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Holder has come under fire for the Justice Department’s secret obtaining of telephone records of reporters and editors of The Associated Press. The president, however, defended the probe earlier in the Rose Garden session, saying it was important to get to the bottom of leaks, Talking Points Memo reports.
President Barack Obama said on Thursday that he had complete confidence in embattled Attorney General Eric Holder. Mark Cuban is rich, outspoken and hosts a reality show -- all commonalities with Donald Trump. Some trust in chariots, and some in horses, but we will remember the name of the Lord our God. There have not been significant advances in the understanding of biblical Greek since the KJV was translated. Kaplan, Picture Maker - choosei»? from sub-menu abovePerspective is at the heart of good realistic drawing.
He said a leak on a CIA operation in Yemen was behind Justice’s seizure of the records. The King James Version (KJV), the Revised Standard Version (RSV), Today's English Version (TEV), New English Bible (NEB), Jerusalem Bible (JB), New American Standard Bible (NASB), and the New International Version (NIV) are just a few of the most popular ones in use today. We, however, will use a faith-oriented approach that also takes into consideration scholarly evidence.
Of course this is something that cannot be precisely measured, for there are many factors that influence society. The Bible is an ancient, divine volume, but when it is fashioned like a common book, it gets treated like one. When everyone was using the KJV, frequent repetition of the same wording was heard which helped fix it in the mind. In turning to Luke 4:8, you will find that when Jesus was tempted in the wilderness, His command a€?Get thee behind me, Satana€? is not recorded.
But for now, it can be postulated that the proliferation of versions has weakened the faith people once had in the authority of the Scriptures.
It is now at length too evident that Scripture is powerless without the [Catholic] Church as the witness to its inspiration, the safeguard of its integrity, and the exponent of its meaning. Protestantism itself has no grounds for existence apart from a strong faith in the Word of God. However, a question arises regarding the effect the proliferation of modern versions has had on peoplea€™s confidence in the authority of Scripture.
This important characteristic of the Word of God is conditional upon the reader allowing the Holy Spirit to reveal truth.
The freer the translation, the greater the possibility of bias, and the less reliable the version is for study purposes. 4 These Bibles are translated by giving what is assumed to be the meaning of what the Bible writers wrote.
It says that the Word of God has been divinely preserved and has had an active role within the church throughout every age. Throughout the years, scholars have examined the existing manuscripts, considered their various readings, and have constructed their own Greek or Hebrew text which they believe accurately represents the readings of the original manuscripts. The New Testaments of most modern versions such as the RSV, TEV, NEB, and NASB are translated from these critical texts. 11 Therefore we must determine which Greek text is superiora€”the Received Text or the Critical Text. As stated above, its readings are largely influenced by the Alexandrian line of manuscripts (or text-type). He believed that his efforts had at last restored the inspired Word of God to mankind after having been lost for 1,500 years.
Minor differences within text-types are normal; however, the number of variants within the Alexandrian Text is enormous. Vaticanus exhibits numerous places where the scribe has written the same word or phrase twice in succession, 20 a clear indication that the writing was not checked. But recent scholarship has confirmed that what has been restored should not be considered the original text, but simply the text that had the highest authority in Alexandria, Egypt in the third century. Origen studied deeply into Platonism and Stoicism, seeking to harmonize their philosophic principles with the Scriptures. The Arians taught that Christ was a created being, while the conservatives of the day taught that Christ was eternal, wholly uncreated, and equal with the Father.
26 Several scholars believe that they may be identified with two of fifty Bibles that Constantine ordered to be prepared in A.D.
Eusebius is well known as an enthusiastic admirer of Origen, and was inclined to favor the Arians.
It is based on a text-type that lay idle for 1,500 years except for some renderings retained within the Catholic Church. Unlike the small number of manuscripts supporting the Alexandrian Text, the Received Text is derived from the Byzantine text-type which is represented in 80 to 90 percent of all Greek manuscripts. 400, most scholars agree that in order for this text-type to be so widespread and predominant among the Greek manuscripts, it had to have a much earlier existence.
As the true church fled into the wilderness (Revelation 12:6, 14), it resisted error and clung to the Scriptures. A revival of learning ensued and God raised up a man to lay the foundation of the mightiest reformatory movement in history.
Luther, that great giant of the Reformation, used a Waldensian Bible and Erasmus Greek text (the Received Text) in producing his German translation of the New Testament. With Erasmusa€™ Greek text, several Waldensian-influenced Bibles, and the literary excellence of Tyndale, 46 forty-seven scholars produced the King James Version of 1611. The general chairman of the project was Lancelot Andrews, one of the greatest linguists of his day.
In addition, it has been the Bible of every English-speaking country on the face the globe. The blood of martyrs has been shed over it, nations have been founded upon it, and divine providence has protected it. While great truths such as the Sabbath and the three angelsa€™ messages were being proclaimed, grievous errors such as spiritualism, evolution, and Marxism were on the rise. These men shared several points of interest, including a fascination with the theory of evolution.
By this time, spelling and grammar had changed and many of the Old English words used in the KJV were considered obscure in meaning. The Revised Version of 1881 made 36,000 changes in the English of the KJV, and nearly 6,000 in the Greek text. 52 Eloquently expounding upon the methods they had used to compile their text, they overwhelmed the other members of the committee.
Vaticanus and Sinaiticus are about 100 years older than any of the existing Greek manuscripts supporting the Received Text. They had to explain why the majority of manuscripts support the Byzantine readings of the Received Text and not the Alexandrian readings of the Critical Text. Yet scholars still refused to recognize the providential hand of God in the spreading of the Received Text. In Westcott and Horta€™s day, it was believed that the original text of the New Testament had been virtually reconstructed.
The New Testament of most modern versions is based on an Egyptian text rejected by Christendom 1,500 years ago. We must confidently turn to the Scriptures for guidance and be able to present its saving truths to others clearly. The New Testament Student and Bible Translation (Phillipsburg: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company, 1978), p. Also known as the Textus Receptus, Traditional Text, Greek Vulgate, Ecclesiastical Text, Syrian Text, Koine (Common) Text and often used synonymously with Majority Text. I am using the term Critical Text to refer to the majority of Greek texts produced in recent years. George Salmon, Some Thoughts on the Textual Criticism of the New Testament (London: John Murray, 1897), pp.
John Burgon, The Traditional Text of the Holy Gospels Vindicated and Established, completed by Edward Miller (London: George Bell and Sons, 1896), pp. Of lesser significance than readability are a few places where the KJV could have been more literal in a consistent translation of verb tenses and articles.
There are places where modern versions more clearly and in a few cases, more accurately translate the same Greek found in the Received Text. The discovery of secular papyri has not been as beneficial in Christian word study as once hoped. It is our firm foundation, and as we sincerely study it, our confidence in God and His Word will grow. They have not been hidden away from mankind but have been a visible, convicting, living part of the Christian church. Thou shalt keep them, 0 Lord, thou shalt preserve them from this generation for ever.a€? We can clearly see that the Scriptures have been divinely preserved right down to our generation.
Through the aid of the Holy Spirit, points essential to salvation are brought home, and many people can relate their conversions to one Bible version or another. However, we can generally observe the difference between peoplea€™s attitude toward the Bible today compared to their attitudes when there was only one accepted version.


A study of the Good News Bible (TEV) indicated that university students a€?first devoured it because as they said, it read just like a newspaper. Now, however, verses are read from versions which vary so much that they are scarcely recognized as the same passage.
Footnotes and marginal readings can be helpful, but is it possible that modern scholarship has overwhelmed the Bible student with a plethora of critical readings varying from version to version?
If Protestants stop viewing the Bible as the sure Word of God, in a crisis, what a€?authoritya€? will they look to? Although they are very readable, you cannot be certain that you are reading any more than the translatora€™s own idea of the passage. 6 These translations try to convey the meaning of a passage, while at the same time preserving the words of the original. With that in mind, we now turn to a discussion of our last characteristic of the inspired Word of God.
Before we delve into this discussion, it is necessary to gain a little background information. The first manuscripts of the Bible, written by the inspired authors, are no longer in existence. For the past hundred years there has been a rivalry between two Greek textsa€”the Received Text 9 and the Critical Text.
This may sound like an impossible task for someone without a background in textual criticism.
Out of over 5,000 Greek manuscripts in existence, only a small handful (often less than ten) contain this text-type. 15 For hundreds of years, the Roman Catholic Church guarded it so closely that no Protestant scholar of ability was allowed to study it for any length of time. If the Alexandrian Text is the pure form of the New Testament text, then it would mean that the church was deprived of its benefits for 88 percent of the time since it was written!
Not including minor errors such as spelling, Sinaiticus and Vaticanus disagree with each other over 3,000 times in the space of the four Gospels alone.
The scribe of Sinaiticus occasionally skipped lines in copying and made so many obvious errors that during the time Sinaiticus was used, ten different readers noted corrections. 22 Alexandria, Egypt, an area to which none of the original manuscripts were addressed, 23 has little claim upon our confidence as possessing a pure text. Christian a€?thinkersa€? regarded Greek philosophy as a tool for understanding and applying Scripture, and like the pagans around them, they started a school which became the main focus and stimulus of their intellectual and spiritual life.
To do so, he allegorized the Scripturesa€”a process that allowed him to interpret them any way he wished. More interested in politics than pure religion, Constantine favored whichever side seemed to his advantage. If such a one was in charge of preparing these manuscripts, it is no wonder the Critical Texta€”and consequently nearly every modern versiona€”lacks fervent support for the deity of Christ. Whether through Eusebius, other misguided critics, or one of the countless heretics that Alexandria bred, 30 it is apparent that the Alexandriansa€™ attempt to a€?correcta€? the Scriptures failed. In addition, the text reflects the Arian views prominent in the fourth century in Alexandria, and it contains numerous omissions likely due to misguided editing and careless copying. 36 Indeed, distinctive Byzantine readings are found in all of the oldest versions, 37 in the papyri, 38 and in the Scriptural quotations of the early church fathers. These manuscripts, like the vast bulk of all New Testament Greek manuscripts, were of the Byzantine text-typea€”the same text-type that had been preserved and used by the church in the wilderness. Similarly based were Olivetana€™s French translation, Diodatia€™s Italian translation, and Tyndalea€™s English translation. It has been the guide of conduct to men and women in every class of life and of every rank in learning and education. The Received Text is the Greek text that has played an active role in the church through-out the ages, and as such it best fits our third characteristic of the inspired Word of God. Just as these false movements sought to dethrone God as the creator of the universe, critical scholars were trying to discredit the Bible as the inspired Word of God. But the one conviction that most closely united the two men was a prejudiced animosity for the Received Text. Some critics believed that increased scholarship and the recent availability of Vaticanus and Sinaiticus necessitated a revision. 50 Shortly before the Bible was released to the public, Westcott and Hort published their own critical text of the New Testament. Their methods gave preferential status to Vaticanus and Sinaiticus, 53 and have since shaped the thinking of all who approach textual criticism. Realizing that it was absurd to insist that a variety of scribes, separated by time and space and working independently, would all a€?altera€? their manuscripts so as to produce the uniform readings of the Byzantine text-type, Westcott and Hort devised a theory.
Even if such a theory were true, it assumed that men who were only 200 years from the originals were so ignorant they couldna€™t recognize the correct manuscripts to use as authority.
With no suitable explanation of why the Byzantine text-type is found abundantly in Greek manuscripts from all over the world, 58 most scholars still cling to the framework of textual criticism set up by Westcott and Hort. As we have seen, for over 300 years the KJV has built the faith of its readers, it is a formal translation profitable for studying doctrine, and both its Old and New Testaments are based on text-types that have been providentially preserved through the ages by the priesthood of believers.
62 Although this difficulty has often been exaggerated by detractors of the KJV, it is true that its English has not been updated since 1769. 66 While we can acknowledge the good points of modern versions and appreciate their usefulness for reference and commentary, 67 there is no more reliable English study Bible than the KJV.
While other versions often make the most relevant truths ambiguous, the King James Version resoundingly affirms them. 27 as quoted in Ted Letis, a€?An Open Letter to the International Bible Society and the Zondervan Corporation,a€? (April 29, 1985). While still a student at Cambridge, twenty-three years old, Hort clearly indicated in a letter the identity of the villain: a€?I had no idea till the last few weeks of the importance of texts, having read so little Greek Testament, and dragged on with the villainous Textus Receptus. Contrary to a commonly held view, the New Testament was not written in the uncultivated dialect of the market-place.
107 as quoted in Letis, The Majority Text says a€?The Authorized Version had a remarkable sense of appropriateness, felicity, and effectiveness of expression. The Bible is Goda€™s chosen medium of communicating with man, and we should use the best version we can find for studying the deep truths of His Word. Not only have they abided in the hearts of men, but faithful copies of the Scriptures have been passed on from one generation to another.
It has been divinely preserved and has had an active role within the church throughout every age. Ministers no longer preach the Word, but instead deliver philosophical sermons on the general a€?messagea€? of Scriptures. A paraphrase is largely an interpretation of Scripturea€”which by definition must be influenced by the authora€™s personal beliefs. When there is a noun in the original, a formal translation will generally have a corresponding noun in the English, a verb will have a verb, et cetera. 12 However, prominent among these few are two manuscripts which many scholars value more highly than most other manuscripts. 16 Those who were granted permission to look at the manuscript were searched to assure they didna€™t have paper or ink. Such an idea is strangely out of step with the biblical description of the inspired Word of God.
21 However, instead of questioning the reliability of these manuscripts, scholars have accepted many of their peculiar readings.
A look into the history of Alexandria, especially during the time these manuscripts are believed to have been produced, is quite revealing.
The leaders of the school were usually experts in Greek philosophy, and they greatly influenced the theology of the Christians in Alexandria. Further, he questioned the authenticity of certain portions of Scripture that did not conform to his own idiosyncratic beliefs. 27 Vaticanus and Sinaiticus were both written on parchments of vellum by talented calligraphers, a very expensive specification included in Constantinea€™s order. If Eusebius used any of the critical skills of his mentor, he was likely to dissect the Scriptures, thinking he was correcting them. Wilkinson, history professor and late president of Washington Missionary College, has proposed that Jerome, a great admirer of both Origen and Eusebius, transmitted many Eusebio-Origen errors into the Latin Vulgate. Dotted over hundreds of years, these witnesses come from many different placesa€”Greece, Constantinople, Asia Minor, Palestine, Syria, Alexandria, other parts of Africa, not to mention Sicily, southern Italy, Gaul, England, and Ireland.
39 In numerous places the Byzantine text-type can be shown to be as early or earlier than any text-type. 42 Traveling about as merchants and peddlers, they quietly passed on their precious hand-copied portions of Scripture.
So deeply has its language entered into our common tongue, that one probably could not take up a newspaper or read a single book in which some phrase was not borrowed, consciously or unconsciously, from the KJV. Disregarding the providential care of the biblical text, men began to analyze it as they would any ancient piece of literature. Although there was much fear and distrust of revision in the public mind, it was sanctioned under the condition that no changes be made in the KJV except as were absolutely necessary.
This Greek New Testament was drawn from Vaticanus and Sinaiticus, and in essence was the Greek text that had been used by the Revision Committee for translating the Greek into English. They theorized that in the fourth century an official ecclesiastical command had been given to adopt a standardized form of the Greek text.


Strangely enough, today, nearly 1,900 years from the originals, scholars feel better able to judge than they could. Thus, the most popular editions of the Greek text todaya€”Nestle-Aland and UBSa€”vary little from the Westcott-Hort text.
The KJV translators not only provided an accurate English translation 68 of the best manuscript tradition, but they masterfully rendered the English in a literary style befitting the dignity of Sacred Writ.
Skeat of the British Museum has suggested that Vaticanus was a a€?rejecta€? among the fifty copies. 134 writes, a€?Egypt during the early Christian centuries was a land in which heresies were rampant. Also Gunther Zuntz, a€?The Byzantine Text in New Testament Criticism,a€? The Journal of Theological Studies, XLII (1942), p.
Arthur Farstad, New Testament editor of the NKJV, a€?He admitted that he had been biased by his studies at various seminaries in the direction of accepting the view that the KJV contained numerous inaccuracies in translation. Time and again both Jesus and Paul affirmed the accuracy of the Scriptures by widely quoting from them. While this method may still leave the translation of a few passages obscure or ambiguous, the reader at least has before him a more literal translation of the words of the original.
It should also be noted that it is much harder to prove the deity of Christ when using modern versions. When these copies are compared with one another, several hundred thousand differences can be noted. The preferred Greek text must be one which has played an active role within the church throughout every age. They are called Sinaiticus and Vaticanus, and they date a little over 200 years from the original writings. 14 Several years later he acquired the remainder of the leaves from the monastery, and by 1862 he had published the complete manuscript. Then if they were caught looking too closely at any passage, two attendants would snatch the manuscript from them!
Sinaiticus and Vaticanus are the basis for most of the two hundred omissions from the modern New Testament versions mentioned earlier in this booklet. His teachings not only promoted a critical attitude toward the Scriptures, but they helped breed numerous heresies in Alexandria, including the doctrine of Arianism.
This may explain some of the omissions characteristic of the Alexandrian Text and likewise of most modern versions.
35 This is quite a contrast to the limited locality and time-range of the Alexandrian Text. 40 It was the authoritative Scriptures of the Syrian church, the Waldensian church of northern Italy, and the Greek Orthodox Church. Ten columns in the catalogue of the library of the British Museum are taken up with the works he translated, edited or annotated.
Through the publication of Erasmusa€™ Greek New Testament, Goda€™s providence was preparing the way for the many subsequent translations that would guide His true Church as two-thirds of Europe broke away from the Catholic Church in the Great Protestant Reformation. Although these men did not all agree doctrinally, they all had reverent regard for the divine inspiration of Scripture. Hort was only twenty-three years old and had not yet even studied textual criticism when he described the Received Text as a€?villainousa€? and a€?vile.a€? 48 In spite of the unorthodoxy of these men, their scholarship has exerted a molding influence upon the distinctive readings of the modern versions. 49 Fifty-four men, including Westcott and Hort, were asked to be on the Revision Committee, and they began what should have been a short work.
51 It then became evident that Westcott and Hort had exercised disproportionate influence over the Revision Committee. History records that during the century following the completion of the New Testament, manuscripts suffered the greatest abuse. This is not a problem for those who have grown up reading the KJV, but its language may discourage others. 69 Although publishers have hoped to multiply their profits by producing a version which would replace the KJV, it still remains the most trusted Bible for the majority of English-speaking Christians. Certainly there was a divine purpose at work in the production and preservation of such an authoritative transcript of Holy Writ. So much so that, as Bauer (1934) and Van Unnik (1958) have pointed out, later Egyptian Christians seem to have been ashamed of the heretical past of their country and to have drawn a veil of silence across it. Blake and Silva New, a€?The Caesarean Text of the Gospel of Mark,a€? Harvard Theological Review, Vol. Every effort has been made here to present the principles of perspective in plain language and in the most understandable manner possible, with plenty of illustrations.i»?Copyright Frederic C. An epidemic of ignorance concerning the most basic Bible content is plaguing even churchgoing youth. A short time ago I attended a meeting held by a group of young people who seemed to be avid Bible students. Most of the variants are misspellings or other obvious errors 7, but thousands of other variants must be closely evaluated.
17 In 1866, however, the Vatican finally allowed Constantine Tischendorf, under supervision, to copy the manuscript. They have never been lost, only to be discovered in a wastepaper basket or lying on a forgotten shelf in the Vatican.
It is, in fact easier to find two consecutive verses in which these two manuscripts differ the one from the other, than two consecutive verses in which they entirely agree. Wilkinsona€™s study also suggests the Byzantine text-type was the Scriptures of such early churches as the Celtic church in Scotland and Ireland, and the Gallic church in southern France. In addition, the translating was engineered so that no one man would have undue influence upon any portion of Scripture. 55 It was during this time that a number of heretics are known to have made corrupted copies of the Scriptures.
For those who struggle with the English of the KJV, the New King James Version 63 is to be recommended. As we study the Holy Scriptures, may each of us individually be assured that a€?the word of our God shall stand for evera€? (Isaiah 40:8). The Masoretic Text has been recognized as the most carefully preserved and transmitted Hebrew text-type.
This seems to be why so little is known of the history of the early Egyptian Christianity.a€? Hills also suggests that Gnostic and docetist influences explain many of the peculiar readings of the Alexandrian Text. While not a literal, word-for-word rendering which is insensitive to English idiom and style, it is faithful to its text and is remarkably successful in conveying the sense of that text into good English.a€? John H. The KJV and NASB give us further help by italicizing any words which the translators felt necessary to insert into a passage to make the meaning clear. I was amazed to find that they denied the deity of Christ and supported their positions by referring to textual renderings from various modern versions. In addition, the a€?benefitsa€? of the Alexandrian Text to the church have been dubious indeed.
History is replete with episodes of violence wrought by the Catholic Church against all who did not receive the Latin Vulgate. A reformer at heart, Erasmus wrote several books that rocked Europe by exposing the ignorance of the monks, the superstitions of the priesthood, and the bigoted, coarse religion of the day. Even while Paul was alive, someone was passing around false manuscripts (see 2 Thessalonians 2:2). And may we accept its wondrous truths not only intellectually, but make them a dynamic, meaningful part of our everyday lives. 158 quotes Horta€™s letter published in Arthur Fenton Hort, Life and Letters of Fenton John Anthony Hort, I (London and New York, 1896), p. The age of Vaticanus and Sinaiticus is no criterion for considering their readings to be pure. Skilton, ed., The Law and the Prophets (Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company, 1974) p. Cadbury, a€?The Vocabulary and Grammar of New Testament Greek,a€? in An introduction to the Revised Standard Version of the New Testament (The International Council of Religious Education, 1967), p. Revelation 11:3, 4 tell us that during the 1,260 years of papal supremacy, the two witnessesa€”the Old and New Testamentsa€”still prophesied powerfully. When the modern versions began to appear with several readings previously propagated only in Catholic Bibles, Thomas S.
This was the first scholarly attention paid to the Greek text of the New Testament in over a thousand years. 104 as quoted in Letis, a€?Hugh Broughton Redivivus,a€? The Majority Text: Essays and Reviews in the Continuing Debate. The dry climate of Egypt and the sturdiness of vellum are not sufficient to explain their survival.
Reliable manuscripts of the Scriptures ultimately disintegrated from continual use while these manuscripts were preserved by disuse.
One must question why they were not used when copies of the Scriptures were so precious and few.



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