional personnel to do limited testing of our products. We need, however, to expand our testing to research how effective the 2020 neural chip implant performs in those identified as the most aggressive in our society.
In California, several prisoners were identified as members of the security threat group, EME, or Mexican Mafia. They were brought to the health services unit at Pelican Bay and tranquilized with advanced sedatives developed by our Cambridge,Massachussetts laboratories.
The results of implants on 8 prisoners yielded the following results: a€?Implants served as surveillance monitoring device for threat group activity. However, during that period substantial data was gathered by our research and development team which suggests that the implants exceed expected results. One of the major concerns of Security and the R & D team was that the test subject would discover the chemial imbalance during the initial adjustment period and the test would have to be scurbbed. However, due to advanced technological developments in the sedatives administered, the 48 hour adjustment period can be attributed t prescription medication given to the test subjects after the implant procedure. One of the concerns raised by R & D was the cause of the bleeding and how to eliminate that problem.
Unexplained bleeding might cause the subject to inquire further about his "routine" visit to the infirmary or health care facility. Security officials now know several strategies employed by the EME that facilitate the transmission of illegal drugs and weapons into their correctional facilities. One intelligence officier remarked that while they cannot use the informaiton that have in a court of law that they now know who to watch and what outside "connections" they have. The prison at Soledad is now considering transferring three subjects to Vacaville wher we have ongoing implant reserach.
Our technicians have promised that they can do three 2020 neural chip implants in less than an hour. Soledad officials hope to collect information from the trio to bring a 14 month investigation into drug trafficking by correctional officers to a close. Essentially, the implants make the unsuspecting prisoner a walking-talking recorder of every event he comes into contact with. There are only five intelligence officers and the Commisoner of Corrections who actually know the full scope of the implant testing.
In Massachusetts, the Department of Corrections has already entered into high level discussion about releasing certain offenders to the community with the 2020 neural chip implants. Our people are not altogether against the idea, however, attorneys for Intelli-Connection have advised against implant technology outside strick control settings.
While we have a strong lobby in the Congress and various state legislatures favoring our product, we must proceed with the utmost caution on uncontrolled use of the 2020 neural chip. If the chip were discovered in use not authorized by law and the procedure traced to us we could not endure for long the resulting publicity and liability payments. Massachusetts officials have developed an intelligence branch from their Fugitive Task Force Squad that would do limited test runs under tight controls with the pre-release subjects. Correctons officials have dubbed these poetnetial test subjects "the insurance group." (the name derives from the concept that the 2020 implant insures compliance with the law and allows officials to detect misconduct or violations without question) A retired police detective from Charlestown, Massachusetts, now with the intelligence unit has asked us to consider using the 2020 neural chip on hard core felons suspected of bank and armored car robbery.
He stated, "Charlestown would never be the same, we'd finally know what was happening before they knew what was happening." We will continue to explore community uses of the 2020 chip, but our company rep will be attached to all law enforcement operations with an extraction crrew that can be on-site in 2 hours from anywhere at anytime. We have an Intelli-Connection discussion group who is meeting with the Director of Security at Florence, Colorado's federal super maximum security unit. The initial discussions with the Director have been promising and we hope to have an R & D unit at this important facilitly within the next six months. Napolitano insisted that the department was not planning on engaging in any form of ideological profiling. I will tell him face-to-face that we honor veterans at DHS and employ thousands across the department, up to and including the Deputy Secretary," Ms. Steve Buyer of Indiana, the ranking Republican on the House Committee on Veterans' Affairs, called it "inconceivable" that the Obama administration would categorize veterans as a potential threat.



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