Meditation heart pain,how to build up my wifes confidence,secret agent man music sheet - 2016 Feature


Whether we are mentally active, resting or asleep, the brain always has some level of electrical activity. Participants were experienced practitioners of Acem Meditation, a nondirective method developed in Norway. During meditation, theta waves were most abundant in the frontal and middle parts of the brain. Alpha waves were more abundant in the posterior parts of the brain during meditation than during simple relaxation. Fortunately, researchers are discovering that memories may be far less durable than previously thought. That each of us may be able to exert some control over what gets in and what then stays in long-term memory arises from our growing understanding of how the brain represents and stores information related to our conscious life experiences. When I was a resident, we often smirked when we spoke of functional abdominal pain, treating it as a code for a troublesome patient, dubious symptoms or an anxious family. Scientists are coming to understand that abdominal pain is transmitted by a specialized nervous system that may be hypersensitive or hyperactive in some children.
For more than a century, clinicians, psychologists, and biologists have worked to understand the mechanisms underlying the formation and storage of long-term memories. Many ethical questions and debates about treatments designed to weaken memories may reflect the still poor understanding of how memory recall or reactivation results in memory fragility and the many unknowns surrounding its temporal boundaries. To the best of our knowledge, consciousness depends upon brains, and brains are biological organs. While deep brain nuclei control the daily sleep-waking cycle, the specific contents of conscious vision, like the sight of a coffee cup, are directly supported by known regions of the cortex and corresponding nuclei in the thalamus.
In contrast, medical students have long learned that the two large lobes of the cerebellum, hanging from the rear of the cortex, can be damaged in humans without impairing consciousness significantly. Studies about the brain usually focus on neural activity during the completion of a specific task—remembering a series of words, for example. You’re lying in a brain scanner in the dark, looking up at a small white crosshair, left alone with your thoughts for the next six minutes. According to neuroscientist Mathias Pessiglione, the gut feeling you experienced could be the result of your brain picking up subliminal cues from your opponent and associating them with a positive outcome.
They report the results of a carefully designed study using a system of masked cues matched to win or loss outcomes in the Aug. For the past decade or more, my research team has pursued an understanding of how minds work, human minds, animal minds, and artificial minds.
Every autonomous agent, including you, me, my cat, my software agent IDA and the thermostat in this room, must continually answer for itself the only question that really matters, What do I do next? They choose by means of frequent iteration of a sense-process-act cycle that begins with sampling (sensing) of the environment, continues by processing the incoming stimuli, and concludes by acting on the agent’s world. In humans other, higher-level, cognitive processes such as high-level perception, deliberation, volition, self, metacognition, etc., are accomplished using multiple cognitive cycles.
Designed from Baars’ global workspace theory (1988,1997) and adhering to a number of other psychological theories (Baddeley 2000, Barsalou 1999, Conway 2002, Ericsson and Kintsch 1995, Glenberg 1997), IDA is a software agent that does personnel work for the US Navy (Franklin 2001). LIDA is a second order acronym standing for Learning IDA, that is, the IDA model with perceptual, episodic and procedural learning added (D’Mello et al.
Incoming sensory stimuli is filtered through preconscious perception where meaning is added and a percept produced. The current percept moves to preconscious working memory where it participates, along with undecayed percepts from previous cycles, in the structure building of higher-level perception. The current structure from working memory cues transient episodic memory and declarative memory producing local associations, which are stored in long-term working memory.
Coalitions of the contents of long-term working memory compete for consciousness thus training attention on the most relevant, urgent, important, etc.
The conscious broadcast a la global workspace theory occurs, enabling the various forms of learning and the recruitment of internal resources. Receiving the contents of the conscious broadcast, appropriate schemes from procedural memory respond.
Responding schemes instantiate copies of themselves in the action selection mechanism, bind variables, and pass activation. Human cognitive cycles, as modeled by LIDA are hypothesized to sample the environment and act on it asynchronously every 100 to 300 ms. The LIDA model is a unified theory of cognition (Newell 1990), and perhaps the most complete such to date. Perception acts on incoming sensory stimuli to produce information by adding meaning (Oyama 1985). Both steams can be thought of as starting in the early visual areas of the occipital lobe (V1, V2, V3), and later diverging. Goodale and Milner describe quite convincing empirical studies that show decidedly different functions for the two perceptual streams. The Goodale and Milner work began with a patient whose ventral stream was severely impaired. The end result of these considerations points out a gap in the LIDA model that needs to be filled to accommodate an unconscious dorsal stream. This example illustrates the relative ease of filling gaps in the LIDA model without the necessity of changes to its overall structure. Princeton psychologist Alexander Todorov has demonstrated that quick facial judgments can accurately predict real-world election returns.
Synchronization of neural activity across cortical areas correlates with conscious perception. Subliminal stimuli can be deeply processed and activate similar brain areas as consciously perceived stimuli. Furthermore, the researchers identify a basal forebrain region that specifically underpin this effect, thus operating as a functional node that drives reward-related behaviour without the need for conscious processing. The present study investigated if unconscious primes can be processed according to different stimulus-response (S-R) rules simultaneously.
To test whether sleep strengthens declarative memory in the face of interference, a research team led by Dr.
Just before testing, the interference groups were given a second list of word pairs to remember.
The investigators found that subjects in the sleep groups had superior recall, relative to those in the wake groups.
The authors think the results may help in understanding the neurobiology of memory consolidation and could have important applications for patients with dementia and sleep disorders.
DB, the first blindsight case to be tested extensively (Weiskrantz, 1986) has demonstrated the ability to detect and discriminate a range of visual stimuli presented within his perimetrically blind visual field defect. Animal and human studies consistently have demonstrated that the startle reflex elicited by intense auditory stimulation is enhanced by the previous presentation of fear-evoking stimuli. We report two studies using the startle probe paradigm and the backward-masking procedure to examine the modulation of the eye-blink component of the startle reflex by consciously and nonconsciously presented emotional pictures. Conscious and nonconscious presentation of fearful pictures amplified the magnitude of the startle reflex in both studies. These findings support the notion that negative (and possibly positive) biologically relevant stimuli can be nonconsciously processed, presumably via amygdala activation, and can affect behavioral responding. College students reported mind-wandering almost one-third of the time in their daily lives, according to a new study led by faculty and graduate students at The University of North Carolina at Greensboro. Despite being so common, mind-wandering remains little studied and poorly understood, said Dr. Although it is widely accepted that the medial temporal lobes (MTLs) are critical for becoming aware that something happened in the past, there is virtually no evidence whether MTL sensitivity to event oldness also depends on conscious awareness. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that activity in posterior MTL tracks whether an item is actually old (true oldness), regardless of participants’ awareness of oldness (perceived oldness). Logistic regression analyses based on individual trial activity indicated that the two MTL regions showed opposing relationships with behavior, and that memory performance was determined by their joint activity. Our brains find a resolution when the perceived visual and auditory information conflict, because we use both types of information to figure out the sounds a person is making.
Participants, who were asked to pick the odd one out on a screen covered in over 650 identical symbols, including one rotated version of the same symbol, actually performed better when they were given no time at all to linger on the symbols and so were forced to rely entirely on their subconscious.
The study shows an instance when our rational mind is more likely to perform worse than our subconscious — but the conscious mind still tends to veto the subconscious. Ten participants were asked to locate the only back to front version of a repeated symbol on screen and were given between zero and 1.5 seconds from the moment their eyes had landed on the odd one out to scrutinize the image.
With only a tiny fraction of a second for scrutinizing the target, subjects performed with 95 per cent accuracy. In this test, the instinctive decisions were more likely to be correct because the subconscious brain recognises a rotated version of the same object as different from the original, whereas the conscious brain sees the two objects as identical. Memory for visual items can evoke activity in visual processing regions, which is typically assumed to reflect conscious remembering. Meditation research explores how the brain works when we refrain from concentration, rumination and intentional thinking. Lagopoulos is the principal investigator of a joint study between his university and researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) on changes in electrical brain activity during nondirective meditation. The study monitored the frequency and location of electrical brain waves through the use of EEG (electroencephalography). They were asked to rest, eyes closed, for 20 minutes, and to meditate for another 20 minutes, in random order.
Here lies a significant difference between meditation and relaxing without any specific technique,” emphasizes Lagopoulos. Studies in which researchers inflated balloons in children’s intestines suggested that those with functional abdominal pain might be unusually sensitive to any distension on the inside. Recently, scientists found that when a stored memory is recalled, it becomes sensitive to disruption for a limited time.1,2 This finding indicates that it might be possible to weaken or even erase memories of traumatic experiences that become uncontrollably intrusive in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Whereas the study of animal models and healthy humans has provided some knowledge about post-recall memory disruption, data on the use of such disruption to treat PTSD symptoms are still conflicting. In a boxing match, a blow to the jaw often leads to a loss of consciousness, but the same impact to the torso does not. Cortex and its satellites underlie speech and hearing, vision, hearing and touch, the ability to make decisions and to control our voluntary muscles. Since the cerebellum has nearly the same numbers of neurons as cortex, the question therefore becomes: How it is that cortex supports conscious contents? Hypnosis is a natural state and many people reach this state of consciousness every day without even realizing it. But over the last 20 years, researchers have been interested in what the brain does during periods of supposed inactivity. That’s what minds, that is control structures, are for, to answer this question, to choose what to do next.
We refer to the processing portion of each such cycle as cognition, and to the cycle itself as the cognitive cycle. Thus, a cognitive cycle is best thought of as a cognitive atom or a cognitive moment, the fundamental unit of cognition out of which everything else is built. But some of the contents (products) of perception eventually come to consciousness during the cycle. The ventral stream is concerned with making sense of the current scene, while the dorsal stream is used to guide actions. Starting at the back of the head in the occipital lobe, the ventral stream winds its way around the side and into the temporal lobe, before sending out connections to other temporal and frontal lobe structures housing episodic memory, decision making and the like. Each being part of perception, both steams produce information by adding meaning to incoming sensory stimuli. This requires recognizing and categorizing objects, and the relations between them, that is, situations. For instance, grasping requires not a relative, but an exact, location relative to the hand, and an exact size. She could consciously see some color and texture, but was completely unable to recognize shapes and, therefore, couldn’t identify objects. If one follows the LIDA cognitive cycle through brain areas known to be involved with the various LIDA processes, one doesn’t arrive at the endpoint of the dorsal stream until action selection has taken place in the cycle. The contents of the ventral stream, the sense of the scene, would be expected to be of use in choosing what to do next and, according to global workspace theory, should come to consciousness. Filling this gap required the addition of a sensory memory and a sensory motor memory connected by a dorsal stream.
This ease adds to the believability of the model in the absence of direct empirical verification due to current experimental technology being lacking in either temporal or special resolution, or in scope (Franklin et al 2005).
Todorov has taken some of his previous research that showed that people unconsciously judge the competence of an unfamiliar face within a tenth of a second, and he has moved it to the political arena.
This raises the question which signatures of neural activity critically differentiate conscious from unconscious processing. We imaged motivational processes, implemented in a paradigm that varied the amount and reportability of monetary rewards for which subjects exerted physical effort. According to a German research team, it is possible to have at least two simultaneous priming effects. Participants performed two different S-R rules, such as judging a digit as smaller or larger than five and judging a letter as vowel or consonant.
Ellenbogen conducted a study whereby 48 people between the ages of 18 and 30 were divided evenly into 4 groups: a wake group without interference, a wake group with interference, a sleep group without interference, and a sleep group with interference. The wake groups were taught the word pairings at 9 AM and then tested on them at 9 PM, after 12 hours of being awake.
The first word in each pair was the same on both lists, but the second word was different, testing the brain’s ability to handle interference. In this paper, published in Cognition, the authors also provide experimental evidence that this is indeed the case. In a temporal two alternative forced choice (2AFC) detection experiment we have investigated the limits of DB’s detection ability within his field defect.
In a study published in Biological Psychiatry two Spanish researchers now document that both negative positive biologically relevant stimuli can be nonconsciously processed. There is also growing and varied evidence of the nonconscious processing of fear stimuli in human beings eliciting brain and autonomic fear responses. The opposite tendency was observed for conscious and nonconscious presentation of sexually attractive pictures in the second study.
The PDAs signaled the students eight times a day between noon and midnight to report whether their thoughts were wandering away from what they were doing and to answer multiple-choice questions about their current activity, surroundings and state of mind. But individual results varied widely: One student reported no mind wandering, while another reported it in more than 90 percent of responses.
The students were first given a working memory capacity (WMC) test, a kind of intelligence test that asks subjects to remember short lists while they are simultaneously engaged in another mental task. But during activities requiring concentration and mental effort, higher WMC subjects maintained focus better than lower WMC subjects. Confirming its sensitivity to the objective nature of the stimulus, activity in this region was strongly correlated with individual memory performance (r_0.74).
Furthermore, functional connectivity analyses showed that perceived novelty activity in the posterior MTL inhibited true oldness activity in the anterior MTL. The paper, published online in the journal Current Biology, shows that, in some cases, instinctive snap decisions are more reliable than decisions taken using higher-level cognitive processes. Participants had to decide whether the odd one out was on the left or the right-hand side of the screen. Often though, our instincts and higher-level functions are in conflict and in this case our instincts are often silenced by our reasoning conscious mind.
The visual display screen was switched off at various time intervals either before or after the subjects’ eyes landed on the target. What seems like a random darting of the eye is often an essential subconscious scanning technique that allows us to pick out unique and distinctive features in a crowd — such as colour or orientation. However, based on previous findings, we hypothesized that such activity in early visual areas (BA17, BA18) may reflect priming, a form of nonconscious memory.
Homeopathic individualized medicines versus fluoxetine for moderate to severe depression: double-blind, randomized non-inferiority trial. Electrical brain waves suggest that mental activity during meditation is wakeful and relaxed. The abundance and location of slow to fast electrical brain waves (delta, theta, alpha, beta) provide a good indication of brain activity.
This is especially true for those who’ve suffered significant losses or other traumas. One night the bellyache was so bad she went to the emergency room — and her abdominal X-rays were normal as well. This possibility has drawn great interest from scientific and clinical communities, as well as from nonscientists, who became interested in its potential clinical applications; furthermore, it raised ethical concerns. The strengthening of memory with the passage of time, the resilience of strong memories to disruption, and the specific aspects of memory that become sensitive to disruption raise questions about the limitations of this approach and warrant more research. Perhaps you think about why you volunteered for this, or what you’ll do with the money you earn from this experiment. A very simple agent, such as a thermostat, may have a trivial cognitive cycle consisting only of sense-reflex-act. This is, of course, an unattainable ambition, since human cognition is too rich and multi-faceted to ever be modeled completely. Can all of the contents of perceptual associative memory potentially come to consciousness?
Starting nearby, the dorsal stream moves upwards through the occipital lobe into the parietal lobe and continuing until it makes contact with the primary somato-sensory cortex and the primary motor cortex. Again, this process is part of perception creating information by adding meaning, but it’s a quite different sort of meaning.
But with her intact dorsal stream, the patient could accurately grasp objects she reported not seeing, and could navigate through rooms with out bumping into chairs that she couldn’t report seeing. In both cases we have concluded that the problem in reporting was with episodic memory and not with consciousness (Franklin et al 2005). On the other hand, the contents of the dorsal stream are only needed to effect an action after it has been chosen. We hope to have such verification or falsification in the future as the experimental technology improves.


Transient synchronization of neural activity has been proposed as a neural correlate of conscious perception.
We show that, even when subjects cannot report how much money is at stake, they nevertheless deploy more force for higher amounts.
These S-R rules were administered in random order and announced by a previously presented cue.
The sleep groups were taught the word pairs at 9 PM and tested on them at 9 AM, after a night of sleep. Blind field performance was compared to his sighted field performance and to an age-matched control group (n = 6). Furthermore, it is thought that this mechanism is mediated by amygdala activation and that such stimuli can affect behavioral responding. The answers to these questions could be used to improve reading comprehension and change the way teachers present their lessons.
Thomas Kwapil, and doctoral students Leslie Brown and Jennifer McVay, all in the UNCG Department of Psychology. At the same time, we found that memory errors (misses) were associated with activity in an anterior MTL region, which signaled whether an item was consciously experienced as new (perceived novelty). These findings indicate that participants’ behavior reflected the combined effects of multiple MTL regions. The researchers found that participants scored better if they were given no scrutinizing time at all. So while the lower-level cognitive process spots the rotated image as the odd one out, the higher-level function overrides that decision and dismisses the rotated object because it is the same as all the other symbols. When the on-screen image was hidden immediately after the subjects’ eyes had landed on the target, the subjects often believed they were just guessing where the odd one out was. Soon after our eyes have fixed on a target, the conscious or top-down part of cognition engages and examines whether the candidate really is the target or not. We tested this hypothesis in two fMRI experiments with similar stimulus protocols, but explicit or implicit task instructions. Ubiratan Cardinalli Adler, UNIFESP (Federal University of SA?o Paulo, Brazil), Av Rouxinol, 1041 cj. Thus, while the holiday season is meant to be a joyous time, for many it merely provides salient reminders of these debilitating experiences. Here, we will look at how we form memories of an emotional event and how these memories become fragile after recall.
You are in control, you have an increased ability to concentrate, and you are operating on autopilot without really realizing it. Applying what is known about the default network to diseases like Alzheimer’s allows for new possibilities for diagnosis and evaluation of treatments.
Perhaps you plan out the rest of your day, or start replaying a conversation from yesterday.
Cognitive psychologists interested in conducting research relevant to assessing the authenticity of memories for child sexual abuse should consider the generalizability of their research to the planting of entirely new events in memory. At the other end of the spectrum may be a human cognitive cycle, sense-cognition-act, where its quite complex cognition includes perception, working memory, episodic memory, consciousness, procedural memory, and action selection. A thermostat causally transforms its sensory input, a temperature, into an action, possibly into a no-operation. Before learning about the dorsal stream (Milner and Goodale 1995, Goodale and Humphrey 1998, Goodale and Milner 2004) we thought so. There are also direct pathways from the dorsal stream to lower parts of the brain such as the superior colliculus.
Let’s look at the needs and functions of the two visual perception streams individually. The scene must be understood if it appears on a small TV screen, in an actual physical room, or on a huge screen in a movie theater. Careful experimentation, some using optical illusions, convinced Goodale and Milner that the dorsal stream was not only preconscious, but unconscious, that it, its contents never come to consciousness. Such sensory stimuli can be external, that is, generated by the environment, or internal, that is, generated by proprioception or other internal processes. In AAAI 2006 Spring Symposium Series Sponsor: American Association for Artificial Intelligence.
Here we test this proposal by comparing the electrophysiological responses related to the processing of visible and invisible words in a delayed matching to sample task.
Such a motivational effect is underpinned by engagement of a specific basal forebrain region.
Each target stimulus was preceded by subliminal primes which afforded a different or an identical response according to either the currently irrelevant or currently relevant S-R rule. This information could help prevent accidents and treat those with attention-deficit disorders, Kane said. This result thus suggests that at least for this function, consciousness does not need to be an issue.
More generally, our results show that parts of MTL can distinguish old from new independently of consciousness. When subjects were given the time to engage their higher-level functions, their decisions were therefore more likely to be wrong. They were unaware that their gazes had shifted to the target just before the image was hidden and their answers weren’t guesswork at all.
During initial runs, abstract shapes were presented to either side of fixation, filled with parallel lines of random orientation and color. That will help us consider the potential, limitations, and ethics of disrupting memories of emotion. A great deal of research has been conducted on the hypnotic state and various states of consciousness. New techniques in neuroimaging are helping scientists understand how your brain represents such internally directed and spontaneous thoughts. An autonomous agent (Franklin & Graesser 1997) is a system situated in, and part of, an environment, which senses that environment, and acts on it, over time, in pursuit of its own agenda, and in such a way that its actions may affect future sensing. Since so many actions, for example saccades of the eyes, simply redirect the senses, one could argue that cycles should begin with step 9, an action. However, we hope to make the basic building block of the LIDA model, it’s cognitive cycle, sufficiently complete that any particular gap in the model can be filed only by addition, that is without any significant reworking of the existing model. On the other hand, essentially every animal requires perception to identify food items, mates, predators, nest mates, etc. Both perceived and nonperceived words caused a similar increase of local (gamma) oscillations in the EEG, but only perceived words induced a transient long-distance synchronization of gamma oscillations across widely separated regions of the brain.
Our findings thus reveal this region as a key node in brain circuitry that enables expected rewards to energize behavior, without the need for the subjects;awareness. In three experiments, we consistently found priming effects according to currently irrelevant S-R rules, even when primes for the relevant and irrelevant S-R rules were presented simultaneously. Investigation of detection as a function of stimulus contrast revealed DB’s ability to detect the presence of an 8% contrast stimulus within his blind field, compared to 12% in his sighted field. In subsequent runs, old and new shapes (plus related shapes in Experiment 2) were presented at fixation. There is a need for large-scale longitudinal data on treatment utilization and outcomes, stress, emotion, and pain. An animal’s knowledge of its world is, at best, approximate, and arises from sensory stimuli via perception. Sensory memory feeds into Perceptual Associative Memory in route to consciousness, but its nodes are not permitted to become part of the percept. After this transient period of temporal coordination, the electrographic signatures of conscious and unconscious processes continue to diverge. Thus, unconscious stimuli have the power to activate responses according to currently required and currently not required S-R rules concurrently.
No significant difference in detection performance between DB’s sighted field and the performance of six age-matched control participants suggests poor sighted field performance does not account for the results. Theta state is a deeper state of relaxation; this is a common state of hypnosis and meditation. Non-biological examples include some mobile robots, and various computational agents, including artificial life agents (Langston 1989), software agents (Franklin & Graesser 1997) and many computer viruses.
At a much faster time scale sensory memory also feeds multiple times into each executing sensory-motor automatism (SMA), taken from sensory-motor memory, that operates without benefit of consciousness.
Rapid distributed fronto-parieto-occipital processing stages during working memory in humans.
Only words reported as perceived induced (1) enhanced theta oscillations over frontal regions during the maintenance interval, (2) an increase of the P300 component of the event-related potential, and (3) an increase in power and phase synchrony of gamma oscillations before the anticipated presentation of the test word.
The results are in line with response activation accounts of subliminal priming and suggest that at least two routes may gain access on response processes simultaneously. Monocular testing also rules out differences between the eyes as an explanation, suggesting that DB demonstrates superior detection for certain stimuli within his visual field defect compared to normal vision.
A right fusiform gyrus region (BA18) and a left lingual gyrus region (BA18) were preferentially associated with shapes previously presented on the left and right, respectively. Randomized long-term trial of camel milk as an adjunct to insulin therapy in type-1 diabetes. The function of the ventral stream is to provide information of use in choosing the next action as outlined above in the description of the LIDA cognitive cycle. Aperiodic Phase Re-Setting in Scalp EEG of Beta-Gamma Oscillations by State Transitions at Alpha-Theta Rates. Brain electric microstates and momentary conscious mind states as building blocks of spontaneous thinking: I.
We propose that the critical process mediating the access to conscious perception is the early transient global increase of phase synchrony of oscillatory activity in the gamma frequency range. In support of our hypothesis, this early visual area activity was independent of response accuracy for spatial location.
In Experiment 2, for each shape, participants identified parallel line orientation relative to horizontal.
Consistent with our hypothesis, specific neural activity was observed in early visual regions (BA17, BA18, extending into BA19), with old activity greater than related and new activity (likely reflecting priming). Patients are recruited from web sites for patient advocacy and health enhancement programs. The results of these experiments provide convergent evidence that memory related early visual area activity (BA17, BA18) can reflect nonconscious processing. Therefore this long-term study was undertaken to assess the efficacy, safety and acceptability of camel milk as an adjunct to insulin therapy in type 1 diabetic patients. You are able to access your subconscious mind during alpha, theta, and delta states and can also reach various depths of hypnosis (Tools for Wellness). Methods: In this 2-year randomized clinical parallel design study, 24 patients with type 1 diabetes were enrolled and divided in 2 groups. Group I (n=12) received usual care (ie, diet, exercise, and insulin), and group II (n=12) received 500 mL camel milk in addition to diet, exercise, and insulin. Previous studies have found that between 30% and 60% of pediatric neurology patients have used CAM at some point in their lives. Whereas, the effect of vitamin C on conventional photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumor cells has been documented, the mechanism of vitamin C induced increase in tumor cell response to PDT is unclear. In this report we demonstrate the presence of vitamin C during photo-oxidation of MC540 significantly increases its apoptotic activity in tumor cells. Interestingly, we observed that the presence of vitamin C during photo-oxidation of MC540 only and not its addition to a prior photo-exposed mixture to MC540 is critical for its enhanced sensitivity. These findings provide impetus to the approach in developing ROS generating small molecule compounds with potent apoptosis inducing activity.
These data could have implications in the use of vitamin C in photo-sensitizer-mediated reactions with the view to favorably tailoring the cancer cell milieu for efficient apoptotic execution. Many patients are still not discussing their CAM use with their doctors and are using CAM alongside their conventional medicines, thereby increasing the likelihood for potential interactions. One limitation of this study is that our ability to determine between-site differences is limited by the difference in sample size. Electrodermal measures as clinical markers: Jing-point electrical impedance in adolescent women with chronic pelvic pain. Consequently, skin electrical measures at Jing points are commonly obtained and interpreted for diagnostic purposes.
Denise Adams, University of Alberta, 1047 RTF Building, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2E1, Canada. The objective of this study is to determine whether electrodermal measures at Jing-points are associated with clinical outcomes in adolescents with chronic pelvic pain in a randomized, sham-controlled acupuncture trial. Methods: We recruited 18 adolescent women aged 13 to 22 years of age suffering from chronic pelvic pain and laparoscopically diagnosed with Stage I-III endometriosis.
Using a Hibiki-7 device, normalized electrical impedance values were obtained at all 24 Jing-points for each treatment session.
Phase II: CAM research networks in Canada and the US will notify CAM providers of this study, so they may alert patients. Left-right asymmetry and measures for statistical dispersion (standard deviation and Gini coefficient) of Jing-point impedance values were calculated. Parents or legal guardians may self-identify and reply on behalf of patients under 18 year of age if they meet the criteria for Phase I. With a generalized estimating equation method, we evaluated the association between the electrodermal-derived measures and clinical outcomes while accounting for treatment designation and time.
Phase III: The methods for phase II were utilized but CAM associations and training organizations were substituted for CAM research networks. The majority of the cases involved the use of Traditional Chinese Medicine to improve quality of life. Preliminary analyses indicate that, over time, subjects in the active acupuncture arm were more likely to have reduced left-right asymmetry and statistical dispersion of Jing-point measures compared to subjects in the sham-control arm. Further analyses with multivariable models will be performed to assess whether this difference is statistically significant for each electrodermal measure. The chiropractic care of children with otitis media: a systematic review of the literature utilizing whole systems research evaluation and meta-synthesis. Joel Alcantara, International Chiropractic Pediatric Association, 327 N Middletown Rd, Media, PA 19063. Key words were otitis media and related words (ie, acute otitis media, otitis media with effusion, ear infections, etc) AND chiropractic. A narrative review of the literature was performed and augmented with a meta-synthesis of the literature with a focus on chiropractic management and the application of a whole systems research (WSR) evaluation. Results: Our systematic review revealed 20 articles consisting of 6 case reports, 5 case series, 1 retrospective cohort, 2 prospective cohorts, 2 reviews of the literature, 2 commentaries, 1 survey study and 1 prospective, parallel-group, observer-blinded, randomized feasibility study. Due to the lack of higher-level research design, a meta-analysis of the literature was not possible. This included the use of otoscopy and tympanogram to provide objective pretreatment and comparative outcome measures.
Eighty-nine percent of respondents reported treating pediatric patients; patients under the age of 17 made up 12% of chiropractic and 20% of both naturopathic and osteopathic patients. Activator, Gonstead, Toftness, Chiropractic Biophysics, and Diversified Techniques were utilized with an emphasis on the upper cervical spine (the C1 or C2 vertebral bodies). Approximately two-thirds of both osteopaths and naturopaths disagree or strongly disagree that immunizations are safe compared to one-third of chiropractors.
One paper described utilization of cranial technique, 2 papers described a dietary intervention, and 2 papers utilized soft-tissue massage to augment spinal manipulative therapy.
Fifteen studies were amenable to the WSR evaluation resulting in a score of 7.06 from a maximum of 11. The immunizations of most concern to the 3 professions included MMR, varicella, influenza, DPTP, and hepatitis. The most common reasons for concern were related to safety, including that vaccines may contain dangerous ingredients, may produce side effects, and may be linked to future problems such as neurological damage. Conclusion: This systematic review highlights the need for more higher-level research designs in addition to incorporating new methodologies (ie, whole systems research) reflective of the holistic and vitalistic clinical and theoretical framework of chiropractic. The chiropractic care of children with enuresis: a systematic review of the literature utilizing whole systems research evaluation. Significantly more naturopaths advised parents against vaccinations (27%), compared to 10% of chiropractors, and 12% of osteopaths (P=.0002). Joel Alcantara, International Chiropractic Pediatric Association, 327 North Middletown Rd, Media, PA 19063. There was no significant difference between groups for those advising parents in favor of vaccinations (15% C, 14% N, 6% O) (P=.1143). Key words were enuresis, nocturnal enuresis, bedwetting as well as related words AND chiropractic. A narrative review of the literature was performed and augmented with an evaluation using WSR evaluation. Results: Our systematic review revealed 7 articles meeting the eligibility criteria for review. Four of the 7 papers involve case reports describing the care of children aged 8 to 14 years with primary complaints of nocturnal enuresis. Spinal manipulative therapy involved the use of Toggle recoil, Sacro-Occipital Technique, Activator Methods, Gonstead Technique, and Diversified Technique to address primarily segmental dysfunctions in the lumbosacral spine. We conducted a systematic review to assess the nature and severity of adverse events associated with pediatric acupuncture. A large prospective cohort study (N=171) demonstrated improvement in wet nights per week from baseline following 2 weeks of care. In a randomized clinical trial, within-group comparison of pretreatment and comparative rates of enuresis subjects demonstrated an improvement. However, the study was fraught with research design issues such as randomization and biostatistics.
Six of the 7 studies were amenable to WSR evaluation and resulted in a scoring of 7.33 from a maximum possible score of 11 points. One reviewer screened all articles, while the second reviewed all excluded articles to ensure that no article was inappropriately excluded. Full articles of potentially relevant references were retrieved and assessed by two independent reviewers.


The use of Whole Systems Research provides promise in contributing to evidence-based practice and reflects the holistic and vitalistic chiropractic approach to patient care. Results: Seven thousand, two hundred sixty-two potentially relevant articles were identified. Eleven of these studies included adults as the majority of patients; for these studies the age of the patient experiencing the adverse event was never reported. Most of the adverse events that have been identified in children were mild and included pain, bruising, and worsening of symptoms.
The few adverse events rated as moderate or serious included one pneumothorax, 2 infections, and 2 cases of complications from needles left in the body. Methods: This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Life University (Atlanta, Georgia).
A 26-item questionnaire was sent to 9000 subscribers of an online newsletter from Midwifery Today Magazine. The first domain identified demographics (midwife credentials, age, years in practice, and place of practice). The second domain queried participants regarding their formal and postgraduate training on the subject of chiropractic.
The third domain attempted to identify their experience (ie, positive or negative experience) with chiropractic personally and professionally as it pertains to pregnancy and infant care. The fourth domain asked their opinion about the safety of chiropractic care for pregnant and pediatric patients. The fifth domain surveyed their knowledge regarding the scope of practice of chiropractic for pregnant and pediatric patients. The respondent ranged in age from 41 to 50 years with practice experience ranging from 6 to 10 years. With respect to their training on chiropractic, 31% (n=57) reported receiving formal education (ie, during midwifery education) on the subject of chiropractic.
Fifty-five of the 157 who did not indicated receiving some education on chiropractic through continuing education seminars. With respect to the midwife responders’ experience with chiropractic, 95% (n=176) admitted to making a professional referral to a chiropractor with 73% (n=137) having referred an infant to a chiropractor.
Ninety-two percent (n=171) reported being chiropractic patients with another 58% (n=124) presenting their child for chiropractic care. Over 90% indicated experiencing a positive experience as patients and with their child’s care. All of the respondents perceived chiropractic was safe for pregnant patients, while only 97% considered chiropractic safe for children. An overwhelming majority of the responders (98%) indicated that chiropractors work with birth professionals, while 92% indicated that they were knowledgeable about the role of chiropractic in prenatal care.
Lastly, 75% indicated interest in learning more about chiropractic, with 86% wanting more evidence-based practice chiropractic.
From the 809 articles reviewed, 18 articles met the full inclusion criteria and proceeded to data extraction. Identified adverse events include local pain or soreness, swelling, mild fevers, and skin rashes. Thus far, the majority of adverse events reported have been mild with few moderate or serious adverse events occurring in pediatric patients. Total weight and body composition changes in response to weight reduction diets of varied protein content in midlife women.
Age-related changes in body composition for women include loss of lean mass and gains in total weight, fat mass and central fat deposition. There is growing evidence that diets with low-to-moderate carbohydrate and fat content and increased levels of high-quality protein are effective for weight loss.
Greater subjective satiety is reported by subjects following test meals containing whey protein compared to other protein sources. The beneficial effects of whey protein on satiety, thermogenesis, and lean body mass protection suggest that whey may be a preferred protein source for weight loss treatment. The specific aims of this study are to assess weight loss in subjects receiving energy-reduced dietary regimens and to evaluate parameters of weight and body mass change between the 3 treatment groups.
Study Design: We are conducting a randomized, controlled pilot feeding study to evaluate the effect of different dietary protein sources on weight loss. Endpoint measures include body weight and body composition data obtained at baseline and at 8 weeks for dietary treatment. The HP diet and the WP diet produced greater total fat loss and less total lean tissue loss than the CD. Conclusions: Preliminary data shows that across treatment groups, the high-protein diets conserved lean tissue and promoted reduction of fat tissue.
Trials investigating TCM must be conducted with increased methodological rigor to be of value in evaluations. The single included study suggesting that acupuncture may be safe and efficacious in CFS is limited in applicability by the use of sham acupuncture as the control.
Integration and interface between naturopaths and conventional rural care: empirical findings from a grass-roots research project.
The worsening epidemic of DM in the United States, along with the increasing prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and IGT, render the identification of promising interventions for these states a matter of some urgency. Jon Adams, University of Queensland, School of Population Health ,University of Qld, Herston, Queensland, 4006, Australia.
While lifestyle interventions based on dietary pattern and physical activity can delay or prevent the onset of diabetes and reduce cardiovascular risk, adherence at the population level is severely limiting. Pharmacotherapy offers promise for diabetes prevention, but with associated high costs, unacceptability to many patients, and potential toxicity. In this context, the potential role of chromium (Cr), an insulin cofactor, in IGT is of great interest. Proposed, therefore, is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial conducted at the Yale Prevention Research Center to investigate the effects of daily Cr for 6 months at 2 dose levels on serum measures of glucose tolerance and on endothelial function in adults with IGT, IFG, and IR. The study is powered to detect a clinically meaningful effect of Cr supplementation at either dose on glucose control, and to compare the two doses for equivalence.
The study will investigate effects of Cr on both measures of glucose tolerance (glucose, insulin, OGTT) and brachial artery endothelial function, thus combining serum measures with a physiologic test of Cr effects on the vasculature.
The proposed study will generate much needed data regarding the efficacy of Cr in those at risk for type 2 diabetes and offers the promise of guiding practice, as well as directing future study. By contributing to knowledge related to potential diabetes prevention strategies, this study addresses one of the more pressing public health issues in the United States today. Risk to human subjects in this study is a minor increment over minimal due to the administration of nitroglycerin as a control in BARS testing. Secondary outcomes: (4) It will show improved well-being, as measured by elevated melatonin and DHEA. Unlike many relaxation therapies, energy healing requires no participation by the patient, a feature that makes it particularly attractive in the hospital setting, where patients are often anxious, depressed, in pain, or sedated. Despite the increasing use of energy healing, few studies have looked at its benefits and even fewer at its underlying mechanisms of action. In this pilot study, we examined the effects of an energy healing modality known as Reiki on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, both of which participate in the stress response and stress-induced pain and disease progression. Subjects rested for 10 min before baseline heart rate and blood pressure were measured and blood was drawn to determine cortisol, ACTH, and DHEA levels, using commercial immunoassay kits. Subjects then received a 30- to 45-min Reiki or Pretend Reiki session followed immediately by post-session heart rate and blood pressure measurements and at 2h by blood draws.
When asked whether they thought they were in the Reiki or Pretend Reiki group, about 70% of the participants reported that they believed that they had received a true Reiki session. This suggests that the beneficial effects of Reiki on physiology, as compared to the Pretend Reiki, cannot be explained solely by the placebo effect. Issac Amponsah, Faculty of Pharmacy Kwame Nkrumah University of SC, Knust, Kumasi, 233, Ghana.
Effects of ultra-low dilutions of sabal serrulata on human prostate cancer growth: mechanistic studies.
Hakima Amri, Georgetown University, Basic Science Bldg, 3900 Reservoir Rd NW, Washington, DC 20007. Finally, serum protein differential expression was carried out using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry analysis. Effect of mind-body medicine skills on elements of emotional intelligence in medical students. Yet studies have reported that traits such as altruism and empathy tend to decline throughout medical school training. In an effort to foster medical student self-awareness and mindfulness, which may improve their EI, Georgetown University School of Medicine (GUSOM) offers an experiential course to undergraduate medical students in mind-body medicine skills.
The purpose is to expose students to a variety of mind-body approaches including meditation, imagery, as well as group sharing and listening generously for self-awareness and reflection. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Mind Body Medicine Skills (MBS) course on perceived stress, mindfulness, and elements of EI including intrapersonal capacities (attention to feelings, mood repair, clarity of feelings) and interpersonal capacities (perspective-taking, empathetic concern, and personal distress in response to distress in others). The intervention group (n=30) was comprised of first year medical students who self-selected to participate in this elective.
The control group (n=36) included students from the first year class who completed the surveys but did not take the MBS course. Four questionnaires were completed at the start and end of the spring semester by all study participants: the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), and a survey of EI developed by Stratton et al (2005) comprised of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. ANCOVA was used to compare the MBS and the control groups at the end of the semester, controlling for beginning scores. Patient perspectives of integrative and primary care management of back and neck paina€”qualitative findings from a randomized clinical trial. These conditions are additionally some of the most common reasons why patients use complementary therapies, often without dialogue with conventional care providers. The focus groups were conducted separately for those in the integrative vs the conventional treatment groups.
The interview data were transcribed ad verbatim and analyzed utilizing inductive content analysis technique. Eliane Angst, UCLA Center for Excellence in Pancreatic Diseases, 675 Charles E Young Drive South, Los Angeles, CA 90095. A significant reduction in cell numbers was seen with quercetin concentrations of ~30 AµM and a maximum effect at ~75 AµM.
In MIA PaCa-2 cells a ~65% reduction in cell number was seen with 75 AµM of quercetin after 48 hours. Starved BxPC-3 cells treated with 75 AµM quercetin showed a ~95% reduction in cell number after 48 hours.
Conclusion: These results suggest that quercetin has a potent growth-inhibitory effect in pancreatic cancer cells in vitro.
Additional experiments to investigate the underlying mechanism of growth inhibition and animal studies are underway.
Flovanoids may reveal to be potent anticancer drugs found in our daily food, leading to specific diet recommendations. These can be taken together to qualify as an academic minor in many of the conventional MA or PhD programs, often forming the basis of a thesis or dissertation required for the terminal degree. In the fall of 2009, the university will launch a doctorate of nursing practice with a focus in integrative health and healing. Georgetown University developed a concentration of CAM within its Masters in Physiology program in 2003. We address the multicultural perspective, comparing data collected in Canada and Europe to those in the United States. The reason for this is that results on the health-promoting effects of spirituality and religiosity cannot easily be transferred from the United States to countries with different cultural and religious backgrounds. Thus, one has to recognize different concepts of spirituality, different attitudes towards its utilization, and objections against the implementation of it in a particular medical system. In Germany, 3 colleagues have founded the Transdisciplinary Working Group on Spirituality and Health, and in Canada the Canadian Research Network on Spirituality and Health has been active for a couple of years. Data and approaches from these different networks will be combined into this symposium.Dr BA?ssing is an associate professor at the University of Witten, Herdeckea€™s Faculty of Medicine, where he directs the research group Spirituality and Health.
The effect of a€?acupuncture for losing weighta€? on the level of blood sugar: a survey on the mechanism.
Hoda Azizi, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, 11 Bei San Huan Dong Lu, Beijing, Beijing, 100029, China. Material and Methods: In this clinical trial study, 66 patients were included in case and control groups. Blood sugar was examined just before inserting needles and immediately after withdrawal of needles.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that the mechanism of acupuncture in losing weight is significantly related to making an increase in BS.
John Balletto, Center for Muscular Therapy, Inc, 545 Pawtucket Avenue, Mailbox 304, Pawtucket, RI 02860-6046. As with business startups that begin informally and successfully mature into larger enterprises, growth brings new organizational challenges, together with greater visibility and opportunity. The maturation of massage as a healthcare profession increases the need for a process to formalize the synthesis of massage therapy knowledge from clinical experience and research—to collect what we know and to make such baseline knowledge widely available to practitioners, consumers, and other healthcare stakeholders.
The present paper lays out the motivations and framework for creating massage therapy guidelines that are informed both by research and by clinical experience. It also acts as a report to the massage therapy profession and to other stakeholders about the work of the Best Practices Committee of the Massage Therapy Foundation since 2006. And it has the additional goal of providing a healthcare literature basis for future academic discussions of massage. The discussion here is based on a definition from the Institute of Medicine and on research into the nature of expertise. Topics addressed include guideline creation, credentialing of complementary and alternative medicine practitioners, definition of competence, and the increasing role of technology (that is, informatics) in managing training and task-necessary competencies. The roles of transparency and a wide and open peer review are emphasized as essential to the usability and credibility of guidelines.
Health Canada issues consumer advisories regarding the safety of marketed health products, yet the criteria for issuing advisories have not been evaluated for consistency or objectivity. The Causality Algorithm used by Health Canada was used to rate degree of association between the adverse events (AEs) and the products. The Severity of Adverse Events Scale, developed by the National Cancer Institute, was used to determine the severity of the AEs. Most NHP AWRs were issued based on potential AEs from contamination and adulteration, whereas most of the AWRs for therapeutic drugs were issued due to actual AEs. Of the 6 NHP AWRs issued for actual AEs, 3 (50%) were unassessable for severity, whereas of the 28 AWRs issued for actual therapeutic drug AEs, 1 (3%) was unassessable for severity. The origin of reports for NHPs tended to be from foreign sources or Health Canada, whereas reports for therapeutic drugs were mostly issued by Health Canada in conjunction with drug manufacturers. The potential of a mistletoe (Viscum album L) extract to alleviate adverse effects of cancer chemotherapy: an in vitro study. Stephan Baumgartner, University of Bern, Institute of Complementary Medicine KIKOM, Inselspital, Bern, BE, 3010, Switzerland. We investigated the effect of a mistletoe extract on PBMC with and without concomitant treatment with cyclophosphamide and compared viability and replication of normal PBMC with that of a T-cell leukemia cell line. The results motivate further preclinical and clinical investigations of mistletoe extracts as an adjuvant medication in cancer therapy to alleviate side effects of conventional therapy. Stephan Baumgartner, Institute of Complementary Medicine KIKOM, University of Bern, Inselspital, Imhoof-Pavillon, Bern, BE, 3010, Switzerland. We investigated the potential of a commonly used plant pathogen–system, Arabidopsis thaliana infected with the virulent bacteria Pseudomonas syringae (pv tomato strain DC3000), regarding its response towards a homeopathic treatment.
Compared to Bion (a common SAR inducer used as positive control), the magnitude of the treatment effect of Biplantol was about 50%. None of the other tested preparations yielded significant effects in the overall evaluation.
The purpose of this study was to determine remedy effects on a common quantitative measure of complexity, the correlation dimension (D2), of human sleep electroencephalography (EEG).
High Hostile subjects increased complexity at C3 and Pz, but decreased complexity at O2 during stage 3 sleep on CC. In the high Anxiety-Sensitive subjects, CC caused significant increases in complexity at Pz and O1 during stage 3 sleep and at C3, C4, and Pz during stage 4 sleep. CC increased complexity significantly at Cz, C4, and O2 during REM sleep in only the high Anxiety-Sensitive subjects.
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether or not the objective measure of polysomnographically-recorded all-night sleep recordings can distinguish verum homeopathic remedies from placebo in human subjects.
NV produced more marked effects on increased shifts in sleep stages, with a growth in effects from night 22 to 23. This study examined the effects of olfactory administration of a polycrest homeopathic remedy Sulphur on heart rate variability (HRV). The Sulphur was given at dilution factors used for preparing 6c, 12c, and 30c potencies (1 potency per session, with potency order randomized), but for each potency, the test solutions were succussed to different degrees (stirred without shaking, 10, 20, or 100 succussions). Homeopathic remedies increase spectral electroencephalographic power during sleep in healthy young adults.
The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of verum vs placebo homeopathic remedies on spectral qEEG measures of polysomnographically-recorded all-night sleep recordings.
Evaluating a nonlinear dynamical model for human flourishing: Relationship of PANAS positive-to-negative-affect ratio and global health and well-being. The purpose of the present study was to compare global physical health (GPH) and well-being ratings of young adults whose P:N mood ratios fell above vs below the Losada line.
Despite higher (MCSD) scores in PF, a small sex and age difference between groups, ANCOVAs controlling for MCSD, sex, and age still showed statistical significance of the above PF vs PL group differences. Gurjeet Birdee, Osher Research Center Harvard Medical School, 401 Park Drive, Suite 22-A West, Boston, MA 02215. We identified the prevalence of CAM modalities used and the characteristics of users among the pediatric population.



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