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A quick programming note: beginning next week, Friday, February 12, we have a special valentine for our tremendous readers! When a half-demon assassin walks into her life, leaving a trail of destruction in his wake, Muse must return to the one man she hoped never to see again and ask for help.
Trapped between the malevolent intentions of a Prince of Hell, an assassin with ulterior motives, and her bloodthirsty demon-kin, Muse must embrace the lure of chaos at her core; the demon inside her, in order to survive. When Gracie Donnelly, a school teacher from New Zealand, arrives on a Montana cattle ranch, she has more on her mind than mending fences and feeding chickens. Just one look at the fiery five-foot-one redhead and Trent McKenzie knows Gracie is going to be trouble. January 29, 2016: Today’s Free Fridays NOOK App is Last Defense of Our Time, from Broken Crayon Games!
January 22, 2016: Today’s Free Fridays eBook is Crystal Magic, the first book in the Clearwater Adventures series by Madeline Kleeman! Magic can be as dangerous as fire, and Aunt Jodi wants Kristyl to have nothing to do with it. Owning books, weapons, and even food is now punishable by banishment to reprogramming camps or even death. From the author of Kane and Abel and A Prisoner of Birth comes ONLY TIME WILL TELL, the first in an ambitious new series that tells the story of one family across generations, across oceans, from heartbreak to triumph. As he enters into adulthood, Harry finally learns how his father really died, but the awful truth only leads him to question, was he even his father? When it comes to family, Ian Dare gives his all but in relationships he offers the bare minimum. Riley Taylor believes herself immune to domineering men – until charismatic Ian Dare turns a simple kiss into an all out assault on her senses and she discovers she likes his brand of control in the bedroom.
Goosebumps starring Jack Black is in theaters now, and the original creator of Goosebumps, Slappy the Dummy and master of horror R.L. Thinking about those exciting Saturdays made me remember why a movie can be so special to people. Limited Time Offer: Read Attack of the Jack-o-Lantern for FREE with purchase of select Goosebumps eBook. Kristen Ashley’s newest installment to her Chaos series, WALK THROUGH FIRE, is available now! This, of course, further depends on how late my cats will let me get away with being attached to my keyboard and not cuddling them.
I’m an equal opportunity snacker on the whole, but when I’m writing, I usually stick with savory.
The last book I finished was Sebring, the finale to my Unfinished Heroes series, due out in January 2016. In the end, of course, Nick made me fall in love with him, as, unusually, the ending of this book came to me before the rest of the story did. For a romance reader, Vintage Brilliance: Judith McNaught’s Kingdom of Dreams and Once and Always and Johanna Lindsey’s Warrior Woman.
For a romance reader, More Modern Awesomeness: Jenn Bennett’s Grim Shadows (just read all of Jenn’s Roaring Twenties series…or, even though I haven’t read them, I reckon because that series is so good, you’re good to go with anything from Jenn).
Warning to readers, Joey’s Natural Law is a BDSM erotica and the hook for me was the hero is an alpha male sub. Now, for any reader, Must Reads: To Kill A Mockingbird by Harper Lee, Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut and Confederacy of Dunces by John Kennedy Toole (and still cheating, I’ll add a fourth, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote).
For sheer “feels,” either Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Cafe (Fannie Flagg) or Divine Secrets of the Ya-Ya Sisterhood (Rebecca Wells). I would love to be able to sweep a reader along an emotional journey that was real and raw and funny and beautiful, no compromise, exposing the ugly stuff along with the beauty. I adored her alpha heroes and plucky heroines, her stories were perfection, but it was all the attention she gave to absolutely everything, including fully-rounded secondary characters and liberal injections of humor that sucked me in. She’s the best romance novelist I’ve read…even to today…and as such, she’s influenced my writing greatly. Star Wars is my top, top, top o’ the list of favorite films because I dig movies and that was where it all began. But I think the thing that makes this movie sit at the top in a way it will never fall off is having this happen with my dad. I don’t have any rituals but I’d love to be one of those people who can grab their laptop and go sit in a cafe or somewhere bustling with activity and tap away at a story sipping a coffee or a glass of wine. Though I have this pink notebook with blue flowers on it that has to be at my side, and I only write in it in purple, pink or teal ink. I can imagine anyone reading that notebook not knowing who the heck I am would wonder what on earth it was. Finally, I submitted Rock Chick to an agent based in Denver (where that series is based) who shared the same alma mater as me. So, in my early forties, probably two decades after I started this process, I quit my job (not recommended, commence loads of ramen noodle eating) and started self-publishing the twenty-plus books I’d written over the years, doing this in quick succession one after the other after the other.
Six months later, a powerful blogger reviewed one of these books positively… and away I flew. For three hundred years, arks have carried the last remnants of humanity through dark space.
Now, after decades of traveling, the ships have finally reached their destination: Soren, a toxic planet that may have the resources they desperately need. With the latest GlowLight technology, NOOK keeps reading easy and glare-free in bright sun or at bedtime, when you want to stay lost in your book without keeping someone else awake.
Dip into B&N Readouts daily for a taste of romance, mystery, or fantasy, and to find unexpected treats across a range of topics. Style meets function in colorful covers and other accessories designed for your GlowLight Plus. In Whiskey Bayou, Georgia, the humidity is thick, the gossip juicy, and family is everything.
For example, eleuthero and rhodiola are adaptogen herbs that can be used to mollify with seasonal affective disorder (SAD).  Elderberry and astragalus can help prevent colds and improve energy, and they both have a sweet flavor that lends well to drinks and teas.  Sea buckthorn, which is commonly found in cosmetics,  can help prevent dry, chapped skin, and it can be applied topically or even added to a smoothie! Twelve people have walked on the moon, but only one man – Philippe Petit (Joseph Gordon-Levitt) – has ever, or will ever, walk in the immense void between the World Trade Center towers. In this stunning book, Petit tells the dramatic story of this history-making walk, from conception and clandestine planning to the performance and its aftermath. When Jake Patrick took a summer internship at his estranged father’s corporation, he anticipated some much-needed extra cash and a couple of free meals from his guilty dad. From the sweatshops of Saipan to the most powerful offices in Washington, SWEAT rockets through a story of crime and consequences with lightning pacing, a twisting plot, an unforgettable cast of characters, and wry humor. The publisher of today’s Fridays eBook selection, The Story Plant, is offering five more great reads for just $1.99 each for a limited time! Reminiscent of the work of Susan Isaacs and Nora Ephron, THE NEW ME is a witty, poignant, perceptive, and beautifully written novel about change and the price of becoming who you want to be. The publisher of today’s Fridays eBook selection, The Story Plant, is offering five more great reads for just $1.99 each for a limited time!
Rick Riordan’s new series Magnus Chase and the Gods of Asgard kicks off next Tuesday, October 6, with THE SWORD OF SUMMER. The world’s foremost expert in bringing ancient stories to life for modern young readers through fast-paced, hilarious, and high-stakes adventure quests turns to Norse mythology for the first time.
And what better way to start things off than to discuss kids going back to school?  The magazines Parents and FamilyFun are consistently great resources for practical and insightful advice on parenting and family life, and their September issues are devoted to this time of year when summer’s merriment melts into the rigor of schoolwork. Janeane Linson is dead, and the impossible has happened: Every detail of her murder has been erased. It’s Special Agent Katie Pratt’s first day with Ghost Targets, the division of the FBI that tracks elite, powerful criminals with the ability to disrupt the all-seeing Hathor monitoring system. DESCRIPTION: The world maps made by the European Church Fathers were a legacy taken over from the ancient world, and they were gradually expanded and adapted in accordance with the texts which they accompanied. Maps gradually came to stand on their own as independent works, instead of mere supplements to texts.
Among the first maps in Christian Europe to reveal a new character are those by Pietro Vesconte (fl.
These maps of Italy use the coastal outline from portolan charts as the basis for a general map of the area, showing mountains, rivers and inland towns. The world map included in this volume was made by Vesconte who used his knowledge of sea charts in the crafting of this work. Pietro Vesconte, in his mappamundi drawn for Marino Sanudoa€™s Secreta fidelium crucis, tried to combine the two types into one image. The Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts, with (in the east) the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, are no longer an unrecognizable pattern of shapes that can be identified only by names attached to them; instead they are drawn just as in a normal portolan chart. The map however cannot be considered as a T-O type but akin to the Ptolemaic model of the world, having been rotated 90 degrees. Northern Europe is show as a densely populated area with many legends of towns and provinces.
The flat-bottomed circular sea enveloped by mountains is named Mare Caspiu [the Caspian Sea]. The unnamed mountain range running between the Black Sea and the arrow-like Caspian Sea can only be the Caucasus Mountain range. To the left of the red inscription Asia there is a vertically standing rectangle resting on the mountain range, bearing the label Archa Noe [Noaha€™s Ark]. To the west of Armenia, south of the Black Sea the region is divided into various strips of land starting at the top with Persida, Asia Minor and followed by Bitia [Bithynia]. Africa occupies most of the southern hemisphere and does bear the basic geographical features such as the Gulf of Guinea and the Cape despite its inaccurate shape. From Rouben Galichiana€™s Countries South of the Caucasus in Medieval Maps: Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan the text surrounding the map provides explanatory comments about various provinces and their features.
The map sees the first mention of the name Georgia, though there is a reference to Colchis (or Abkhazia), indicating that the latter may not yet have been entirely annexed with the kingdom of Georgia. The chronicle compiled by the Minorite friar Paulinus dates from about the same time (ca.1320). Besides his world map, the most interesting of the medieval maps of Palestine was also drawn by Vesconte in about 1320. Fine example of this rare portolan map of the World, the earliest surviving printed evidence of Pietro Vescontea€™s world map created circa 1311, generally considered to be one of the earliest surviving examples of a modern map of the world. This mappamundi is, in essence, a portolano of the Mediterranean world combined with work of pre-portolan type in remoter regions. Its basic form also conforms to fundamental medieval conceptions of geography, in that it is oriented with East at the top and shows Jerusalem at the center of the World. The present printed version of the map shown above appeared in Germany in the early 17th century. Vescontea€™s portolan of the eastern Mediterranean (1311), is the oldest known signed and dated map. Twenty-three surviving examples of Sanudoa€™s manuscript work are known to exist, all of which date from the 14th Century.
Vescontea€™s most important sea chart atlases were produced in 1313, 1318, 1321 and 1322 and are kept in Bibliotheque National de France, Rel.
Brincken, Anna-Dorothee van den, a€?Das geographische Weltbild um 1300,a€? in Peter Moraw (ed.), Das geographische Weltbild um 1300. Vesconte world map, 1320, 35 cm diameter, oriented with East at the topa€?British Library, Additional MS. This world map is painted using colors fairly typical of the medieval period.A  The oceans, seas and rivers are in green, the saw-tooth mountains in brown, the major cities represented by crowns and castles are in red, and the landmasses are in white.
Vesconte world map, 1320, 35 cm diameter, oriented with East at the topBritish Library, Additional MS. DESCRIPTION: This is the largest map of its kind to have survived in tact and in good condition from such an early period of cartography. These place names are in Lincolnshire (Holdingham and Sleaford are the modern forms), and this Richard has been identified as one Richard de Bello, prebend of Lafford in Lincoln Cathedral about the year 1283, who later became an official of the Bishop of Hereford, and in 1305 was appointed prebend of Norton in Hereford Cathedral. While the map was compiled in England, names and descriptions were written in Latin, with the Norman dialect of old French used for special entries. Here, my dear Son, my bosom is whence you took flesh Here are my breasts from which you sought a Virgina€™s milk.
The other three figures consist of a woman placing a crown on the Virgin Mary and two angels on their knees in supplication. Still within this decorative border, in the left-hand bottom corner, the Roman Emperor Caesar Augustus is enthroned and crowned with a papal triple tiara and delivers a mandate with his seal attached, to three named commissioners. In the right-hand bottom corner an unidentified rider parades with a following forester holding a pair of greyhounds on a leash. The geographical form and content of the Hereford map is derived from the writings of Pliny, Solinus, Augustine, Strabo, Jerome, the Antonine Itinerary, St.
As is traditional with the T-O design, there is the tripartite division of the known world into three continents: Europe, Asia, and Africa. EUROPE: When we turn to this area of the Hereford map we would expect to find some evidence of more contemporary 13th century knowledge and geographic accuracy than was seen in Africa or Asia, and, to some limited extent, this theory is true. France, with the bordering regions of Holland and Belgium is called Gallia, and includes all of the land between the Rhine and the Pyrenees.
Norway and Sweden are shown as a peninsula, divided by an arm of the sea, though their size and position are misrepresented. On the other side of Europe, Iceland, the Faeroes, and Ultima Tile are shown grouped together north of Norway, perhaps because the restricting circular limits of the map did not permit them to be shown at a more correct distance. The British Isles are drawn on a larger scale than the neighboring parts of the continent, and this representation is of special interest on account of its early date. On the Hereford map, the areas retain their Latin names, Britannia insula and Hibernia, Scotia, Wallia, and Cornubia, and are neatly divided, usually by rivers, into compartments, North and South Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, England, and Scotland. THE MEDITERRANEAN: The Mediterranean, conveniently separating the three continents of Asia, Africa and Europe, teems with islands associated with legends of Greece and Rome. Mythical fire-breathing creature with wings, scales and claws; malevolent in west, benevolent in east. 4.A A  For bibliographical information on these and other (including lost) cartographical exemplars, see Westrem, The Hereford Map, p. 10.A A  For bibliographical information for editions and translations of the source texts, see Westrem, The Hereford Map, p.
11.A A  More detailed analysis of these data can be found in my a€?Lessons from Legends on the Hereford Mappa Mundi,a€? Hereford Mappa Mundi Conference proceedings volume being edited by Barber and Harvey (see n. 16.A A  Danubius oritur ab orientali parte Reni fluminis sub quadam ecclesia, et progressus ad orientem, . 23.A A  The a€?standarda€? Latin forms of these place-names and the modern English equivalents are those recorded in the Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, ed. From the time when it was first mentioned as being in Hereford Cathedral in 1682, until a relatively short time ago, the Hereford Mappamundi was almost entirely the preserve of antiquaries, clergymen with an interest in the middle ages and some historians of cartography. FROM THE TIME when it was first mentioned as being in Hereford Cathedral in 1682, until a relatively short time ago, the Hereford Mappamundi was almost entirely the preserve of antiquaries, clergymen with an interest in the middle ages and some historians of cartography.
Details from the Hereford map of the Blemyae and the Psilli.a€? Typical of the strange creatures or 'Wonders of the East' derived by Richard of Haldingham from classical sources and placed in Ethiopia.
Equally important work was also being done on medieval and Renaissance world maps as a genre, particularly by medievalists such as Anna-Dorothee von den Brincken and Jorg-Geerd Arentzen in Germany and by Juergen Schulz, primarily an art historian, and David Woodward, a leading historian of cartography, in the United States. The Hereford World Map is the only complete surviving English example of a type of map which was primarily a visualization of all branches of knowledge in a Christian framework and only secondly a geographical object. After the fall of the Roman empire in the 5th century, monks and scholars struggled desperately to preserve from destruction by pagan barbarians the flotsam and jetsam of classical history and learning; to consolidate them and to reconcile them with Christian teaching and biblical history. There would have been several models to choose from, corresponding to the widely differing cartographic traditions inside the Roman Empire, but it seems that the commonest image descended from a large map of the known world that was created for a portico lining the Via Flaminia near the Capitol in Rome during Christ's lifetime. Recent writers such as Arentzen have suggested that, simply because of their sheer availability, from an early date different versions of this map may have been used to illustrate texts by scholars such as St. Eventually some of the information from the texts became incorporated into the maps themselves, though only sparingly at first. A broad similarity in coastlines with the Hereford map is clear in the Anglo-Saxon [Cottonian] World Map, c.1000 (#210), but there are no illustrations of animals other than the lion (top left). The resulting maps ranged widely in shape and appearance, some being circular, others square. A few maps of the inhabited world were much more detailed, though keeping to the same broad structure and symbolism.
Most of these earlier maps were book illustrations, none were particularly big and the maps were always considered to need textual amplification. From about 1100, however, we know from contemporary descriptions in chronicles and from the few surviving inventories that larger world maps were produced on parchment, cloth and as wall paintings for the adornment of audience chambers in palaces and castles as well as, probably, of altars in the side chapels of religious buildings. A separate written text of an encyclopedic nature, probably written by the map's intellectual creator, however, was still intended to accompany many if not all these large maps and one may originally have accompanied the Hereford world map. These maps seem largely to have been inspired by English scholars working at home or in Europe. The most striking novelty, however, was the vastly increased number of depictions of peoples, animals, and plants of the world copied from illustrations in contemporary handbooks on wildlife, commonly called bestiaries and herbals. Mentions in contemporary records and chronicles, such as those of Matthew Paris, make it plain that these large world maps were once relatively common. At about the same time that this map was being created, Henry III, perhaps after consultation with Gervase, who had visited him in 1229, commissioned wall maps to hang in the audience chambers of his palaces in Winchester and Westminster.


The Hereford Mappamundi is the only full size survivor of these magnificent, encyclopedic English-inspired maps. An inscription in Norman-French at the bottom left attributes the map to Richard of Haldingham and Sleaford.
Going forward, we invite you to visit the Readouts blog to download each week’s free eBook (you’ll find it labeled under a sharp-looking green banner), and enjoy outstanding book and magazine excerpts in an array of categories! She’s secretly searching for her father and answers to questions that could destroy a family. Ever since the failure of his first marriage, he promised never to listen to his heart again.
But when a mysterious illness threatens her aunt’s life, Kristyl will do anything to cure her. Survivors attempt to rebuild from the black typhus outbreak of 2020, which nearly ended the human race. But then an unexpected gift wins him a scholarship to an exclusive boys’ school, and his life will never be the same again. Is he the son of Arthur Clifton, a stevedore who spent his whole life on the docks, or the firstborn son of a scion of West Country society, whose family owns a shipping line?
From the docks of working-class England to the bustling streets of 1940 New York City, ONLY TIME WILL TELL takes readers on a journey through to future volumes, which will bring to life one hundred years of recent history to reveal a family story that neither the reader nor Harry Clifton himself could ever have imagined.
As their affair heats up, they soon realize they complete each other in ways neither imagined.
I don’t think anyone is more amazed than I am by the wonderful response the books have received all over the world. But if I’m in that lovely place in life where I can sink deep in a book without there being changes I need to make to my website or decisions I need to make about travel or edits I have to go over that have come in, and I can focus entirely on it, I’ll write eight to sixteen hours a day (yes, I said sixteen—I can get obsessed).
I’m a killer hand at making salads so usually I try to fit the healthy in while my mind is occupied and I make a big salad mid-day. I’m seriously excited about seeing the response as my hero, Nick, has been in the previous books of that series and he’s not been that great of a guy. This made it a super-cool experience to watch the story unfold to the end I knew it would have.
Both of these books swept me away with their epic storytelling, made me laugh until I cried and cry until I sobbed.
I try with my writing, and I hope I succeed to some extent, but I feel in my heart it’s nowhere near the marvelous experience I got from these two books.
And in noting that, I could say I’d easily read hundreds of romances prior to finding the sublime of Ms. I went back and devoured everything she wrote and then waited very impatiently for each new book to come out. You can define a main character splendidly with the people around them who are loyal, she taught me that.
I have a different voice, but I try to pay attention to absolutely everything too, all in order to try to tell a rounded, comprehensive, funny, touching story. We were on vacation visiting my dad’s best bud in Massachusetts and we all went to see the movie together, Dad, Joel, my brother and sister and me. He’s a movie guy and together we had Bad News Bears, Rocky, Raiders of the Lost Arc…movies and good memories with my father, big sis and little bro. I tend not to be able to write with distractions (that’s not true, I don’t tend toward that, I can’t have any distractions), including noise or people around me, so I write in my quiet office over the garage with my view of Camelback mountain. I don’t outline, I’m a seat-of-her-pants writer, going with the flow of the story that the characters are giving to me.
As asked prior to submission, I’d read some books from authors in her stable and I felt (my opinion only, obviously ?) that mine fit perfectly.
The ships are old, failing, and every colonist must do their duty to ensure the fleet’s survival. It all may sound easy, but the physics puzzles involve bizarre objects like crossbows, catapults, fountains and volcanoes — and it all makes for truly addictive gameplay. Its premium construction andscratch-resistant polymer screen mean it’s built to last. Guided by his real-life mentor, Papa Rudy (Ben Kingsley), and aided by an unlikely band of international recruits, Petit and his gang overcome long odds, betrayals, dissension and countless close calls to conceive and execute their mad plan. Previously published as TO REACH THE CLOUDS: MY HIGH WIRE WALK BETWEEN THE TWIN TOWERS, it draws on Petit’s own journals, in which he sketched and scribbled everything from his budgets to his strategies for rigging a high wire between two of the most secure towers in the world.
He would never have guessed that he’d find himself in the center of an international scandal involving a U.S.
She’s in her early forties, her kids have gone to college, her marriage feels empty, her cable TV cooking show has lost its sense of inspiration, and she longs to leave the West Coast for New York. The beginning of the school year brings on excitement and nerves for kids as well as their parents.
And Katie’s first case is the murder of a young business woman who, according to video surveillance, has been strangled by a seemingly invisible attacker. Now she must find a way to use the system, her wits, and her instincts to defeat an enemy as powerful as the system itself.
The commentaries and learned notes (scholia) added to the texts formed the basis of further alterations to the maps.
They became an essential part of the collections in monastic libraries, in whose catalogues we commonly find, from the ninth century onward, at least one such independent map. A A copy was also offered to the King of France, to whom Sanuto desired to commit the military and political leadership of the new crusade. On this copy he even drew rosettes, which are standard feature in the portolan sea charts but are scarcely used outside the sea chart tradition. The maps were in fact long thought to be the work of Marino Sanuto [also spelled a€?Sanudoa€?] himself. Notwithstanding its raison da€™etre (urging the European rulers to organize a new crusade) it stands bereft of any religious content. Norwegia is a peninsula and Anglia, Scotia and Hybernia are shown as islands in the North Sea. Situated between this and the Black Sea [Mare Pontos] there is another arrow-like lake, which bears the legend a€?marea€? only. At its intersection with the second mountain range the vignette of a large gate reads Porte Forree [Iron Gates, the name given to the Caspian Gates by the Persians, Turks, Armenians and others]. The eastern end of this mountain range is called Montes Caspii [Caspian Mountains] while towards its western extremity it is identified as Taurisius or Taurus mountain range.
Calcedonia, Licaonia, Galatia, Lidia and Frigia minor [Phrygia], Cilicia lies to the south of this region, over the mountains and between the two vignettes of castles. The Nile River has its source in unspecified mountains and flows northwards to the Mediterranean flowing through Egyprus, past numerous castellated towns located on its shores. At the top right of the map, lines two to five and twelve to fourteen from the top describe the peoples, features and location of Armenia. It too contains a world map and a map of Palestine, which closely resemble the work of Pietro Vesconte.
Vescontea€™s map, in its earliest form, survives in a 14th century manuscript work by Marino Sanudo, which was reproduced for the first time in print in Johann Bongarsa€™ Orientalium expeditionum historia.
A The ocean surrounds the known landmasses of the world, while the outer parts are largely conjectural. A Notably, this map, along with Vescontea€™s other work, features the first broadly accurate conceptions of the Mediterranean and Black Seas. A It was produced as part of the greater intellectual movement that flourished in Europe, and in Germany in particular, roughly from 1450 to 1650, during which scholars, heavily influenced by the enlightened ethic of Humanism, sought to acquire, preserve and learn from the most progressive elements of Classical and Medieval thought. As evident on the present map, Vesconte was the first mapmaker to accurately maps the Mediterranean and Black Seas, and his depiction of Great Britain was a marked improvement over his predecessors. 20121 Kings 8:28 -- But please listen to my prayer and my request, because I am your servant. The circle of the world is set in a somewhat rectangular frame background with a pointed top, and an ornamented border of a zig-zag pattern often found in psalter-maps of the period (#223). Show pity, as you said you would, on all Who their devotion paid to me for you made me Savioress.
Olympus and such cities as Athens and Corinth; the Delphic oracle, misnamed Delos, is represented by a hideous head.
James (Roxburghe Club) 1929, with representations from manuscripts in the British Library and the Bodleian Library, and a€?Marvels of the Easta€?, by R.
The upper-left corner of the Hereford Map, showing north and east Asia (compare to the contents on Chart 3).
1), however, call attention to a remarkable degree of accuracy in the relationship of toponymsa€”for cities, rivers, and mountainsa€”both in EMM and in Hereford Map legends.A  On the Asia Minor littoral, for example, one passage in EMM links 39 place-names in a running series, 23 of which are found in Chart 4 (and visible, in almost exactly parallel order, on Fig.
5, above).A  Treating islands separately from the eartha€™s three a€?partsa€? follows the organizational style adopted by Isidore of Seville, Honorius Augustodunensis, and other medieval geographical authorities.
Note Lincoln on its hill and Snowdon ('Snawdon'), Caernarvon and Conway in Wales, referring to the castles Edward I was building there when the map was being created.
In England, a detailed study of its less obvious features, such as the sequences of its place names and some of its coastal outlines by G. The Psilli reputedly tested the virtue of their wives by exposing their children to serpents. The cumulative effect has been to enable us at last to evaluate the map in terms of its actual (largely non-geographical and not exclusively religious) purpose, the age in which it was created and in the context of the general development of European cartography. The Old and New Testaments contained few doctrinal implications for geography, other than a bias in favor of an inhabited world consisting of three interlinked continents containing descendants of Noah's three sons. This now-lost map was referred to in some detail by a number of classical writers and it seems to have been created under the direction of Emperor Augustus's son-in-law, Vipsanius Agrippa (63-12 BC) for official purposes.
As the centuries went by, more and more was included with references to places associated with events in classical history and legend (particularly fictionalized tales about Alexander the Great) and from biblical history with brief notes on and the very occasional illustration of natural history.
Note also the Roman provincial boundaries, the relative accuracy of the British coastlines (lower left) and the attention paid to the Balkans and Denmark, with which Saxon England had close contacts. Some, often oriented to the north, attempted to show the whole world in zones, with the inhabited earth occupying the zone between the equator and the frozen north. They were never intended to convey purely geographical information or to stand alone without explanatory text.
Often a 'context' for them would have been provided by the other secular as well as religious surrounding decorations. For many maps continued to be used primarily for educational, including theological, purposes. They reached their fullest development in the thirteenth century when Englishmen like Roger Bacon, John of Holywood (Sacrobosco), Robert Grosseteste and Matthew Paris were playing an inordinately large part in creative geographical thinking in Europe.
In most, if not all of these maps, the strange peoples or 'Marvels of the East' are shown occupying Ethiopia on the right (southern) edge, as on the Hereford map. Exposure to light, fire, water, and religious bigotry or indifference over the centuries has, however, led to the destruction of most of them. Both are now lost but it seems quite likely that the so-called 'Psalter Map', produced in London in the early 1260s and now owned by the British Library, is a much reduced copy of the map that hung in Westminster Palace. Despite some broad similarities in arrangement and content, however, there are very considerable differences from the Ebstorf and the 'Westminster Palace' maps in details - like the precise location of wildlife, the portrayal of some coastlines and islands, or in the recent information incorporated. Our Free Fridays eBooks will be as readily available as ever via our website, the NOOK app on your mobile phone, and our accounts on Facebook, Twitter, and Google+. Enjoy an engaging story with interesting characters as they fight to defend the earth from a formidable enemy. And Clearwater High’s chief mean-girl, Crystal Jamison, has her sights set on Kristyl and will stop at nothing to prove what Kristyl really is: a witch. Enlisting the help of witches could save Jodi, but is dealing in magic worth the consequences? A genetic discovery during mandatory government testing forces the parents of Lilly Rose to choose between training and qualifying for the Ceremonial Guard or serving two years of hard labor in the mines as a locator.
This doesn’t mean I won’t pull out the cashews, almonds or grab some hummus and pita chips when I’m feeling peckish. I felt his pull to get his own book and I couldn’t deny that pull, but I also didn’t know how it was going to go because I didn’t like him all that much (read: at all).
But I read it with very little serious erotica experience and pretty much no BDSM erotica experience.
So I owe her gratitude for many hours of happy reading (and rereading, and rereading) as well as being an inspiration to give my all to tell a beautiful love story. I was very young when it came out but I could feel the excitement of my dad when we walked out of that cinema after having watched that movie. But as I’m writing, I do jot copious notes about characters, places in a book, action, what loops I’ll need to be sure to close, things I need to remember.
I then submitted it (or chapters of it) to every agent and publisher that I could find through my vast research at the library (this was before the Internet was as prevalent as it is now). Once in a while, someone would tell me I had “something” and encourage me not to stop writing, but they didn’t pick me up. All she wants is a little control over her life, but the oppressive sublevel enforcers ensure that’s not an option.
The film is a love letter to Paris and New York City in the 1970s, but most of all, to the Towers of the World Trade Center.
It is a fitting tribute to those lost-but-not-forgotten symbols of human aspiration—the Twin Towers. These cars are waiting for a caring dentist and this game has all the tools to help you do a great job. The living room, where the family gets together, the dining room, where you eat together, the bathroom, where you brush your teeth before bed, and many more. He was a Genoese cartographer and one of the earliest creators of portolan [nautical] charts. This is large propaganda volume, was written on vellum and includes many miniatures and vignettes of the Crusaders and their battles with the Saracens. The region of the Mediterranean, whose accurate portolan charts already existed, is depicted in true detail but the rest of the world is shown in very approximate form and shape. Later, however, a copy of the Liber secretorum was discovered with the signature of Pietro Vesconte and the date 1320, and he is now considered the author of the maps in place of Sanuto, who was not known as a cartographer. While much of his production is conventional, his world map for Sanudoa€™s crusader manuscript departs dramatically from earlier examples, seeking to combine the mathematical system and new land-shapes of the portolan charts with the contained, circular, Jerusalem-centered format of most mappaemundi. On this map we do not see mythical and Biblical creatures or other Christian features such as the Earthly Paradise or the rivers of Paradise and here, for the first time in medieval world maps the Red Sea is not colored red and does not standout. This should in fact be the Caspian Sea, since to its south the legends read Caspia and Yrcania, two provinces located south of the Caspian Sea.
For the first time in medieval western maps this passage, also known as the Caspian Gates, has been shown in as correct position, namely on the western shore of the Caspian Sea. Two lines further down there is a description regarding Georgia beginning with: Kingdom of Georgia has a large white mountain at its east, and to its south lies Armenia.
Some differences in detail occur; for example, though both the Vatican copy and the Paris copy have two Caspian Seas, in the Vatican copy they are the same shape, while in the Paris copy the western Caspian corresponds to the later form of the Catalan maps.
1450): it illustrated a book by Marino Sanuto that urged a new crusade to re-conquer the Holy Land, now entirely lost to the Christians. A True to the medieval conception of the world, the landmasses are about equally balanced between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. A These scholars sought to go ad fontes, or a€?to the original sourcea€™ of the knowledge, or as close to it as possible. Vescontea€?s world maps were circular in format and oriented with East to the top, although most of the fabulous elements so common to early world maps have been omitted, Prester John, the mythical Christian king occasionally located in Ethiopia, does manage to appear on Vescontea€™s map and has been a€?re-locateda€? to India. In Phrygia there is born an animal called bonnacon; it has a bulla€™s head, horsea€™s mane and curling horns, when chased it discharges dung over an extent of three acres which burns whatever it touches.
India also has the largest elephants, whose teeth are supposed to be of ivory; the Indians use them in war with turrets (howdahs) set on them.
The linx sees through walls and produces a black stonea€” a valuable carbuncle in its secret parts.
A tiger when it sees its cub has been stolen chases the thief at full speed; the thief in full flight on a fast horse drops a mirror in the track of the tiger and so escapes unharmed.
Agriophani Ethiopes eat only the flesh of panthers and lions they have a king with only one eye in his forehead.
Men with doga€™s heads in Norway; perhaps heads protected with furs made them resemble dogs. Essendones live in Scythia it is their custom to carry out the funeral of their parents with singing and collecting a company of friends to devour the actual corpses with their teeth and make a banquet mingled with the flesh of animals counting it more glorious to be consumed by them than by worms. Solinus: they occupy the source of the Ganges and live only on the scent of apples of the forest if they should perceive any smell they die instantly.
Himantopodes; they creep with crawling legs rather than walk they try to proceed by sliding rather than by taking steps.
The Monocoli in India are one-legged and swift when they want to be protected from the heat of the sun they are shaded by the size of their foot. Flint, a€?The Hereford Map:A  Its Author(s), Two Scenes and a Border,a€? Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th ser. Nevertheless, it placed a somewhat misleading emphasis on the map's geographical 'inaccuracies', its depiction of fabulous creatures and supposedly religious purpose, all clothed in what for the layman must have seemed an air of wildly esoteric learning and near-impenetrable medieval mystery. Recent research suggests this is a reference to African traders in medicinal drugs who visited ancient Rome.


Today, with the map in the headlines of the popular press, it may be time to give a brief resume of what is currently known about it and to attempt to explain some of its more important features in the light of recent research. In the eyes of some (but by no means all) theologians, a fourth inhabited continent, the Antipodes, would implicitly have denied the descent of mankind from Noah, and the depiction of such a continent was deemed to be heretical by them.
It was based on survey and on military itineraries and reflected the political and administrative realities of the time. Where space allowed, reference was also made to important contemporary towns, regions, and geographical features such as freshly-opened mountain passes. Most of the maps, however, like the Hereford Mappamundi, depicted only that part of the world that was known in classical times to be inhabited and they were oriented with east at the top. Traces of the maps' classical origins could regularly be seen in, for instance, the continued depiction of the provincial boundaries of the Roman Empire (which are partly visible on the Hereford map) and for many centuries by the island of Delos which had been sacred to the early Greeks being the centre of the inhabited world. They and the texts that they adorned continued to be copied by hand until late in the 15th century and are to be found in early printed books. God dominates the world and the 'Marvels of the East' occupy the lower right edge of the map, as they do on the Hereford map.
Together they would have provided a propaganda backdrop for the public appearances of the ruler, ruling body, noble or cleric who had commissioned them, and some may have been able to stand alone as visual histories. The Hereford map, as an inscription at the lower left corner tells us, was certainly intended for use as a visual encyclopedia, to be 'heard, read and seen' by onlookers.
Because of the maps' size, they were able to include far more information and illustration than their predecessors. More space was also found for current political references and information derived from contemporary military, religious and commercial itineraries. Today, the earliest survivor, dating from the beginning of the thirteenth century, is a badly damaged example now in Vercelli Cathedral, probably having been brought to Italy in about 1219 by a papal legate returning from England. We know from Matthew Paris that the Westminster map was copied by others, and it is likely to have had a lasting influence even though the original was destroyed in 1265. A Latin legend in the bottom right corner of the Hereford map refers to the 5th century Christian propagandist Orosius as the main source for the map, but as we have already seen, it incorporates information from numerous ancient and thirteenth century sources and adds its own interpretations of them.
The map is an outstanding example of a map type that had evolved over the preceding eight centuries. We thank you for your continued readership, and hope that you’ll enjoy that our Free Fridays NOOK books will now have a great home among Readouts’ fantastic free excerpts of today’s bestsellers and modern classics within a wealth of genres.
Solving various quests and gathering the clues just like in other classic hidden object games you’ll find outlines of musical scores for your music box and reveal exclusive puzzles where you have to recreate masterpieces of classical and modern music out of smaller pieces.
But any future with Riley must include him dealing his half-brother who is a constant reminder of the pain he’d rather forget. You can write three hundred books, win all kind of awards, have millions of readers—but when people hear you have a movie coming out, they go nuts. Though while reading Jill’s It Had to Be You in that same series, Lucky Harbor, I had to put the book down because I was cackling hysterically (so I’ll cheat more and add that). And just to say, there’s a good deal in that book that might be out of the comfort zone for some with that kind of reading experience, but in Joey’s capable hands and with her stellar writing and exceptional storytelling, I felt very safe—it was delicious. Therefore, I knew I’d just experienced something special, something exceptional, something that would change the world (or the movie world) as we knew it. All this made better being with Dad on vacation—life was good, there were no worries, just our family, friends, the promise of lobster, a fabulous movie…and a great memory. Who would’ve guessed her principal would be in the audience of the strip club that hired her? But when her principal’s murder intersects with her new job, this gum-shoe learns fast that she knows nothing about catching bad guys. If you want to see various cars’ expressions during treatment and if you want to play a distinctive dentist game, learn to be a Car Dentist! Lydia reminds her so much of herself a decade or so past, and her husband, who hardly likes anything, likes Lydia as well. To prevent Ragnarok, Magnus must search the Nine Worlds for a weapon that has been lost for thousands of years. He operated primarily out of Venice, and greatly influenced Italian and Catalan mapmaking throughout the 14th and 15th centuries.
One of the paintings on folio 7r is that of the Crusader forces meeting King Leo of Armenia (Cilician Armenia) and the prisoners of the Armenian king.
As mentioned above, Sanutoa€™s work was written to induce the kings of Europe to undertake another crusade against the Turks, and so the following maps accompanied it: a world map, maps of the Black Sea, the Mediterranean, the western coast of Europe and Palestine, plans of Jerusalem, and Ptolemais [Acre and Antioch].
In this map, the influence of the portolan charts can be seen at a glance: in contrast with the amorphous forms of Asia and southern Africa (familiar in many other medieval mappaemundi), the Mediterranean world is instantly recognizable and proportionate, clearly copied directly from the outlines of a portolan chart. In fact the map has rather more Islamic religious content, such as in Arabia, the Islamic religious centers of Mecca [Mecha] and Baghdad [Baldac], all shown red. The river Tanay [Tanais = Don] is shown flowing from a northern mountain range into the Sea of Azov.
It follows that the true identity of the flat-bottomed sea above should have been the Sea of Aral, situated in western central Asia, with Bactria shown on its shores.
In southwest Asia the following toponyms stand out Arabia (red), Mecha [Mecca red], Baldac [Baghdad. Cartographically, however, it was far more sophisticated than Hardinga€™s map, though more than a century older.
A The Arabian peninsula, Black Sea and Caspian Sea are in a recognizable form, and the name Georgia appears above the Caucus Mountains.
A As is the case with the antecedent of the present map, most of these sources existed only in manuscript form, available in a single or with very few examples. From its literal meaning in Greek it also signifies the plant ox-tongue, so called from its shape and roughness of its leaves.
Conventionally holds a mirror in one hand, combing lovely hair with the other According to myth created by Ea, Babylonian water god. The large city at the top edge is Babylon (its description is the map's longest legend [A§181).
12-30.A  The conservator Christopher Clarkson drew my attention to the gouge in the Mapa€™s former frame. Talbert (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), which I employ throughout my book, but with the caution that in dealing with the manuscript culture of medieval Europe, it is misleading and anachronistic to speak of a€?standarda€? or a€?correcta€? spellings, especially of geographical words. Casual visitors to the dark aisle where it hung could see only a dark, dirty image which they were encouraged to view in a pious, but also rather condescending manner. Crone of the Royal Geographical Society, revealed that despite the antiquity of many of the map's sources much was almost contemporary with the map's creation and was secular. Much of the text that follows is an amplification of information panels and leaflets prepared for the British Library's current display of the map. Most medieval mapmakers seem to have accepted this constraint, but world maps showing four continents are not uncommon: notably the world maps created by Beatus of Liebana (#207) in the late 8th century to illustrate his Commentary on the Apocalypse of St.
It may have incorporated information from an earlier survey commissioned by Julius Caesar and, to judge from some early references, it may originally have shown four continents. These texts owed much to classical writers, particularly Pliny the Elder (23-79), who himself derived much of his information from still earlier writers such as the fifth century BC Greek historian Herodotus.
As befitted the encyclopedic texts that they illustrated, the maps became visual encyclopedias of human and divine knowledge and not mere geographical maps.
Many were purely schematic and symbolic, showing a T, representing the Mediterranean, the Don and the Nile, surrounded by an 0, for the great ocean encircling the world, sometimes with a fourth continent being added.
It was only from about 1120 that Jerusalem took Oclos' place as the focal point of the map, as it does on the Hereford Mappamundi.
They retained and expanded the geographical and historical elements of the older maps - coastlines, layout and place names on the maps frequently reveal their ancestry - but to them they added several novel features. Inscriptions of varying lengths amplified the pictures and sometimes contained references to their sources. Much better preserved, until its destruction in 1943, was the famous Ebstorf world map of about 1235. It is difficult to account otherwise for the striking similarities in detailed arrangement and content between the Psalter world map, the recently discovered 'Duchy of Cornwall' fragment (probably commissioned in about 1285 by a cousin of Edward I for his foundation, Ashridge College in Hertfordshire) and the Aslake world map fragments of about 1360. In many of its details it particularly resembles the Anglo-Saxon World Map of about 1000 and the twelfth century Henry of Mainz world map in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.
We will be posting a link to the Readouts page presenting next Friday’s free book in this NOOK Blog space next week, but we recommend bookmarking the page and visiting B&N Readouts daily for the best in free reading! Conflicted Lilly Rose must choose between the strict principles of her parents, and the burning desire to be with musician Wes Ashby. I have no idea how many submissions I actually sent, for that book and others that would follow (this was because I didn’t stop writing). When an attack by fire giants forces him to choose between his own safety and the lives of hundreds of innocents, Magnus makes a fatal decision. Some consider him as the first professional cartographer to sign and date his works regularly. The king himself is shown surrounded by symbols of various rulers neighboring Cilicia, namely the Lion in the north (Mongols), the Wolf in the west (the Turks), the Serpent in the south and the Leopard in the east. Even more striking is the network of lines that are drawn in a sixteen-point wind-rose that encircles the whole earth.
For the first time in western medieval cartography, the region of Georgia appears entitled as such.
These differences of detail between the maps in contemporaneous manuscripts of Marino Sanuto and Paulinus can only be explained by assuming that two scribes copied Vescontea€™s map, adding to it from different sources.
The ocean surrounds the whole of the known world, the outer parts of which are represented by conjecture. A SomeA idea is also shown of the great continental rivers of the north, such as the Don, Volga, Vistula, Oxus and Syr Daria.
A The great achievement of this period was to preserve and liberate this knowledge through the printing press. Crone points out that this reference has special significance because Augustus had also entrusted his son-in-law, M. Sometimes identified with Sirens, the mythical enchantresses along coasts of the Mediterranean, who lured sailors to destruction by their singing. Amazon means a€?without a breast,a€? according to tradition these women removed the right breast to use the bow. At the right edge, a looping line shows the route of the wandering Israelites in their Exodus from Egypt; it crosses the Jordan to the left of a naked woman who looks over her shoulder at the sinking cities of Sodom and Gomorrah in the Dead Sea (she is Lot's wife, turned into a pillar of salt [A§254]. 400), a text that was often attended during the Middle Ages by diagrammatic a€?mapsa€? illustrating the concept.A  See also David Woodward. Others delved into the question of its authorship, which had previously been assumed to be obvious from the wording on the map itself. The medievalized depiction on the bottom left corner of the Hereford world map of 'Caesar Augustus' commissioning a survey of the world from three surveyors representing the three corners of the world may be based on a muddled - and religiously acceptable - memory of these classical events. Even though the inscriptions on the maps gradually became more and more garbled and the information more and more embellished, distorted, and misunderstood, they nevertheless retained their tenuous links with ancient learning.
More than simple geographical shorthand, such maps were also meant to symbolize the crucifixion, the descent of man from Noah's three sons and the ultimate triumph of Christianity. Palestine itself was usually enlarged far beyond what, on a modern map, would have been its actual proportions.
A note on one of the most famous of them, the Ebstorf, says that it could be used for route planning.
Although the maps were still dominated by biblical and classical history and legend, most other information seems to have been acceptable and was accommodated within the traditional framework. Far larger than the Hereford Word Map and much more colorful, it was probably created under the guidance of the itinerant English lawyer, teacher and diplomat, Gervase of Tilbury.
In transmission some facts and text became garbled and some inscriptions are gobbled gook or wrong.
Correctly composed melodies will lead you to the mystery’s revelation and unlock new game mode. He uses an exact copy of one of the rhumb-line networks that covered half of a portolan chart to grid the space of the entire world, rather than just one part as in the portolan charts.
The region of Albania, which should have been near Georgia, is shifted to the upper left corner of the map, near the surrounding ocean, which is outside the area cowered by the detail map. The rivers and mountains were drawn in with less precision and they differ somewhat in the seven surviving copies of the book. The authorship of Marino Sanudo is not definitively established and the original manuscript map has also been attributed to Pietro Vesconte. A The portolan tradition was perhaps the most technically advanced element of medieval geography, and early modern scholars held it in high esteem.
The circle one-third of the way from the bottom is Jerusalem, the Map's central point, with a crucifixion scene above it ([A§387-89]). Its images and decoration have been examined from a stylistic standpoint by Nigel Morgan and put into the context of their time, while the late Wilma George examined the animals in the light of her own zoological knowledge [2] The chance discoveries of fragments of other English medieval world maps in recent years [3] have expanded the context within which the Hereford World Map can be examined, and the Royal Academy exhibition, 'The Age of Chivalry' of 1987 enabled the map to be displayed in the company of other non-cartographic artifacts of its own time. Generally, though, it was not difficult to adapt surviving copies of existing, secular world maps to suit the purposes of Christian writers from the 5th century onwards. This was in order to match its historical importance and to accommodate all the information that had to be conveyed. Christ would, for instance, be shown dominating the world, or the world might even be depicted as the actual body of Christ. The world was shown as the body of Christ and much space was devoted to the political situation in northern Germany: an area of particular concern to the Duke who may have commissioned it. When tragedy forces her to move to the small town of Clearwater, Michigan, with her estranged aunt Jodi, Kristyl tries to leave her past behind. The grid, however, no longer holds any indexical significance outside of the small corner of the map that has been drawn from the portolan charts. This may seem to us an entirely normal and rational way to set out a map, but in the 14th century it represented an enormous conceptual leap, and confirms that Vesconte was a man of skill and imagination. Carte marine et portulan au XIIe siA?cle:A  Le Liber de existencia riveriarum et forma maris nostri Mediterranei. The amount of space dedicated to the other parts of the world varied according to their traditional historical or biblical importance and the preoccupations of the author of the text that the map illustrated. She makes friends and catches the attention of Owen Marsh, who accepts her without question and who may be able to understand her better than anyone. His work falls within the period 1310-30; the name a€?Perrino Vescontea€™, which appears on one atlas and one chart, may be his own, using a diminutive form, or that of another member of his family. The rest is a strange hybrid that would have provided little navigational assistance to any traveler.
Where he (or Sanuto) got the necessary information, the list locating the towns, we do not know; both this and the grid may derive from Arab sources, and a more remote connection with grid-based maps in China is not impossible. A While the present printed edition of the map is uncommon, it is nevertheless responsible for creating and maintaining the scholarly awareness of this important map throughout Europe and beyond. Behind the blue band of the river is a grim array of grotesque figures to indicate the existence of primitive peoples.
There may be significance in the soulless mermaid placed in the map close to the unattainable Holy Land, or she may be a possible temptation to sea-faring pilgrims.
Phillott, wrote that it shows a a€?rejection of all that savoured of scientific geography, . Because of this, space devoted to the author or patron's homeland was often much exaggerated when judged by modern standards, as in the case of England, Wales and Ireland on the Hereford Mappa Mundi. Crone demonstrated, the Hereford also contains sequences of the more important place names along some major thirteenth century commercial and pilgrimage routes. Vesconte was one of the few people in Europe before 1400 to see the potential of cartography and to apply its techniques with imagination. The rhumb lines claim for this new map a kind of symbolic empirical authority, when in actuality the points on the rhumb-circle do little more than indicate the positions of the winds (much like the circular wind-faces depicted along the edges of the world in a work like the Psalter map, #223 Book II).
On a world map, though, as opposed to the strip itinerary maps produced by Matthew Paris in about 1250, the route planning could only have been very approximate and very much incidental to the main purposes. As can be seen in the world maps he drew around 1320 he introduced a heretofore unseen accuracy in the outline of the lands surrounding the Mediterranean and Black Sea, probably because they were taken from the portolan [nautical] charts. What the map actually shows varies little from a traditional mappamundi; what has changed is its implied claim to be modern and accurate in a different sense.
We may suspect that his influence lay behind the maps of Italy in the Great Chronology by Paolino Veneto during the years of 1306 to 1321 that was copied at Naples not long after, for other maps in the same manuscript are related to maps from Vescontea€™s workshop that illustrate Marino Sanudoa€™s book calling for a new crusade. Vescontea€™s map offers a glimpse of the currency that empirical geometry carried at this transitional moment. 14), which may have resulted from the survey of the provinces ascribed by tradition to Julius Caesar. In the Hereford map they could revel in this pictorial description of the outside world, which taught natural history, classical legends, explained the winds and reinforced their religious beliefs.
Vesconte clearly saw in the geometry of the portolan charts an iconic, modern power that could be combined with the forms of a traditional world map to create a new kind of picture. A He is best known for his lifelong attempts to revive the crusading spirit and movement.A  He wrote his great work is entitled Liber secretorem fidelum Crucis, sive de Recuperatio Terrae Sancta [Secret book of the loyalty to the Cross or the Recapture of the Holy Lands], also called Historia Hierosolymitana, Liber de expeditione Terrae Sanctae, and Opus Terrae Sanctae, the last being perhaps the proper title of the whole treatise as completed in three parts or a€?booksa€?.
The two upright fingers branching up from the Mediterranean are the Aegean and the Black Sea with the Golden Fleece at its extremity.



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