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Recall: Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy (energy of motion) of all the molecules or atoms in a material. In the gaseous state, molecules have so much kinetic energy that they fly off in all directions but repeatedly collide and bounce off of other molecules.
In the liquid state, atoms or molecules have sufficient kinetic energy to overcome the chemical bonds that held them in their crystal lattice and move independently, yet they don't have enough energy to separate completely from other atoms.
The Earth is a mysterious place with the greatest unknowns lying in the oceans, which cover two-thirds of our wonderful world. At the outer edges of the solar system lie two icy gas giants, Neptune and Uranus, both of which may play host to incredible diamond oceans.
The high pressure coupled with the intense heat causes the diamonds to actually melt, forming diamond oceans toward the base of the mantle.
The existence of these magnificent oceans has been hypothesized through experiments at the Livermore National Laboratory, where scientists recreated the extreme conditions of the ice giant’s mantles through lasers, melting diamonds into their liquid form.
The magma ocean is kept in its molten state through two spectacular heat generation methods, one of which involves Io’s peculiar orbit. In 2015, the New Horizons probe will conclude its 3,000-day mission to the very edge of our solar system, entering the orbit of the icy ex-planet Pluto.
The eloquently-named Kepler 62e orbits a red dwarf star unsurprisingly called Kepler-62, which has at least five planets caught in its orbit.
Even though Kepler-62e’s orbit is at a distance on par with that of Mercury’s, because its parent star is much cooler than our sun, Kepler-62e still sits comfortably in the habitable zone. However, just because the planet is within the habitable zone doesn’t automatically mean that it’s going to have water.
Across the southern polar region of Saturn’s sixth-largest moon lie four “tiger stripes,” depressions in the surface that are rife with cryovolcanic activity. During the flyby missions in 2012, Cassini confirmed the presence of an ocean by detecting the water’s gravitational signal. Though Ceres is the largest object in the asteroid belt and even accounts for a third of the belt’s total weight, this tiny dwarf planet is no bigger than the state of Texas.
Much like the formation of any planet in our solar system, Ceres was heated through radioactive decay, allowing it to separate into a rocky core and icy mantle. This may not seem very surprising until you consider that Ceres is over 6,500 times smaller than Earth and could fit snugly inside of France. Beneath the 50-kilometer-thick (31 mi) destructive clouds of Jupiter lies a mammoth ocean of liquid hydrogen. But it’s not just the sheer size of the ocean that’s totally incomprehensible; it’s the conditions under which it exists. According to various computer models, lobster oceans would be found on an exoplanet’s day side.
Instead of a round ocean, which is what you would expect, an elliptical one appeared, with its longer side running along the equator. The name Alpha Centauri should ring a bell, as it’s the closet star to our sun at a meager 4.2 light-years away. Alpha Centauri Bb still remains a theory, albeit quite a likely one, and astronomers still debate the planet’s existence. In the pantheon of nerd achievement, water cooling ranks near the top – somewhere between installing Linux and becoming fluent in Klingon.
With higher thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity than air coolers, water cooling can mean double-digit drops in CPU and GPU temperatures.
A block is the piece of hardware responsible for drawing heat out of your computer hardware (your CPU and GPU, for instance) and into the liquid coolant in a water-cooling system.
As for actually picking which water block to use, it’s generally a matter of brand and the right block for your part.
In a water-cooling setup, the radiator is the water block’s complement, releasing heat absorbed from the block into the air. Before we actually start installing anything, have a good long look at your case, and consider where each component will sit. Your experience may vary, depending on what CPU block and motherboard you use, but for us the water block was a fairly standard backplate cooler installation.


Connect the tubing to the CPU block before you install it, since it can take some pressure to get the tubing snugly into the fittings, and it’s always best to avoid putting extra pressure on the motherboard if possible. Once the radiator is in place, cut the tubing from the CPU to the right length and connect it to the radiator, making sure not to kink it in the process.
Continuing with the practice of installing largest parts first, it’s time to install the reservoir. Finally, we’ll close off the loop by installing the GPU block, assuming you want one. Every GPU block install process is unique, so check the directions that came with the block you purchased.
Since GPU cooling blocks tend to be big, heavy hunks of metal, make sure to secure your video card tightly to your case after plugging it into one of your PCI-E slots. As long as nothing is leaking, let the pump run for 10 minutes or so to let air bubbles escape. As you can see, although water cooling provides exceptional cooling power, it isn’t the easiest-or cheapest-way to cool your PC. These systems achieve cooling performance near that of a custom water-cooling rig, but save you the hassle of building one yourself or ever having to replace the fluid. You won’t get quite the same CPU cooling as in an all-out water-cooling system-or the nerd cred that comes from a tower full of tubes-but closed-loop coolers are definitely an excellent alternative for enthusiasts who want some extra cooling performance without a lot of hassle. SpeedFan uses the built-in temperature-monitoring hardware in your chips to display temperatures for all of your individual components, and it allows you to control fan speeds in your case automatically, based on temperature readings. From CPUID, the makers of CPUZ, HWMonitor keeps track of all the temperatures and voltages in your system. Shouldn't you go reservoir - pump - cpu - gpu - radiator - reservoir as this would cause a higher temp in the radiator thus more heat loss???
Planet Earth is doomed with a fast growing global population and a limited amount of farmland to produce food for everyone.
Boasting over 400 volcanoes, its surface is constantly plagued with explosions and lava flows.
By picking out exactly which parts you want, you’re able to create a system that matches your cooling needs and your aesthetic sensibilities. For water cooling, you’ll need a case with plenty of room on the inside and a large fan grate, ideally on the top or bottom of the case.
A block of heat-conducting metal makes contact with your CPU or GPU (aided by thermal paste) on one side, while water is forced across the other, literally flushing away excess heat. The obvious component to water cool is your CPU, which will see some of the greatest benefit in the form of increased overclocking potential. It accomplishes this by forcing the liquid coolant through an array of thin tubes attached to metal fins.
Of course, bigger radiators and more fans amount to better cooling, so we generally recommend going with the biggest radiator that fits your case and your budget. You might wonder why, exactly, you need a big tank of water in your system, since it doesn’t have an immediate function, like absorbing or dispelling heat. The extra air provides a buffer, which gives the liquid room to expand and contract as it changes temperature.
For this build, we used a double optical-drive bay acrylic reservoir from Danger Den, which comes with a pair of Molex-powered LEDs to light up the front of your case.
For this, it helps to make a simple diagram, showing how you want everything to be hooked up.
The radiator can be installed over any fan grate that’s large enough, and most simple radiators are designed with screw holes that have the same dimensions as standard case fans. Some of the highest temperatures in your system can be found on your video card, so there are definite advantages to water cooling it. Clean up leftover thermal paste and reapply paste or thermal material to contact spots, as illustrated on your instruction sheet.
Attach the board or boards to the water block, being careful not to apply uneven pressure to the processors. Most pumps are fairly small and can be attached almost anywhere in your case, using screws or Velcro tape.


Give your system one last sanity check, making sure that each fitting is tightly connected and that all components are hooked up in one continuous loop. Slowly rock your case back and forth to let any air that’s trapped in the water blocks or radiator escape.
They cost more than an air cooler, but significantly less than building your own water-cooling system. It’s a backplate-mounted water block for the CPU, connected to a small, one-fan radiator. Just like a radiator for a car, a liquid cooling system circulates a liquid through a heat sink attached to the processor inside of the computer. That means that we're going to need to figure out how to maximise what we've got -- and researchers just made a major breakthrough in getting the most from our crops. To get you started building your system, we’ll go through every major component of a water-cooling system, describing what each one does,and what your options are.
Although it can be a little hard on the wallet, getting a case that’s been designed with water cooling in mind will ensure that your install goes as smoothly as possible. The GPU on your video card is another good candidate for water cooling, as is your chipset. Traditional case fans pull air through the capillary-like radiator, absorbing heat from the liquid and forcing it out of the case. If you go with a different pump, make sure to read user reviews before you buy-a shoddy pump will wear out or break down over time. This fluid is available from any distributor of liquid-cooling products, and comes in various UV-reactive colours.
A simple system has the water passing from the radiator to the CPU, then to the GPU, the reservoir, pump, and finally, back to the radiator.
When the tubing is in place, will it be difficult to access other hardware, such as hard drives or optical drives?
Thus, if your case has a grate big enough for two fans, you can mount a double fan–size radiator onto it. Being careful not to put too much pressure on the card, connect the GPU water block to the CPU block and the reservoir. Next, complete your loop by connecting the output barb of the pump (usually marked with an arrow pointing away from the pump) to the radiator, and the input barb to the reservoir. Once all the air bubbles are out of the liquid (you should be able to see them in the tubes if there are any left), you may need to add more liquid to the reservoir to reach the recommended level. Whichever you pick, just make sure that all the rest of your water-cooling hardware has fittings of the same size. This design works well because then the water passes over the CPU while it’s at its coolest, and also because the CPU and the GPU tend to be physically near each other. You can mount a radiator inside or outside of a case, but make sure that the fans blow hot air out of the case and away from your PC’s hardware. No matter what style of reservoir you have, take note of the location of the fill port, and have a plan for how to access that port when it comes time to fill your cooling system with liquid. Keep an eye on the rest of the water-cooling system, and be ready with a towel in case anything springs a leak.
Every first-time water-cooling build is a learn-as-you go experience, but we’ll walk you through the details and help you avoid the mistakes that would take the biggest toll on your system and your wallet.
By considering potential hazards like these now, you can save yourself a lot of headaches further down the road. You don’t want to have to dismantle half your water-cooling system just to swap out a hard drive. Both will work just fine, though compression fittings look nicer and are a bit more expensive.



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