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Computer chip boffins at Intel have doubled the capacity of their experimental phase change memory technology.
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TechRadar is part of Future plc, an international media group and leading digital publisher. When Music Therapist John Abel first met Roberta, shortly after he joined the staff of A.G.
Another resident who trained as a classical pianist would attend the music therapy groups occasionally, but missed hearing Bach and Chopin.
Karen says the opera lover’s son is a big proponent of the program and gives his mother her playlist to help her manage dementia and hallucinations. John adds that staff have found the personalized music to be a great assist with other residents who are confused and agitated. Founded in 2010, MUSIC & MEMORY? is a non-profit organization that brings personalized music into the lives of people with cognitive or physical challenges through digital music technology, vastly improving quality of life.
In the southeast corner of Washington State, amidst undulating hills of wheat fields on the Palouse, the City of Pullman, population 31,000, is bringing MUSIC & MEMORY? to a new level of holistic care.
Across the continuum, care professionals and volunteers are collaborating to enable individuals to benefit from personalized music. This regional, integrated approach to personalized music, called MUSIC & MEMORY? on the Palouse, has gained traction due, in large part, to the efforts of volunteer dynamo Ginny Hauser. When Ginny retired from her counseling center work at Washington State University in 2013, she was looking for some meaningful volunteer opportunities. One evening, after the class had completed a unit on dementia, the group went to see a screening of Alive Inside that was co-sponsored by the hospital. After completing MUSIC & MEMORY? Certification training with Jessica and other hospital volunteers, Ginny began to build an iTunes Library for the hospital with donated CDs. The hospital’s volunteer chaplains are also impressed, and Ginny has met with them to explain how the program works. A few weeks ago, he says, he called Ginny about Lorraine, a stroke patient who was unable to communicate with anyone, including her husband, who was always by her side. When Lorraine was discharged to Avalon Care Center, the only nursing home in the area, she was able to continue benefiting from her music. In addition to her volunteer work at Pullman Regional and Avalon, Ginny has been instrumental in setting up Music & Memory at Circles of Caring, the local adult day health program, and Friends of Hospice, a home-based service for the county. Ginny recalls creating a playlist for one individual at Avalon for use during her nursing home stay, who was then released to go home under her husband’s care. At Friends of Hospice, Director Annie Pillers says this regional hospice service is just getting started with Music & Memory. Jack Carloye enjoys hearing musical favorites with Pullman High senior Peter Schumaker at Circles of Caring. This past summer, she worked with Pullman High senior Peter Schumaker to help her start Music & Memory at Circles of Caring, and also to help out at Avalon. Friends of Hospice’s Annie Pillers suggests that it’s also a matter of coordination that could start at the hospital level, which already has an interdisciplinary team that plans for continuing care, post-hospitalization.
Hollie Mooney at Circles of Caring envisions a neighborhood-based network of a hospital, assisted living facility, adult day health, nursing home and hospice, working together on a smaller scale within a larger urban area.
And both Hollie and Avalon’s Tarrin Weber emphasize the importance of a champion like Ginny Hauser, who will take ownership of the program, help with training and follow up to maintain the program.
Founded in 2010, MUSIC & MEMORY? is a non-profit organization that brings personalized music into the lives of the elderly or infirm through digital music technology, vastly improving quality of life.
So, what actually happens to your donated iPod, once it arrives here at Music & Memory?
Donated Apple music players of all kinds find their way to our PO Box on Long Island via iPod Donation Drives, individual gifts or collections efforts by one of our MUSIC & MEMORY? Certified Care Organizations. Once the iPods arrive, we test them to be sure they still operate properly, clean them and, yes, remove all their content. The next step is to bring the iPods to our Manhattan office, where they are carefully packaged and sent to one of our non-profit MUSIC & MEMORY? Certified Care Organizations that has recently completed training, along with headphones, iTunes music cards, adapters and mini speakers. At the care setting, the iPods are loaded with personalized playlists and distributed to Music & Memory participants.
As more people favor smartphones to play their own music, more iPods can be repurposed for Music & Memory. Can personalized playlists help care organizations to reduce reliance on antipsychotics to manage behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia?
Two years ago, Wisconsin’s Department of Health Services (DHS) introduced MUSIC & MEMORY? in 100 nursing homes across the state.
Wisconsin initiated the personalized music program as a non-pharmacological intervention strategy for nursing homes that complements the CMS Partnership effort to reduce use of antipsychotics for residents diagnosed with dementia.
Researchers at the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, are currently completing a study of whether the reduction can be attributed to Music & Memory. While definitive research is still underway, Douglas Englebert, DHS’s pharmacy practice consultant, has been encouraged by positive observations from nursing home professionals about the benefits of personalized music as an alternative to antipsychotics. Wisconsin requires written, informed consent for treatment with antipsychotics in nursing homes.
For example, Englebert says, someone may be hospitalized for a surgical procedure and put on antipsychotics to manage hallucinations from anesthesia.
A clearly defined reason for administering the antipsychotic, as well as agreed-upon measures of success, are essential for proper assessment of drug effectiveness and informed decisions about alternative treatments.
Because each individual’s biology and circumstances are unique—and because many factors affect the decision to taper off antipsychotics—Englebert promotes a go-slow approach to dosage reduction. He’s seen successful results from a variety of protocols, ranging from a 25 percent dosage reduction each week for four weeks (an approach promoted in the UK, which has made antipsychotic reduction for Alzheimer’s patients a high priority) to a 5 percent dosage reduction weekly or 10 percent reduction biweekly.
Dosage reduction plans also depend on the specific medication, how the dose can be manipulated, and basics such as whether the tablet can be cut. Variation in rate of antipsychotic use across care organizations depends on many factors—nature of the resident population, culture of care, staff attitudes, preferences of attending physicians. When the six high school students first met last fall in Nancy Van Alstyne’s class, “Music and the Mind,” they were skeptical.
This past weekend, the six students were honored at a luncheon at the care facility, where they have spent hours each week helping to refine choices of musical favorites for residents. Those reflections bring tears to Nancy Van Alstyne, who has taught art classes at the private Christian school for 25 years.


This past year, following the death of her mother at 96 from complications of Alzheimer’s, Nancy decided to do something different.
Working with MediLodge Social Services and Activities Director Jennifer Williams, Nancy did the preliminary research of identifying residents who would benefit from the program, then narrowed down their favorite performers and genres.
There was the Polka Lady who loved her Polish folk tunes, and the man who loved to hear Elvis singing gospel. Jennifer and Lucy Moberly, a Trenton High honors student, with iPods and iTunes cards that Lucy donated to the Baptist Park School program. Nancy hopes to draw not only on the Baptist Park student body to volunteer for The Longest Day, but also on students from nearby Trenton High School. As she looks back on this year, Nancy often recalls her mother, Millie Barkalow Peterson, in her final days, and the joy she derived from music while in hospice at another area nursing home.
But the answers aren’t always obvious and, sometimes, they’re downright hard to get, especially when the person you’re asking has Alzheimer’s or another form of dementia—or if she’s from a foreign country that’s unfamiliar to you, or if he simply has trouble explaining what he’s remembering (“it was a song about black, wavy hair”). It’s always worth it to ask basic questions like these, because they may open the door to a longer, deeper conversation. With a few basic facts, including age and where the person lived at an earlier point in time, you can find a side door to the person’s musical favorites.
Sometimes all you’ll get from your initial questions is a phrase and a general guess of the type of music: “It was something about wavy black hair or waving black hair. You may be able to find out about favorite hobbies, sports and other pass-times that could suggest a starting point. If the individual speaks a different language, start with family members and friends who may be able to interpret. Armed with the name of a famous Arab singing artist, Letitia was able to convince the son of an Iraqi dementia patient that she was serious about finding music for his mother.
Ultimately, says Letitia, being a successful music detective requires some “intuition and luck.” But, she adds, that’s okay. And this was a true test: the band played only its second show ever when it hit Soho Lounge early in the SXSW week.
The development could lead to even cheaper, faster and higher capacity USB memory sticks and solid state hard drives.Like flash memory, phase change memory is a non-volatile solid state technology. You can unsubscribe at any time and we'll never share your details without your permission.
Locked in her dementia, seemingly unaware of her surroundings, she would sit and stare at the walls of her nursing home room for hours on end. Rhodes Health & Rehab in Atlanta two years ago, he thought music could make the difference.
A major benefit of the program, he believes, is the fact that she can listen to her music without any distractions.
Rhodes as a volunteer a year ago in April after hearing about an iPod drive, and soon was hired to help implement Music & Memory as the program grew.
Rhodes has about 80 residents participating across all three facilities, which range from 130 to 150 beds at each location. Whether an individual needs hospitalization, nursing home support, adult day care, hospice, or some combination, his or her music goes along.
Her natural inclination to help others prompted her to train as a patient support volunteer at Pullman Regional Hospital. The 25-bed facility, which includes three operating rooms and 24-hour emergency service, is a critical care access hospital serving the surrounding rural community. She wrote a grant funded by the Pullman Regional Hospital Auxiliary to buy a laptop, iPods, iTunes credits and other supplies to implement the program. Among the chaplains, Rod Schwartz has become an enthusiastic proponent of Music & Memory. With Ginny’s help and input from the husband about favorite music—Johnny Cash, Hank Williams, the Great American Playbook and more—they created a playlist and loaded it on an iPod. Ginny serves there, as well, as a Patient Support Volunteer from Pullman Regional Hospital, so she could set up the same playlist for Lorraine on one of the hospital’s iPods that are shared with Avalon residents. Ginny wrote another successful grant proposal, this time funded by the Pullman Rotary, to cover training and a dedicated laptop for the adult day health services center. Not long after, she saw the woman again, this time attending Circles of Caring during the day. In a community where care professionals know and respect each other, creating a continuum of care with personalized playlists has become her mission. Some people have been inspired by viewing Alive Inside; others have heard about us through local or national media. Non-profit care organizations receive a starter kit of audio equipment as part of their training; half of the iPods in each kit are donated, and the other half, purchased. We ship iPods every month to our newest Certified Care Organizations; you can be sure that your donated iPod will soon be put to good use, bringing joy to individuals via their favorite music. In a second phase in 2014, DHS expanded the program to bring Music & Memory to an additional 150 nursing homes. In fall 2014, Wisconsin moved from tenth to fourth place among all 50 states in the national initiative to reduce use of antipsychotic drugs in nursing homes.
More specifically, they are seeking to determine the precise impact of personalized music as a viable alternative to these medications, which may often cause significant, undesirable side effects for people with Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia. Those anecdotal reports have prompted Englebert to respond to the next set of pressing questions from the field: When is it appropriate to taper residents off their antipsychotics, and what is the best method? There are no definitive protocols for tapering off antipsychotics offered by pharmaceutical companies or approved by the Food and Drug Administration. But use of these medications doesn’t always originate when someone moves into a long-term care setting. But unless a physician writes a stop order post-discharge, a medication that was only intended for use over two or three weeks may still be part of the individual’s regimen six months later. For any dosage tapering protocol, it’s also very important to be able to distinguish among side effects, withdrawal symptoms and the behaviors that originally triggered use of the drug.
Once that person successfully tapers off the antipsychotic, another family may become open. And, of course, any reduction in antipsychotics depends on the successful adoption of a non-medication alternative, such as personalized music playlists.
The goal of the yearlong course at Baptist Park School was to help create personalized playlists for residents of nearby MediLodge of Taylor, Michigan, a skilled nursing and rehabilitation facility. Learning of MUSIC & MEMORY? from friends after posting videos of her mother enjoying music on Facebook, she offered to volunteer at MediLodge and the school, in her mother’s memory, to bring personalized playlists to the residents.


The students would then sit with one of the residents, using a splitter so all could hear, play different selections from a given artist, and note the resident’s reactions to see which song got the strongest positive response.
Others favored Johnny Cash, Motown (not surprising, given that Taylor is just 15 miles south of Detroit), Frank Sinatra, the Lennon Sisters and the Andrews Sisters, Duke Ellington and the Norman Luboff Choir.
In June, participating in The Longest Day—a 16-hour marathon fundraising event for the Alzheimer’s Association—Joshua plans to train other students how to do what his class has learned. She has a good connection: an honors student from Trenton High, Lucy Moberly, did a service project to help the Baptist Park Music and Mind class by collecting iTunes cards and used iPods. Sophomore Ruth Doty summed it up this way: “By helping all these different residents it is cool to see the diversity between them by the music they connect to.
But don’t be discouraged if you don’t get very far, since these questions are quite direct. It was an old country singer from when I was young.” If the individual is in his 90s, you can make an educated guess that he might be thinking of music from the ’40s. If the person in your care can’t communicate or struggles with memory, your best bet is to find out as much as you can from other sources about the individual’s background.
Then, working through a staff interpreter, with the son’s help, she asked the mother if she preferred music with instruments, or with words and singing.
That, folks, means it can store data without power and has no moving parts, all of which is good news for portable devices.However, in most other regards, it plays by different rules. John and Karen agree that the program is an essential tool and hope to expand access to even more residents. Inspired, she asked the hospital’s Volunteer Coordinator, Jessica Rivers, whether they could bring personalized music to the hospital. She began to create playlists for patients who were identified by clinicians as individuals who might benefit from the music—in particular, patients with high anxiety, uncontrolled pain, who were lonely or depressed, or who were in the hospital for extended stays.
She encouraged them to view Alive Inside on Netflix, to understand the value of personalized music for healing.
Circles of Caring serves 30 participants, averaging about 18 people on any given day, who range in age from 29 to 99. Individuals may already be on the drugs when they arrive, to manage behaviors while they still lived at home or in assisted living.
In fact, Englebert says, successful antipsychotic reduction is as much a process of winning the trust of family and staff as it is managing the individual’s physiological and psychological response to the change in medication.
In addition, he says, it’s important to consider staffing levels when scheduling a dosage reduction.
We want to be sure to build this awareness into the culture of all our facilities, so our success can continue. Enabling her students to bridge the generational divide and discover the power of personalized music has brought her a great sense of accomplishment. Discovering the songs and other music most loved by someone in your care is at the heart of the MUSIC & MEMORY? personalized music program. Sometimes the individual won’t know the answer right away, or sometimes she won’t be able to recall because of her particular cognitive challenges. Did you ever go out when you were there?’ She shared that she remembered taking dance lessons with her brother. In addition to age, find out where the person was born, where he lived over the course of his life, and his first language. If you meet some resistance and skepticism about your knowledge of another culture’s music, don’t let that dissuade you. You’re going to learn about the world on the way to learning about the person in your care. And it all worked, with three guitars and three voices often joining to cut through the Austin night. When she listened to John play the guitar and lead a group in song, after about 45 minutes, she began to respond with a word or even a phrase. Rhodes board member saw Alive Inside at the 2014 Sundance Film Festival, she came back determined to bring MUSIC & MEMORY? to the company’s three Atlanta facilities.
So we started playing her music—gospel, R&B—when she was in the shower, using an external speaker. Jessica gave her an enthusiastic thumb’s up and promised to cover training costs through her volunteer program budget. Jessica oversees more than 200 volunteers who provide a variety of services to guests and patients. Washington State University in Pullman and the University of Idaho in Moscow, just across the state line, are both potential resources.
Pick a time when extra staff are available, maybe when there are extra activities scheduled, to try the first dose reduction, so that enough help is around if the individual needs support. Instead, it relies on the arrangement of the atoms inside a memory cell, otherwise known as the material's physical state or phase.Previously, phase change memory cells could be induced into just two states, known as amorphous and crystalline. Pet visits are part of the mix, as well as a harpist and dulcimer musician who will play for patients in their rooms when requested. She said, ‘If you don’t fix it, I’ll cry!’” He soon returned with a fully charged iPod loaded with her playlist, to her great pleasure.
So far, Ginny has tapped Pullman High School, which requires students to complete a senior project. However, in a paper presented to the International Solid State Circuits Conference this week, Intel announced new prototype cells capable of a further two states courtesy of a new material known as chalcogenide or GST.
Well, obviously.Double your data, double your funIn simple terms, that means Intel can double the data capacity of a phase change memory chip without adding any additional cells. Indeed, but storing four bits of data per cell is a trick that is also possible with flash memory.So what's the big deal with phase change memory?
But it might just be possible to add support for further states to phase change memory and so increase data densities even more.
That's a subject Intel currently will not be drawn on, though there was an element of non-denial denial in the way Intel CTO Justin Ratner fielded the suggestion.Anywho, do not get too excited just yet.



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