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This article selectivelyreviews some episodes in the Mahabharata to identify the crisis and the social policies implicitlyadvocated by the contending Pandavas and Kauravas.
The Pandavas’ proposals helped theirculture survive the crises and became the Dharma for the new age that followed the war. In the last fifty years, scientists have obtained evidence for the tectonic events of about4000 to 5000 years before the present. He who knows it not, knows not the heights and depths of the soul; he misses the trials and tragedy and the beauty and grandeur of life. They grow numerous, the earth cannotsustain them, and the balance between the immortal gods and mortals is upset.
Despite all the virgin lands available, establishing a new settlement does not appear tohave been easy. 10-11), the epics (the Mahabharata and the Ramayana)represent the end of Vedic religion and the beginning of “Brahmanism”.
The Saraswati, formerly considered mythical is now identified with the bed of agreat river visible in satellite photos.
Indra’s efforts torestore the balance results in him being paralyzed and imprisoned with four other prior Indraswho had similarly interfered with Yama. When the Pandavas are given the forested half of the kingdom as their share,they do not establish a small settlement that grows organically into a great city.
Abandoned settlements along this bed have been identifiedand classified as part of the Indus Valley civilization that was discovered in Mohenjo-Daro andHarappa.
All five Indras are then sent to earth to redress thebalance and it was ordained that they marry one woman, an incarnation of Lakshmi. They burn theforest, kill the existing inhabitants, and import an architect to design and build a complete newcity and fort with palaces, buildings, and all. Likemany Indians, he has been fascinated by the Mahabharata since childhood but did little about it.In 1990, he realized that various episodes appeared to illustrate themes explored by theanthropologist Marvin Harris (Harris, 1975) and that this hinted at a continental-scaleenvironmental disaster in the background akin to the planetary-scale “global warming” disasterthat humanity now faces.


The Mahabharata gives an additional divinerationale for burning the forest and killing its inhabitants – the god of Fire comes to Krishna andArjuna and begs them to do this for he has been starved!
He has been exploring the role of religion, both positive and negative,in addressing the crisis, and hopes we can do better this time.Introduction The Great War of the Mahabharata (Vyaasa, 1933-1966) is traditionally considered aDharma-Yuddha, a war to establish the rule of Law. Forced migration to new lands, with attendant deportation of the original inhabitants represented by the two episodes in which the Nagas (“Snakes”) are massacred. We doknow that a thousand years later, by 1000 BCE, the entire Indo-Gangetic plain was denselypopulated by a physically similar people who had developed a way of life and a society that wenow call Hindu. Other religious texts, the Harivamsa (Dutt, 1897) and the Vishnu Purana (Wilson, 2006),though not as old as the Mahabharata, have similar stories.
Vyaasa, the poet, is said to have made parts of the Mahabharata difficult to understand.This seems to be one of those parts.
The problem for the skeptic arises when thedetails of the epic story are examined – one is tempted to exclaim, “Law? That way of life was governed by “Dharma”, usually translated as “Law”.Numerous texts, including the Mahabharata, seek to elucidate the concept of Dharma. The Vishnu Purana depicts Bhumi-devi, Mother Earth, imploring Vishnu to save her for she is overpopulated, the people havebecome evil, and are ruled by criminals. Infanticide controlled population growth, represented by the story of the goddess Ganga drowning her children by Santanu, King of Hastinapur, and grandfather of Pandu and Dhritarashtra.
Vishnu promises that he will be incarnated as Krishna,kill the criminals, and cause a great war to bring down the population. Both thevictors, the Pandavas (the miraculously born sons of Pandu), and the villains (the Kauravas, thenatural sons of Dhritarashtra, Pandu’s brother, named after their common ancestor Kuru) of theepic are shown acting in their own self-interest.
Krishna is not a god inmost of the Mahabharata, though he is a compelling leading character and the popular versions ofmany episodes ascribe miracles to him.
Possibly, the massacre of theinhabitants may have been born of the imagination of a later raconteur, but the Mahabharataleaves no doubt that this was a new city constructed de novo.
Jaatis (endogamous castes) enforced social segregation and controlled consumption, represented by the story of Karna and the multiple times he is rejected and humiliated and the story of Ekalavya.
The dense forests of the south depended on erratic rainfall rather than a steady supply of water from snow-fed rivers and water management was critical. He goes on to encourage Arjuna to fight for what he is doing is Dharma, evenif it does not fit with past interpretations of right behavior. There is little of our commonsensical notions of righteousness or Law oreven Dharma to be found. Forest “commons” that recognized the rights of forest-dwellers and limited the growth of towns, represented by episodes during the exile in the forest, the most compelling being the episode called the “Questions of the Crane Demon”. Resolving the problem of over-population, then, is part of the divine rationale for thestory emphasized by multiple variations on the theme.
These forest-dweller rights survived many years despite constant population pressure, and it is only in the last hundred or so years that the system has broken down.
But over-population, by itself, is not evil.Over-population creates imbalance between the urban human and other beings. In this article, we selectively review some episodes to identifythe crisis and the social policy implicitly advocated by the Pandavas.
This practice was initially continued when refugees moved to the Gangetic plain -- as the refugee population continued to grow, the land around the main cities of Hastinapur and Kampilya became deforested.
The population wanted to continue in a comfortable urban life, not move to new small settlements in virgin lands.3.


Thestory of the establishment of Indraprastha, the capital city of the Pandavas, shows such a war.
The Mahabharata culture is overwhelmingly urban and the forest is a place of exile forcivilized people.
The land was insufficient to produce both fodder for domesticated animals and plant products for human consumption. There are forest-dwellers, portrayed as backward or demonic or child-like.Scattered among the forest-dwellers are urban people who have gone to the forest in search ofsomething – enlightenment, perhaps, or to live out the last years of their life.
They want to leave acrowded city but being colonizers, they want to build a clone of what they leave behind. There are multiplestories that associate one or more gods promising to redress the problem of over-population. Contrast this with the Rig-Veda (Arya, 2001) (Wilson, 1990) where the people depictedare constantly on the move, nomadic even if not migrating. Polyandry, represented by the single wife common by the Pandavas – however, we discuss this peripheral in association with infanticide. Forinstance, when the Pandavas are faced with the problem of obeying Kunti’s demand that they allshare Draupadi, Vyaasa appears and tells them the story of the five Indras. This attitudeleads to resource wars, for they inevitably conflict with the people who already occupy the land. The slaughter of Khandavaprastha is not the only evidence of genocidal war overresources in the Mahabharata.
In the Mahabharata, on the other hand, ownership and rule of all but the forest has beensettled. A host of cities are mentioned, all described in glowing terms as great, beautiful, large,well-laid out, veritably heaven on earth.
His family was completely wiped out, except for a son who escapedthrough his mother’s heroism in protecting him.
52-60) resulted inrepeated floods of the Indus and changes in its course destroying great urban centers.
There are forests, dark and deep, and populated byanimals, Nagas, Rakshasas, Danavas, Gandharvas, and other non-humans.
Takshaka vows revenge on Arjuna’s progeny.The Nagas play no role in the Great War, but the self-inflicted slaughter of the Kurus does notslake Takshaka’s anger. Meanwhile,the Yamuna shifted course to the east and the Sutlej to the west thus starving the then great riverSaraswati of its major sources of water.
Refugees from settlements along the Indus and theSaraswati migrated to the existing upper Gangetic settlements of Hastinapur and Panchalastressing the ability of those regions to support them. But the cycleof revenge continues as Parikshit’s son Janamejaya vows to kill all the Nagas. Settled at one time by the mythical ancestors of theKurus themselves, Yayati and Nahusha, it was abandoned in favor of Hastinapur (though theMahabharata does not explain why).
He conducts theNaga Sacrifice, a magic ritual that induces the Nagas to jump into the sacrificial fire.



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