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After returning from the Yalta conference in the Ukraine which discussed the reorganisation of post-war Europe in Ukraine, he addressed Congress from a sitting position on March 1 - an unprecedented admission of his paralysis, for which he apologised.However, he was still in command of his mental faculties and travelled to Warm Springs, Georgia, where he had built a hydrotherapy facility to combat his paralysis. The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline. A part of the legendary Underground Railroad for fleeing slaves of pre-Civil War days, this registered National Historic Landmark is a Federal style brick home built in 1839. Escaping slaves could be hidden in this small upstairs room and the beds moved in front of the door to hide its existence.
Escaping slaves were well hidden for their travels in this wagon when grain bags were piled around the hiding area. In their flight, slaves used three main routes to cross into freedom: Madison and Jeffersonville, Indiana and Cincinnati, Ohio.
So successful was the Coffin sanctuary that, while in Newport, not a single slave failed to reach freedom. The Levi Coffin House has been included on the list of the top 25 history sites in the nation by The History Channel!
The Smithsonian names the Levi Coffin House Interpretive Center as one of twelve new museums around the world to visit in 2016!
4th Graders Leave Their Mark at Levi Coffin House - Young people connect with history, a Palladium-Item Newspaper article. Excerpt from Reminiscences of Levi Coffin - Levi's own words tell you about the experience of running a station on the Underground Railroad. Manumission papers that were witnessed by Levi Coffin - these are legal documents showing the purchase of slaves by Quakers who would then care for them until they could be transported into a free state.
Quakers(Society of Friends) in Richmond and Wayne County - learn about the beliefs of the Quakers, local Quaker history, and see local Quaker points of interest.
Friends of Freedom - Ohio Underground Railroad Association does research to identify, document and preserve Underground Railroad sites throughout Ohio. The Underground Railroad - by National Geographic, an excellent site that gives a visitor the feeling of traveling along the Underground Railroad.
Tracks to Freedom - follow along with reporter Chris Lackner as he travels by foot from Mays Lick, Kentucky, to North Buxton, Ontario, in search of the history of the Underground Railroad and its connections to Canada. The Presidential Palace issued a statement as a massive demonstration is underway in capital Kabul against the government’s decision to implement the mega 500kV power project through Salang. The statement by Palace said holding free assemblies and peaceful protests as per the law are of the basic rights of the citizens of Afghanistan. The statement further added that the decision for implementing TUTAP through Salang was taken by cabinet of the former government in 2013 but the unity government delayed the project for 6 months to ensure supply to electricity to Bamyan. The government has arranged funds for the supply of electricity to Bamyan which would be concluded until 2018 and will arrange 300 mega watt of electricity which is more than the earlier plans considered for Bamyan to provide 30 mega watt electricity until 2023, the statement added. The statement said the government has taken all steps to discuss and exchange views with the protesters in the past two weeks and the government has put all efforts in place to retain the funds for the project and prevent shortage of electricity supply as well as ensuring supply of electricity to Bamyan. According to the Palace, discussions have taken place in the leadership level of the government with the political leaders, elders and protesters in a bid to find a solution through negotiations. The statement said the government has sent delegation to the gathering of the protesters to pave the way for negotiations and has sent formal invitation to the protesters to gather in ARG Palace to discuss the transmission line, emphasizing that the government’s doors will be open to host the protesters to find a solution for the issue.
In the end, the statement by the Palace stated that the work on the transmission line has been suspended and the government will take steps for the modification or advancement of the project based on the recommendations of the commission.
A brief clash was reported among the security forces and a number of protesters in Pul-e-Artal area of the city as the hundreds of thousands of people have gathered in Deh Mazang square announcing their demands. The clash reportedly erupted after a number of protesters were looking to breach the blockade of containers.
The security forces repulsed the protesters by using water cannons as they were reportedly hurling stones at the security force. Meanwhile, the protesters have decided to organize the gathering in Deh Mazang where they have announced their demands to the government. Mohammad Karim Khalili said the protesters are not aiming to take steps for the collapse of the government and are only rallying to demand justice and consideration of balance in development.
He criticized the government for blocking the roads with containers and told the protesters that the government has taken the step to prevent considering the demands of the rally participants. Warning the government leaders that the iron barriers would not be able to prevent the people to raise their voice for justice, Khalili said the protests will continue until the decision of the cabinet has not been cancelled. Khalili insisted that cancelling the cabinet decision is a normal act and the government of Afghanistan is able to take such a step.
The Afghan security forces have blocked the main Kabul roads connecting to the Presidential Palace and other key diplomatic and government institutions as a vast demonstration is underway for the change of TUTAP project route. The demonstrations started earlier today from the west of Kabul city as hundreds of thousands of people are marching towards the center of the city to protest against the change of TUTAP route from Bamyan to Salang. The security forces have blocked the main roads by placing containers last night, a move which has created issues for the city residents to commute openly but the security officials have said the roads have been blocked to prevent any unpleasant incident. The blockade of the roads has sparked furor among the residents and the protesters who are calling the move an attempt to create distance among the people and government. However, a number of the protesters are carrying flowers in a bid to demonstrate that their demonstration is not aimed at sparking riots and violence.
Earlier, President Ghani said the former government approved Salang route for the implementation of TUTAP project, insisting that the unity government leaders did not have any role in determining the route of the project. President Ghani also issued a decree late on Sunday evening and suspended the work of the project by instructing a commission to review all the documents related to the project.
A top commander of the loyalists of Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) terrorist group in Afghanistan was killed in an airstrike of the Afghan Air Force.
The Ministry of Defense (MoD) said the airstrike was carried out in Wata Pur district of eastern Kunar province.
Meanwhile, the 201st Silab Corps of the Afghan National Army, said the airstrike was carried out by the US forces using an unmanned aerial vehicle.
A statement by 201st Silab Corps said Shafiq was a commander of the Taliban group and was involved in major terrorist activities in Wata Pur district. The loyalists of the terror group have recently started operations in the restive Kunar province which comes as the terror group received major blows in some of their strongholds in eastern Nangarhar province. This comes as the local officials in Nangarhar said Sunday at least 8 ISIS loyalists were killed in an airstrike in Achin district. The Afghan forces have stepped up operations to eliminate the loyalists of ISIS in Afghanistan amid concerns the terror is attempting to expand foothold in the country. The militants of the terror group were hardly hit by the US airstrikes as well as the Afghan air and ground operations in parts of Nangarhar province amid concerns that they were establishing a regional operations base and consolidate operations with the terror group based in Syria and Iraq. Hundreds of militants loyal to the terror group were killed or wounded as US Air Force increased air raids which followed by more authorities granted by the Obama administration earlier this year. The major Kabul rally kicked off this morning as hundreds of thousands of people took to the streets to protest against the government.
The protesters demand change of the route for TUTAP power project to Bamyan and Maidan Wardak provinces. They are also chanting slogans against the government accusing the leaders for discrimination and injustice.
Meanwhile, the Afghan security forces are high alert amid concerns that the demonstrations could turn violent and the main roads going towards the presidential palace and government compound have been blocked. Meanwhile, a number of the prominent former Jihadi leaders and religious figures warned Sunday that the demonstration could turn violent and urged the government to prevent the implementation of the project until the controversies have been resolved.
A member of the High Council of Jihadi parties Pir Syed Ahmad Gilani warned that the country could face riots and violence if the issue is not resolved immediately.
On the other hand, President Mohammad Ashraf Ghani has suspended the execution of 500kV TUTAP power project until the completion of the review of the project.
The statement further added that the executive and supply work of the project will be suspended as per the presidential decree until the commission completes its review.
The decree states that all documents related to the 20-year master plan of electricity supply in Afghanistan should be reviewed including all the governmental and private sector documents as well as the Fichtner report. It also states that the commission has been formed to study the reasons for the selection and rejection of the routes for the implementation of the project, i.e, Bamyan and Salang routes.
The decree by President Ghani has been issued amid growing tensions regarding the implementation of the mega power project.
The loyalists of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) terrorist group have released a set of images which purportedly shows the execution of Taliban fighters in Afghanistan. The photographs were published by the loyalists of the terror group in social media earlier this evening.
The authenticity of the photographs could not be independently verified and it is yet not in which part of the country the militants were executed. Subtitles in Arabic language in the photographs identify the men as Abdul Ghafoor, Mohammad Rahim and Fazal-ur-Rehman. The photographs shows three men blindfolded and are shot dead by the ISIS loyalists as they have been given orange jump suits. This is the first time the terror group’s loyalists have published the execution photographs of the Taliban group in Afghanistan.
The photographs are released as the loyalists of the terror group were hardly suppressed in Afghan and US forces raids. The raids against the loyalists of the terror group intensified in parts of Nangarhar province amid concerns that they are attempting to expand foothold in the country. A spokesman for the US-led coalition forces in Afghanistan earlier said the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) terrorist group has the potential to be an ‘enormous’ threat in Afghanistan.
The chief of communications for the coalition, Brigadier General Charles Cleveland, said last month the threat exists despite the group has received major setbacks during the recent months, pointing towards the growing US forces airstrikes against the loyalists of the terror group. President Mohammad Ashraf Ghani said Sunday that Salang was approved for the 500kV power project three years by late Vice President Marshal Mohammad Qasim Fahim. He was speaking during a consultative meeting attended by the leadership delegation and lawmakers from the Upper and Lower Houses of the Parliament.
Chief Executive Officer Abdullah Abdullah also attended the meeting and said the commission assigned by the government will review all the documents related to the project, hoping that the review will help answer the questions and demands of the people in the light of the law and available resources. President Ghani said the route was proposed by the former Minister of Energy and Water Mohammad Ismail Khan and was approved by late Marshal Fahim.
He said all documents on TUTAP project will be sent to the National Assembly on Monday, insisting that the government of national unity did not have any role in determining the direction of the transmission line. Ghani also added that Bamyan was supposed to receive only 5 mega watt of electricity as per the cabinet decisions but as per the latest plan Bamyan will receive 300 mega watt of electricity. He said based on the ealier plans Bamyan would receive electricity until 2022, insisting that the province will receive further secure electricity by implementing the project through Salang. The remarks by Ghani comes as thousands of people have staged demonstrations in Kabul and Bamyan provinces for the change of the route from Bamyan to Salang province.
Meanwhile, the residents of southeastern Paktika and Khost provinces demonstrated in support of President Ghani today, endorsing the government’s decision for implementing the project through Salang. The United States Department of State has expressed concerns regarding the decision by the Senate Armed Services Committee for not extending or authorizing new visa for the Afghan Special Immigration Visa Program. He said the SIV program enables Afghans who have worked alongside our troops and our diplomats to seek refuge in the United States.
The police forces are fully prepared to maintain security and order of the city for a major protest due for the capital on Monday.
According to the officials in Public Order Police Forces of the Ministry of Interior, the police forces are on alert to maintain the security for the demonstration. This comes as a number of the prominent former Jihadi leaders organized a meeting in Kabul today to discuss the latest upheavals, including the controversial TUTAP power project.
They have warned that the Monday’s demonstration could turn violent and urged the government to prevent the implementation of the project until the controversies have been resolved. In the meantime, thousands of protesters demonstrated in support of President in southeastern Paktika and Khost provinces today.
The protesters supported President Ghani and endorsed the government’s decision to implement the project through Salang. They also shouted slogans against Vice President Sarwar Danish and Deputy Chief Executive Officer Mohammad Mohaqiq as well as Karim Khalili for sparking ethnic tensions. On the other, President Ghani said last week a commission will be given the task to review the power project, emphasizing that there are different views regarding the route through which the project should be implemented. At least 11 soldiers of the Afghan National Army (ANA) forces were martyred in fight against terrorism in the past 24 hours, the Ministry of Defense (MoD) said. According to an operational update by the Ministry of Defense (MoD), the soldiers were martyred while conducting counter-terrorism operations against the internal and external terrorists.
At least 65 militants were also killed and 22 others were wounded during the same operations, MoD said, adding that the operations were condcuted with the support of Afghan Air Force and artillery units. According to MoD, the operations were conducted in Kandahar, Ghor, Baghlan, Helmand, Maidan WArdak, Kunar and Ghazni provinces.
MoD also added that a commander of the Taliban group identified as Mullah Abdul Hadi was also among those killed during the clearance operations. The 500kV mega TUTAP power project controversy is spreading across the country with the residents of southeastern parts of the country stepping in to support the government’s decision for the implementation of the project. Thousands of people staged demonstrations in support of President Ghani in southeastern Paktika and Khost provinces of Afghanistan. The protesters were shouting slogans against the Vice Presidents and Second Deputy Chief Executive Officer during the rally.
They also denounced the protest by an activist against President Ghani during his speech at RUSI in London last week, saying humiliation of the President is humiliation against the Afghan people.
This comes as a massive demonstration is due for Kabul to protest against the government’s decision for the implementation of the project through Salang.
A number of the prominent Mujahideen leaders have warned of a possible violence as a mass demonstration is due for Kabul on Monday, expressing concerns regarding the protest and calling on the organizers of the demonstration to prevent from the rally. They also called on the government not to take any step towards the implementation of the project until the issue is resolved. President Ghani said last week that a commission will be given the task to review the power project, emphasizing that there are different views regarding the route through which the project should be implemented. At least 18 militants were killed and 7 others were wounded in a series of airstrikes carried out by the Afghan Air Force in western Ghor province. The Ministry of Defense (MoD) said the airstrikes were carried out in Pasaband district targeting several hideouts of the militants.
According to the MoD, the militants killed in the airstrikes were actively involved in insurgency activities and had committed horrible crimes against the local residents. The anti-government armed militant groups including the Taliban insurgents have not commented regarding the report so far.
This comes as at least 7 militants were killed and 5 others were wounded in airstrike in the same district of Ghor, MoD said Saturday. The Afghan security forces have stepped up counter-terrorism operations as the terror groups attempt to increase insurgency activities by launching their spring offensive. The Afghan forces have started the new fighting season with increased capabilities, specifically with improved air power by receiving more equipment and aircraft from allies.
The Afghan Air Force has received at least 9 A-29 Super Tucano fixed wing fighter planes, several MD-530 warrior helicopters as well as Mi-25 gunships from India which have considerably added to the air power of the Afghan forces. At least 8 loyalists of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) terrorist group were killed in an airstrike in east of Afghanistan.
According a local security official, the airstrike was carried out in eastern Nangarhar province, targeting a vehicle of the loyalists of the terror group.
The official speaking on the condition of anonymity further added that the raid was carried out in Achin district which was once a stronghold of the terror group. The militants were inside the car and were on their way to conduct terrorist activities when they were targeted, the official said, adding that the local residents did not suffer any casualties in the raid.
He did not elaborate further on who carried out the airstrike but both the Afghan Air Force and US forces are routinely targeting the loyalists of the terror group in this province. The US forces in Afghanistan have also increased airstrikes against the loyalists of the terror group with the chief of communications for the coalition, Brigadier General Charles Cleveland, earlier saying the United States has carried out 70 to 80 airstrikes against ISIS in Afghanistan. The European Union reaffirmed €200 million in annual to Afghanistan until 2020 as Finance Minister Eklil Hakimi signed a new agreement worth €125 million in the framework of mutual accountability. The reaffirmed commitment and announcement of fresh aid were announced during Hakimi’s visit to Brussels on 12th May, the Ministry of Finance said.
A number of the prominent Mujahideen leaders have warned of a possible violence as a mass demonstration is due for Kabul on Monday. The High Council of Jihaid parties gathered in Kabul today to discuss the latest upheavals in the country as well as a mass demonstration due for Kabul against the TUTAP power project. The Jihadi leaders expressed concerns regarding the protest and called on the organizers of the demonstration to prevent from the rally. A number of the prominent former Jihadi leaders and religious leaders were among the participants of the meeting which included Sebghatullah Mojadedi, Pir Syed Ahmad Gilani, Mohammad Karim Khalili, Syed Mansoor Naderi, Syed Hussain Anwari, Mawlavi Abdul Hakim Munib, Wahidulah Sabawoon, Qutbuddin Helal, Gen. Earlier, thousands of people organized demonstrations in Bamyan and Kabul provinces to protest against the change of the route of TUTAP, besides several politicians have called on the government to reconsider its decision and ensure justice in implementation of development projects. However, President Ghani said a commission will be given the task to review the power project, emphasizing that there are different views regarding the route through which the project should be implemented.
The Pakistani army forces have reportedly resumed barbed wire installation in selected areas along Torkham shortly after the issue resulted into the closure of the border gate.
Sources privy to the development quoted in local media reports have said Inspector General of the Frontier Corps, Maj Gen Mazhar Shaheen, visited the border crossing and observed the situation there. He has also asked the country’s border guards to keep a strict vigil on the movement of suspect people. The Afghan and Pakistani officials on Friday agreed to reopen the Torkham border following four days of closure that resulted to stranding of hundreds of vehicles as well as thousands of people. The agreement was reached during a meeting between the Afghan Ambassador to Pakistan Hazrat Omar Zakhilwal and Pakistani Army Chief of Staff General Raheel Sharif.
The meeting was organized amid concerns that the armed forces of the two countries engage in a clash as both sides had deployed additional forces as well as tanks and armored personnel carriers. Earlier, the Afghan and Pakistani border forces have already engaged in a number of clashes along the Durand Line, mainly due to military installations establishment, violating the zero point between the two countries.

The Afghan and Pakistani border forces exchanged fire in Goshta district of Nangarhar province late last month with the local officials saying the Pakistani forces started shelling the Afghan border posts.
The Pakistani Ambassador to United States Jalil Abbas Jilani has blamed the international community failure for the mess in Afghanistan. Calling the editorial as biased, Jilani further added that “Allegations of duplicity and double game are extremely painful especially when Pakistan has suffered the most due to the war in Afghanistan.
Pakistan “remains a duplicitous and dangerous partner for the United States and Afghanistan, despite $33 billion in American aid and repeated attempts to reset relations on a more constructive course,” according to the Editorial. It also added that the Senate foreign affairs committee chairman Bob Corker had “widely” put a hold on American funding for subsidizing the sale of eight new F-16 fighter jets to Pakistan — it will have to pay the full amount of $700 million for them, instead of the $380 million it would have paid earlier. Corker and several of his Senate colleagues cutting across party lines have also used the word “duplicitous” for Pakistan for its “double game” in dealing with terrorists. Meanwhile, President Mohammad Ashraf in his speech at RUSI said the anti-government armed militant groups fighting the Afghan government are based in Pakistan from where they stage attacks in Afghanistan. Earlier, President Ghani asked Pakistan to take actions against the Taliban and Haqqani network leadership councils based in Peshawar and Quetta cities of Pakistan. A heavy clash erupted in northern Baghlan province of Afghanistan late on Saturday night with the police officials claiming at least 28 insurgents were killed or wounded.
A spokesman for Baghlan police, Jawed Basharat, said the militants were killed or wounded in Baghlan Markazi and in the vicinity of Chashme Shir and Surkh Kotal. He said the main highway connecting northern Baghlan with Mazar-e-Sharif city is open to the traffic. Earlier, reports reports emerged that the insurgents managed to overrun certain posts in Chashme Shir area of Baghlan. The public uprising forces reportedly joined the Afghan police forces late on Saturday night to repulse the Taliban insurgents attack. Meanwhile, the provincial security chief, Mohammad Ewaz Nazeri, said Saturday that a commander of the group was killed along with his 12 fighters in Baghlan Markazi district. He confirmed that 2 Afghan soldiers sustained injuries and two of their security posts were overrun by the Taliban insurgents.
The Taliban group however has claimed that they have captured several areas in the outskirts of Pul-e-Khumri city, the provincial capital of northern Baghlan province. A tapped phone conversation between top Taliban leaders reveal panic among the groups fighters in the battlefield as the group is attempting to intensify attacks against the Afghan forces under their new spring offensive. The Ministry of Interior (MOI) claims the phone conversation was tapped as two top Taliban leaders were discussing operations in the country. The authenticity of the audio clip could not be independently verified which reveals a serious disagreement between the two senior Taliban leaders. The commander overviewing the operations in the battlefield says the situation is sharply deteriorating and a number of the group’s commanders have been killed with their fighters.
He continues saying the fighters are losing moral but the other commander orders him to intensify attacks on Afghan security forces posts which leads to almost a quarrel between the two. The commander on the ground insists that the fighters have lost almost all their ammunition besides suffering heavy loss and losing moral to fight the security forces. The conversation ends between the two as they do not reach to an agreement despite the leader instructing the commander on the ground to start their offensive, emphasizing that additional forces and equipment would be deployed to them. The location where the Taliban militants were fighting the Afghan forces has not been ascertained but the group is mainly engaged in fight in northern and southern parts of the country. Earlier, the Afghan forces repulsed major attacks of the group launched in northern Kunduz province of Afghanistan which is launched as the group announced its spring offensive. A teenage girl was burnt alive allegedly by her brother’s wife in eastern Nangarhar province of Afghanistan, local officials said Saturday. The incident took place in the 2nd police district of Jalalabad city, the provincial capital of Nangarhar earlier today. According to the police sources, the victim has been identified as Mursal who was around 15-year-old and was a student of 9th grade. The sources further added that Mursal was thrown into the oven by her brother’s wife who used the opportunity as there was no one present in the house.
The alleged perpetrator has been arrested and is in police custody for further investigation, police sources said, adding that the woman has not confessed to the horrific crime so far. The horrific incident has sent shockwaves across the country which comes as violence against women has been rampant across the country. Incidents involving violence against women are not new but such incidents involving a woman committing violence against another woman has rarely been reported. The report further added that figure was reported 2403 cases during the six months in 1393 which shows 7.32 percent increase in 1394, the last solar year. The newly appointed deputy foreign minister for economic affairs Adela Raz officially assumed office after she was introduced to the staff today.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MoFA) said Saturday that Ms Raz was introduced during a ceremony attended by Foreign Minister Salahuddin Rabbani, Deputy Foreign Minister for Political Affairs Hekmat Khalil Karzai, Deputy Administrative and Finance Dr. Ms Sediqi initially read the presidential decree regarding the appointment of Ms Raz as Deputy Foreign Minister for Economic Affairs, MoFA said.
In his turn, Foreign Minister Rabbani congratulated Ms Raz for assuming charge as Deputy Foreign Minister for Economic Affairs and said the Ministry of Affairs plays a key role being a diplomatic platform of the country, insisting that Foreign Affairs Ministry’s key objectives are to defend from national interests of the country while pursuing the foreign policy and attracting foreign investments in the country is one of the key objectives of the Ministry. Rabbani further added that diplomacy is not limited only to expansion of ties in bilateral and multi lateral ways among the nations but economic diplomacy also has became prominent with the development of international trade organizations. Ms Raz also thanked the government leadership and Minister of Foreign Affairs for their support trust, saying her main objective would be to serve for the development of the nation.
The US State Department recently announced that key US Congress members are not prepared to support military aid to Pakistan in the absence of specific actions. She was apparently pointing towards the activity of the Haqqani terrorist network using the Pakistani soil as its safe haven. However, she said “So we’ve spoken about our view on the Haqqani Network from here before. Ms Trudeau further added “As always, we’re committed to working with Congress to deliver security assistance to our partners and allies. In response to a question if the State Department willing to certify that or say that the Pakistan is taking enough action against Haqqani Network, Trudeau said ” So we’ve spoken about our views on Haqqani quite a bit as well as what we view Pakistan needs to do.
US congress refused to to approve funding for the deal days after the US lawmakers had accused Pakistan of not doing enough to fight militants and objection by India for the sell of the jets. The decision by the US congress means that Pakistan will have to pay more than $700m (?480m) – two-and-a-half times the original cost of the fighter jets. According to the original arrangement, Pakistan was supposed to pay close to $270m, with the US foreign military financing budget paying for the rest. The Afghanistan High Peace Council (AHPC) officials have said peace deal with Hezb-e-Islami party led by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar will likely complete on Sunday. Deputy High Peace Council Chief in Kabul, Ata-ur-Rehman has told The Associated Press that the deal could be completed after two years of negotiations on Sunday.
A Hezb-e-Islami party representative Amin Karim has also said he expected President Ashraf Ghani to approve the final version of the agreement on Sunday. DESCRIPTION: Just as the Juan de la Cosa map (#305) graphically dramatizes the impact of Columbus on Renaissance Europe, the Cantino planisphere glorifies the achievements of the great Portuguese navigators of the same period, including Vasco da Gama, Cabral, and the Corte-Real brothers. Cantino having occasion to return to Italy, took the map with him, left it in Genoa to be forwarded to Ferrara; and from Rome, wrote a letter to his master.
The large manuscript world chart is a a€?planispherea€? drawn on vellum, colored and gilt, and measures 218 x 102 cm and is the earliest surviving Portuguese map of new discoveries in the East and West. From the moment that we admit the existence of a map which exhibited the northwestern continental region as reaching only to the Tropic of Cancer, we may presume that there may also have been a map which represented that land ten degrees shorter still; inasmuch as such is, prima facie at least, its latitudinal area in the map of Cantino. The latest geographical datum in the present map is, at the north, the legend expressing fears that Gaspar Corte-Real had perished: e crese que he perdido. The names north and south of Porto Seguro, on the Atlantic coast, were inscribed, as already stated, after the map had been delivered to Cantino, but very soon afterwards, and at Lisbon. As to the northwestern configuration, the historian Henry Harrisse is hesitant to believe that it appeared in Cantino for the first time. Evidence of when an early manuscript was produced is essential in determining its priority and significance. The American coastline remains fragmentary, because up to this time probes had been made only to the West Indies, Nova Scotia-Newfoundland, part of the South American coast, and possibly Florida. In the north Iceland is placed very nearly in its proper location and the Corte-Real landfalls in Greenland and Labrador (1500-01) are marked by Portuguese flags and by the legend contained in a banderol (against Greenland): This land which was discovered by order of . Farther west, majestic trees on the large island labeled Terra del Rey de portugall [Land of the King of Portugal] in the North Atlantic recall the description of the east coast of Newfoundland given by the Corte-Reals when they returned to Lisbon in October 1501.
These two maps, the Cantino and the Caveri, both of Portuguese background, are the basis of the cartographical series, dominant for the next quarter century, which Harrisse aptly named the Lusitano-Germanique Group or Type (Ganong refers to this map as a Vespucci Type). As the name indicates, that series of charts and globes was based upon data sent from Portugal.
Cast far away into the sea, to the northeast of the northwest coast, there was Newfoundland, designated as Terra de Corte-Real; whilst Greenland, under the name of Terra laboratoris, assumed the shape of a long and narrow island, stretching from east to west. 2.The second type set forth the same South American configurations as the first, but with the Venezuelan coast unbroken. 3.The third type differed from the Cantino chart with respect to the northwestern continental region by its extension southward about five degrees, and additional names inscribed on the northern coast.
4.The fourth type differed from the preceding by a more complete or elaborate delineation of the northeastern continental region, which here extended, southwardly, about eleven degrees, with insular additions.
This fourth type is represented by the curious planisphere of Nicolay de Caveri (#307), and, with modifications, in the SchA¶nerean globes (#330, #345).
5.The fifth type presented the same nomenclature and configurations as the preceding, but probably with different legends or general titles for the north and south continental regions. 1.A map with Cuba exhibited in an insular form, according to the first statements of Columbus himself, and without any continental region situated west of that island. 2.A map with Cuba (called Ilha yssabella) represented together with a western continent close to it, but the latter extending southward only to about our 20 degrees 30 minutes north latitude.
3.A map resembling the preceding, but with its northeastern coast prolonged through a gulf, about five degrees southwardly.
5.A map with a continuous coastline, connecting definitely both sections of the American continent.
This evolution found its last term when the Lusitanian nomenclature, which is inscribed on that continental region, was blended with configurations borrowed from the Sevillan Hydrography, upon the latter appearing directly for the first time in Central Europe.
In the succeeding two years, two of the Portuguese maps in the so-called Kunstmann Series, one of them by Pedro Reinel show the Newfoundland area with full indication of Portuguese sovereignty and occupancy. All of these were manuscript maps of limited circulation, but in 1506 appeared in Florence, engraved by Francesco Roselli, a world map (#308) on a conical projection constructed by Giovanni Matteo Contarini.
The maps of the first type have exercised little or no influence on the contemporary cartographers of Central Europe. By comparing together the configurations of that northwestern continental land in the maps which represent what we call Types II, III, IV, and V, the reader will notice and bear in mind that in Cantino (Type II), the said region ends at the south with a sort of peninsula trending eastward.
A significant point to be kept in mind in the discussion of the maps of Cantino and Caveri and their chief derivative, the WaldseemA?ller world map of 1507 (#310), is that, whether or not they regarded Newfoundland as an island, they showed Verrazzano and his contemporaries no connection of solid land between Newfoundland and the Florida landmass portrayed on them. It is to be observed as a matter of special interest that the makers of both the Cantino and Caveri maps intended to convey the belief that the two continents of North and South America formed a grand division of the earth separated from both Europe and Asia and lying between the two. Area A is the continental land that emerges from the northwestern extremity of the map, and trends eastwards. Area B represents its peninsula, with one of the names that serve to identify the relative positions in Lusitano-Germanic maps and globes. Area C is the west end of the island of Cuba, here called, as in all that class of maps, Ilha yssabella. If we are seeing Cuba (C) and Florida (B), no one knows from whom this information came, as Florida was not formally discovered until 1513. Northwest of Ilha yssabella a coastline is laid down marked Parte de Assia and bearing names from Columbusa€™ first two voyages. Lawrence Wroth and other historians of New World discoveries believe that both Cuba and Florida were depicted, and that Cantinoa€™s chart was the prototype for the important maps of the Lusitano-Germanic series. The Brazilian coast is decorated with Portuguese flags, beautiful parrots and trees and announcements of the landing in April 1500 by the Portuguese, Pedro Alvares Cabral. The African continent is shown for the first time with something closely approaching its correct outline: on the east coast the names of Soffala, Mozambique, Kilwa, and Melinde occur, and the island of Madagascar is inserted but not named. The main feature to be noted with regard to Asia is the almost complete abandonment of Ptolemya€™s conception of the southern coasts, and the great reduction in the longitudinal extent of the continent.
The so-called King-Hamy chart (#307.1), also dated 1502, is interesting as showing the Ptolemaic conceptions of Asia in the process of being fitted to the new discoveries in the west. The Cantino chart, therefore, demonstrates clearly that Portuguese cosmographers had entirely abandoned the Alexandriana€™s figures, and were already aware that the Spanish discoveries in the west, far from neighboring on Cipangu [Japan] and the Asian mainland, were separated from them by an interval of almost half the circumference of the globe. The Cantino planisphere is the earliest extant example of the so-called latitude chart, which was developed following the introduction of astronomical navigation, during the second half of the 15th century. The construction of the rhumb line system in the Cantino planisphere uses two circles (some charts use only one, others use as many as three, depending of size): the western circle is centered on the Cape Vert Islands, the eastern circle is centered in India.
Shown above, the rhumb-line construction scheme and geographic lines in the Cantino planisphere, adapted from Gaspar. Farther west, majestic trees on the large island labeled Terra del Rey de portugall [Land of the King of Portugal] in the North Atlantic recall the description of the east coast of Newfoundland given by the Corte-Reals when they returned to Lisbon in October 1501.A A  A year or possibly two years later there appeared the Nicolo de Caveri world map (#307), the work of a Genoese cartographer, depending in many, but not all particulars, upon the Cantino production. These two maps, the Cantino and the Caveri, both of Portuguese background, are the basis of the cartographical series, dominant for the next quarter century, which Harrisse aptly named the Lusitano-Germanique Group or Type (Ganong refers to this map as a Vespucci Type).A  Harrisse discusses the influence of this Lusitano-Germanic type of map both on the geography of the New World and mapmakers in Central Europe for more than twenty-five years.
Northwest of Ilha yssabella a coastline is laid down marked Parte de Assia and bearing names from Columbusa€™ first two voyages.A  This area, which is incomplete and partially off the map, perhaps is the greatest unsolved cartographic puzzle of the period.
The journey to freedom meant traveling only a few miles at night, using the North Star as a map and trying to avoid search parties. During the 20 years they lived in Newport, the Coffins helped more than 2,000 slaves reach safety. Seibert Collection (The Underground Railroad Research of Ohio State University, Professor Wilbur H. Mohammad Humayoun Qayumi and the members include Barna Karimi, Faizullah Zaki, Abdul Qayum Sajadi, Asadullah Sadati, Ahmad Behzad, Eng. Many are continuing to face threats to themselves, to their families, to their livelihoods,” Kirby said. Hakimi briefed the session on the upcoming Brussels Conference on Afghanistan (4-5 October), presented the new Afghan National Development Framework and talked about the recent economic achievements of the National Unity Government. Mogherini stressed that “helping Afghanistan not only helps the Afghan people, but it is also an investment into our security and stability in Europe”. Hakimi also attended a meeting with the Civil Society Organizations and talked about the role of the CSOs in Afghanistan’s development and future.
Shaheen has reportedly instructed the border guards of the country to show courtesy to the people crossing over into Pakistan or Afghanistan.
Nasir Ahmad Andisha, Deput director for Administrative Office of the Preside y Ms Kamila Sediqi, and other directors and officials of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. This, one of the first sea charts of the era of European trans-Atlantic discovery that can be precisely dated, is a manuscript born of controversy and intrigue. Wishing to cover a common screen, he had the map pasted on its folds, after cutting off and throwing away the top margin, which doubtless contained a title engrossed in large gothic letters, the tail end of one of which is still visible. A few years afterwards, the librarian of the Biblioteca Estense, the Signor Boni, happening to pass in the Via Farini, noticed in the shop of a pork butcher, called Giusti, the Cantino chart still put to such ignominious use. It represents the known world at the exciting moment when Europe was learning of its actual extent.
It is not likely that such an elaborate planisphere, executed for a prince, should have been left without some ornamented frame.
In the present state of the enquiry, the critic is bound, therefore, to accept, as being within the meaning of the original cartographer, the configuration and extent of that continental land as we find them measured and depicted in the said map. He states that it doubtless originated with other maps, and proceeded from a type on which had been grafted data borrowed from fragmentary surveys brought by mariners of different nations, as we suppose, and who must have visited that coast several times in the course of clandestine expeditions.
For example, several key but undated maps were made in the first years of the 16th century, but the primacy of the 1502 Cantino world map is established on the basis of its date.
Portions of this explored area were recorded, but gaps in the coastline were not filled in until further explorations. That is, the configurations and nomenclatures were derived from maps constructed by Lusitanian cosmographers, with information furnish-end at the close of the 15th century by Spanish or Portuguese navigators, and which soon afterwards found their way into Lorraine and Germany. We possess only what may be called a€?derivativesa€?, more or less direct, some in manuscript others engraved, the complete affiliation of which cannot be established, as we do not know how many productions of that character have intervened, or when they were devised, nor precisely in what form originally.
A striking peculiarity consisted of a wide break on the north coast of the southern continent, between Brazil and Venezuela. The West Indian archipelago was also complete, including Cuba, which is there named Ilha yssabella. But, notwithstanding cartographical distortions, due chiefly to the kind of projection adopted by the maker of the map, the original profiles of that continental land can be easily recognized in the corresponding region depicted by Johann Ruysch in his mappamundi (#313). Its material difference from the three last types above described, consisted in a continuous coastline connecting the northwestern mainland with the southern continent. In this production the Newfoundland-Labrador area is shown with the specific label: Hanc terram invenere naute Lusitanor[um] Regis. What Harrisse calls the Lusitano-Germanic cartography begins only with the introduction of mappamundi that belonged to the second type. All the other maps have such a scale; unfortunately, it can be of no service in this analysis. Wrotha€™s discussion of the northern discoveries as an element in the Verrazzano story, he states that the Cantino and Caveri maps take a place of great significance for many reasons, good and bad. This belief is graphically portrayed in the Caveri map where open water borders the western shore of the North American continent.
There is speculation that an early Amerigo Vespucci voyage may have been the source, or that an unknown Portuguese pilot could have unofficially sailed through Spanish waters before 1500 and coasted Florida.
These delineations, such as the WaldsemA?ller wall map (#310), did much to illuminate the New World for Europeans. There is no reference to the arrival on the north part of the coast in 1499 of Vicente Pinzon, Columbusa€™ early partner.

This area of the planisphere shows Africa and the Indian Ocean as known to the Portuguese after the voyages of Vasco da Gama (1497-99) and Cabral (1500-01) and later discoveries reported in Lisbon as recently as September 1502. These appear to mark the limit of first-hand knowledge; beyond, the outline must have been inserted largely by second-hand report.
The southeastern coastline of Asia is shown as lying approximately 160A° east of the Line of Demarcation, a figure very close to the truth. This chart has many features of the Ptolemy world map in Southeast Asia, where Malacha and Cattigara appear together, but the point of importance is that the longitudinal extent eastwards from the demarcation line to the southeast Asian coast is still approximately 220 to 230 degrees.
Contrarily to the portolan charts of the Mediterranean, which were constructed on the basis of magnetic courses and estimated distances between places, in the latitude chart places were represented according to their latitudes.
In that year the map suffered the fate of the entire ducal library and collections, and was transferred to Modena when Pope Clement VIII despoiled Cesare da€™Este of his duchy. One assumes that its maker had been allowed to study the Cantino map while that document lay in Genoa. Although yssabella strongly resembles Cuba, and the peninsula to the northwest could be Florida, there are several theories to the contrary.
In 1847, the Coffins moved to Cincinnati so that Levi could operate a wholesale warehouse which supplied goods to free labor stores. The site is a registered National Historic Landmark and is operated by the Levi Coffin House Association.
Mohammad Nasir Ahmadi, Haji Almas Zahid, Hasibullah Kalimzai, Ustad Mohammad Akbari, Syed Sadat Mansoor Naderi, Abdul Satar Murd adn Hazrat Omar Zakhilwal.
Federica Mogherini and the ministers of Foreign Affairs and Development of the 28 EU Member States during the EU Foreign Affairs Committee’s session on May 12th 2016,” MoF said in a statement.
Success in the bitter rivalry between Spain and Portugal required that the new geographical data generated by discoveries in the East and West Indies be kept secret. He bought the map, removed the vellum from the screen, and presented that all-important geographical monument to the Este Library where it is now preserved. Due to the size of this chart, the coasts are shown in considerable detail, and, as shown above, the place-names are numerous. There is, besides, a long easel stroke near the northern extremity of the line of demarcation, which has the appearance of the lower end of an ornate capital letter, which may have belonged to a running title. The ad quem date is fixed by the letter from Alberto Cantino, then in Rome, to Ercole da€™Este, dated November 19, 1502, saying that the chart made in Portugal at the Dukea€™s order had been left for him with an agent in Genoa. A new and important feature was, west and north of that island, an extensive continental region running from south to north, bearing no general title, but dotted with many names of capes, rivers, and landing places; the east coast bathed by the Oceanus occidentalis. Neither do we possess a direct specimen of this fourth type; but it certainly revives in the mappamundi of Stobnicza (#319), and in the Tabula Terre Nove of WaldseemA?ller (#320). One of their common features is their location of Newfoundland as an island, says Harrisse, a€?cast far away into the seaa€? to the east or northeast of that American continental landmass which they admirably portrayed. The conclusion in the case of the Cantino map must be arrived at by consideration of the fact that it shows only 257A° of the 360A° of the eartha€™s surface and that its eastern coast of Asia is shown as bordering on open water. Again, prominently shown is the Line of Demarcation of the Treaty of Tordesillas, signed by Spain and Portugal in June 1494. The fact that the cartographer has a legend on the discoveries in the northeast American shores stating that they were thought to be part of Asia does not controvert this. In the Cantino planisphere, latitudes were incorporated only in the coasts of Africa, Brazil and India, while Europe and the Caribbean Sea continued to be represented according to the portolan chart model.
The western and eastern outer circles are tangent to each other at a large wind-rose in central Africa, with a fleur-de-lis indicating North. There is also an elaborate depiction of the Portuguese castle of SA?o Jorge da Mina (Elmina Castle, on the Gold Coast of west Africa), flanked by two African towns. The Duke having expressed a desire to obtain a map illustrating those voyages, Cantino ordered it from a cartographer living in Lisbon, and whom some scholars suspect to have been an Italian artist.A  Historian Henry Harrissea€™s opinion is that there were then in Portugal several Italian artists who made maps, not as cartographers, but as copyists and miniaturists (the maps of Nicolas de Caveri #307 and Kunstamann No. Though upon it is found no statement referring to Corte-Real or the King of Portugal, in the northern area it bears, as indication of sovereignty, the Portuguese flag upon the southern tips of Greenland and Newfoundland. One is that the anonymous Portuguese mapmaker confused Spanish reports of the configuration of the newly discovered islands and duplicated Cuba; first as the island but also as the incompletely explored area to the northwest. These stops to freedom were called Underground Railroad stations because they resembled stops a train would make between destinations.
Information from returning mariners was assembled by cartographers to form official charts for kings and their advisors.
Duca Hercole [a€?this sea chart of the islands recently discovered in the regions of the Indies has been presented to the Duke of Ferrara, Ercole da€™Este, by Alberto Cantinoa€?].
This, together with the act that the map, when rescued from the butchera€™s shop, was pasted on a screen after it had been stolen from the palace of the Dukes of Ferrara, indicate that the map may have suffered, on the part of its last owner, an excision all around the border. To the northeast of that land, and at a great distance, lay an insular country ascribed to the Corte-Reals; and, still more easterly, Greenland, but this time in the form of an extensive peninsula, trending west from Northern Europe. In another discussion of its character Harrisse affirms his belief, now generally accepted, that Cantino did not intend to represent this Newfoundland-Labrador landmass as an island, but as the known eastern extension of a supposed continental land not definitely located. By having the western coast of his North American continent coincide with the western edge of the map, he left indefinite the length of its westward extension, but it seems reasonable to believe that the missing 103A° of his design comprised not only westward-extending land but beyond it water of the same ocean that washed the eastern shore of Asia. This, and the map of Juan de la Cosa (#305), are the oldest surviving maps to bear this historic line.
The places whose latitudes are given thus are inserted only approximately in their correct positions. For the Portuguese, theoretical and practical considerations happily coincided in this instance; when the question of sovereignty over the Moluccas arose, it was to their interest to reduce the longitudinal extent of Asia in order to bring the coveted islands within their sphere.
This dense rhumb-line mesh was used in navigation as a reference, for reading and marking directions (courses) between places. Other illustrations include a lion-shaped mountain representing the Sierra Leone mountain range, the Alexandria lighthouse (laid horizontal), the mythical Mountains of the Moon (legendary source of the Nile River) in central Africa, and either the Table Mountain or Drakensberg range in South Africa. 2 (#309), are clearly works of that kind).A  The latter charged him by contract twelve gold ducats (approximately $60), and required about ten months, from December 1501 to October 1502, to execute the work. Because two of Corte-Reala€™s ships returned to Lisbon and brought this news in October 1501, the map could not have been completed before then.A  Therefore, while the maker unfortunately remains unknown, the date is certain. Dom Manoel, King of Portugal, they think is the end of Asia.A  Only the tip of Greenland is displayed, but with a fair amount of accuracy. But, as there can be no doubt as to the intention of the makers of all those maps to represent Cuba (under the name of Ilha yssabella), and as we know the exact latitude of that island, we will adopt its most northern cape, as fixed in modern charts (23A° 11'), for a sort of meridian and touchstone to establish the relative position of all lands and islands in that part of the Lusitano-Germanic maps and globes. Another interpretation considers yssabella to be Cuba but regards the peninsula as the Asian mainland Columbus and Cabot believed they had reached. It may seem strange that, with so much exploration activity during this period, why no earlier original Portuguese charts has survived (as far as we know). A meridian was drawn some 960 nautical miles west of the Cape Verde Islands that divided the entire world in two for the purpose of European overseas expansion. East of India is a large gulf and then a southward-stretching peninsula, a relic of the coasts which Ptolemy believed to enclose the Indian Ocean. Six scale bars graduated in Iberian leagues, with a variable number of sections (or logs), are distributed over the chart's area.
Along the central African coast are the various cross stone markers (padrAµes) erected by Diogo CA?o and Bartolomeu Dias in the 1480s.
While yet in Lisbon, the probability is that Cantino interviewed Americus Vespucci, who had just returned to that city from his third voyage, and obtained from him supplementary information, which we assume to be the additional names in a cursive handwriting. The Tordesillas demarcation line between the Spanish and Portuguese spheres is inserted, and the Portuguese discoveries in the northwest are made to lie just on the Portuguese side of the line. Nor is it impossible that it should have also exhibited in the supposed cut-off part, a prolongation of the coast southward, such as we see in the map of Nicolay de Caveri (#307). The Newfoundland-Labrador land is shown unmistakably as an island in the maps of the Lusitano-Germanic Group. Near its extremity occurs the name Malaqua and off it the large island of Taporbana [Sumatra].
In north Africa, there is the Montes Claros in the usual place of the Atlas mountains, the legend below on the left reading that this is the land of King Organo, whose king is very noble and very rich, and to the right that this is the land of the King of Nubia, the king of which is continuously making war on Prester John and is a moor and a great enemy of Christians. It has been generally, though not universally, agreed that political reasons lay behind the placing of the island on both the Cantino and Caveri maps in the Portuguese sphere just beyond, in the eastward sense, the Line of Demarcation established in 1494 by the Treaty of Tordesillas.
Consequently, although Spain claimed most of America, the Portuguese controlled the East Indies and Brazil. The eastern coast of Asia runs away to the northeast, almost featureless but with a number of names, mostly unidentifiable, on the coast and indications of shoals off shore. It may be observed that this eastward location of the island is even more strongly emphasized in the celebrated King-Hamy-Huntington chart (#307.1), an anonymous Italian production of a date slightly later than that of the map of Caveri.
689-692 (1962)A Human Perception of Illumination with Pulsed Ultrahigh-Frequency Electromagnetic Energyby Allan Frey, Science, Vol. Baker, Youth Action Newsletter, Dec 1994.A "A nation can survive its' fools, and even the ambitious. An enemy at the gates is less formidable, for he is known and he carries his banners openly.
But the traitor moves among those within the gate freely, his sly whispers rustling through all the galleys, heard in the very hall of government itself. For the traitor appears not a traitor--He speaks in the accents familiar to his victims, and wears their face and their garment, and he appeals to the baseness that lies deep in the hearts of all men. He rots the soul of a nation--he works secretly and unknown in the night to undermine the pillars of a city--he infects the body politic so that it can no longer resist. The CIA also claims it is not obligated to provide the veterans with medical care for side effects of the drugs. Its the CIAs third attempt to get the case dismissed.In a 2009 federal lawsuit, Vietnam Veterans of America claimed that the Army and CIA had used at least 7,800 soldiers as guinea pigs in Project Paperclip. They were given at least 250 and as many as 400 types of drugs, among them sarin, one of the most deadly drugs known to man, amphetamines, barbiturates, mustard gas, phosgene gas and LSD.Among the projects goals were to control human behavior, develop drugs that would cause confusion, promote weakness or temporarily cause loss of hearing or vision, create a drug to induce hypnosis and identify drugs that could enhance a persons ability to withstand torture. The suit was filed in federal court in San Francisco against the Department of Defense and the CIA. The plaintiffs seek to force the government to contact all the subjects of the experiments and give them proper health care.
Department of Veterans Affairs released a pamphlet said nearly 7,000 soldiers had been involved and more than 250 chemicals used on them, including hallucinogens such as LSD and PCP as well as biological and chemical agents. According to the lawsuit, some of the volunteers were even implanted with electrical devices in an effort to control their behavior. Rochelle, 60, who has come back to live in Onslow County, said in an interview Saturday that there were about two dozen volunteers when he was taken to Edgewood.
They were told that the experiments were harmless and that their health would be carefully monitored, not just during the tests but afterward, too. The doctors running the experiments, though, couldnt have known the drugs were safe, because safety was one of the things they were trying to find out, Rochelle said.
The veterans say they volunteered for military experiments as part of a wide-ranging program started in the 1950s to test nerve agents, biological weapons and mind-control techniques, but were not properly informed of the nature of the experiments.
They blame the experiments for poor health and are demanding the government provide their health care. In virtually all cases, troops served in the same capacity as laboratory rats or guinea pigs, the lawsuit states. The suit contends that veterans were wrongfully used as test subjects in experiments such as MK-ULTRA, a CIA project from the 1950s and 60s that involved brainwashing and administering experimental drugs like LSD to unsuspecting individuals. The project was the target of several congressional inquiries in the 1970s and was tied to at least one death. Harf said that MK-ULTRA was thoroughly investigated and the CIA fully cooperated with each of the investigations. The plaintiffs say many of the volunteers records have been destroyed or remain sealed as top secret documents.
They also say they were denied medals and other citations they were promised for participating in the experiments. They are not seeking monetary damages but have demanded access to health care for veterans they say were turned away at Department of Veterans Affairs facilities because they could not prove their ailments were related to their military service.
It grew out of the Agencys Operation BLACKBIRD and was a forerunner to the Agencys MKULTRA. Project ARTICHOKE also known as Operation ARTICHOKE was run by the CIAs Office of Scientific Intelligence.
ARTICHOKE offensive mind control techniques experiments attempted to induce amnesia and highly suggestive states in its subjects.
ARTICHOKE focused on the use of hypnosis, forced morphine addiction, forced morphine addiction withdrawal, along with other drugs, chemicals, and techniques.
The main focus of the program was summarized in a January 1952 CIA memo, Can we get control of an individual to the point where he will do our bidding against his will and even against fundamental laws of nature, such as self-preservation?One program experiment attempted to see if it was possible to produce a Manchurian Candidate.
In Richard Condons 1959 novel The Manchurian Candidate an American soldier, who has been placed into a hypnotic state by Communist forces, returns home to assassinate on command. A January 1954 CIA report asks the question, Can an individual of [redacted] descent be made to perform an act of attempted assassination involuntarily under the influence of ARTICHOKE? Argued December 4, 1984 Decided April 16, 1985 .Between 1953 and 1966, the Central Intelligence Agency financed a wide-ranging project, code-named MKULTRA, concerned with the research and development of chemical, biological, and radiological materials capable of employment in clandestine operations to control human behavior. 159, 162] program consisted of some 149 subprojects which the Agency contracted out to various universities, research foundations, and similar institutions. Because the Agency funded MKULTRA indirectly, many of the participating individuals were unaware that they were dealing with the Agency.MKULTRA was established to counter perceived Soviet and Chinese advances in brainwashing and interrogation techniques.
Over the years the program included various medical and psychological experiments, some of which led to untoward results. These aspects of MKULTRA surfaced publicly during the 1970's and became the subject of executive and congressional investigations.
Argued April 21, 1987 Decided June 25, 1987 Respondent, a serviceman, volunteered for what was ostensibly a chemical warfare testing program, but in which he was secretly administered lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) pursuant to an Army plan to test the effects of the drug on human subjects, whereby he suffered severe personality changes that led to his discharge and the dissolution of his marriage.
Upon being informed by the Army that he had been given LSD, respondent filed a Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA) suit. The District Court granted the Government summary judgment on the ground that the suit was barred by the doctrine of Feres v.
135 , which precludes governmental FTCA liability for injuries to servicemen resulting from activity incident to service. Although agreeing with this holding, the Court of Appeals remanded the case upon concluding that respondent had at least a colorable constitutional claim under the doctrine of Bivens v. 388 , whereby a violation of constitutional rights can give rise to a damages action against the offending federal officials even in the absence of a statute authorizing such relief, unless there are special factors counselling hesitation or an explicit congressional declaration of another, exclusive remedy.
Respondent then amended his complaint to add Bivens claims and attempted to resurrect his FTCA claim. Although dismissing the latter claim, the District Court refused to dismiss the Bivens claims, rejecting, inter alia, the Governments argument that the same considerations giving rise to the Feres doctrine should constitute special factors barring a Bivens action.In February 1958, James B.
Stanley, a master sergeant in the Army stationed at Fort Knox, Kentucky, volunteered to participate in a program ostensibly designed to test the effectiveness of protective clothing and equipment as defenses against chemical warfare.
He was released from his then-current duties and went to the Armys Chemical Warfare Laboratories at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds in Maryland. Four times that month, Stanley was secretly administered doses of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), pursuant to an Army plan to study the effects of the drug on human subjects. According to his Second Amended Complaint (the allegations of which we accept for purposes of this decision), as a result of the LSD exposure, Stanley has suffered from hallucinations and periods of incoherence and memory loss, was impaired in his military performance, and would on occasion awake from sleep at night and, without reason, violently beat his wife and children, later being unable to recall the entire incident. One year later, his marriage dissolved because of the personality changes wrought by the LSD.
December 10, 1975, the Army sent Stanley a letter soliciting his cooperation in a study of the long-term effects of LSD on volunteers who participated in the 1958 tests. 669, 672] This was the Governments first notification to Stanley that he had been given LSD during his time in Maryland. 2671 et seq., alleging negligence in the administration, supervision, and subsequent monitoring of the drug testing program. Ewen Cameron): The man who I had thought cared about what happened to me didnt give a damn. Ewen Cameron conducted CIA-funded experiments on troubled Canadian patients he was meant to help MacIntyre: the CIA caved in the day before the trial was to begin.
They settled out of court for $750,000 at the time it was the largest settlement the CIA had ever awarded.
28, 1984 (digital clip) It sounds like a science fiction plot or a horror movie: A front organization for the American CIA sets up shop in Canada to engage in mind control experiments.
But its no fiction, its the discussion on the floor of the House of Commons and among lawyers for the Department of External Affairs.
Canadians caught up in the research, including a member of Parliaments wife, may finally get some action from the government in their pursuit of answers and compensation. Recruited Ex-Nazis By SAM ROBERTS December 11, 2010 After World War II, American counterintelligence recruited former Gestapo officers, SS veterans and Nazi collaborators to an even greater extent than had been previously disclosed and helped many of them avoid prosecution or looked the other way when they escaped, according to thousands of newly declassified documents. Men who were classified as ardent Nazis were chosen just weeks after Hitlers defeat to become respectable U.S.
Reinhard Gehlen (middle) and his SS united were hired, and swiftly became agents of the CIA when they revealed their massive records on the Soviet Union to the US. The men designed the CIAs interrogation program and also personally took part in the waterboarding sessions. But to do the job, the CIA had to promise to cover at least $5 million in legal fees for them in case there was trouble down the road, former U.S.
For the simple reason that it would inexorably lead to the covert biological war programmes of the 1950's.
According to CIA documents, K indicates both knockout and kill, depending upon the circumstances under which researched biological products were employed by CIA operatives in the field operations conducted under Project Artichoke and later programs.

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