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A prolonged two-front war was a nightmare scenario for German military strategists in 1914. Defeated in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, the Austrians were forced to acknowledge Hungarian autonomy in 1867, when the country's name was officially changed to Austria-Hungary. Conservative Prussians like Bismarck looked back nostalgically to Metternich's anti-British "Holy Alliance" (1815-48) consisting of Austria, Prussia, and Russia. Adopting the same policy that he had denounced while in opposition, Bismarck negotiated a bilateral treaty of alliance with the Habsburg Empire in 1879.
The actual provisions of the treaty applied only in the event of an unprovoked Russian attack. Choosing a weaker partner over a stronger one might seem self-defeating, but the Iron Chancellor had his reasons.
Worse yet, the breakup of the Habsburg Empire would open what Bismarck referred to as the "insoluble problem" of Bohemia.
The central question of Germany foreign policy in this period was, should Germans look west to liberal Britain or east to reactionary Russia? Just as the breakup of Austria-Hungary would open the question of Bohemia, the breakup of the Russian Empire would open the question of Poland. Russia's population, already Europe's largest at the beginning of the 19th century, expanded dramatically from 70 million in 1848 to 174 million in 1914. Russia's self-image as a champion of the Slavs and her longstanding ambition to control the outlet of the Black Sea brought her into conflict with Austria-Hungary.
If Germany was looking for allies against Russia, Britain would seem a logical first choice. When the possibility of an Anglo-German alliance directed at Russia was considered in 1879, it was feared that the French would try to take advantage of any Russo-German conflict to get révanche (revenge) against Germany for the humiliation of 1871. As a master diplomat, Bismarck could keep all the balls in the air, his options always open. The Three Emperor's League was a conservative coalition against Britain, a revival of the old Holy Alliance.
In 1890, Emperor Wilhelm II dismissed Bismarck as chancellor and appointed the pro-British Caprivi instead. Although Bismarck would later use this refusal to discredit his successors, the decisive break with Russia had in fact occurred years earlier.
Although the Franco-Russian treaty of alliance was not signed until 1892, it was merely the logical conclusion of the policy Russia initiated in 1887 when it refused to renew the Three Emperor's League.
For autocratic Russia to joined hands with republican France was a triumph of realpolitik over ideology. Wilhelm could never bring himself to sacrifice his enthusiasm for projecting German power beyond Europe (Weltmacht) in order to forge the alliance with Britain that he desired. An "Entente Cordial," resolving various colonial disputes, was concluded between Britain and France in 1904. Although Britain's official policy was now to gather allies against Germany, the British public saw little need for such continental entanglements until Mulliner Panic of 1909. As Russia began to recover, the entente powers became less and less willing to back down before German threats.
The dispatch of a German gunboat to the port of Agadir in Morocco provoked a prolonged and bitter crisis with France in 1911. In 1906, "the German people would not understand a war for Morocco," as German Chancellor Bulow said at the time. Determined to eliminate the Serb threat, Vienna was now convinced that war was the only solution to the problem posed by her southern neighbor. The Russians had been the most disinterested members of the Triple Entente up to this point. Back in the days of Louis XIV, France was Europe's most powerful and most populous state, able to take on all comers. At the time of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, France and Germany were equals economically. The Agadir Crisis of 1911 left France alarmed and outraged by what was now seen the growing menace of Germany. Determined that France would not be left dangling in a future crisis, Poincaré was eager to transform the Triple Entente into a united front against Germany. The centerpiece of Poincaré's policy was the Three Year Service Law, which extended the service requirement for conscripts was extended from two years to three years.
For France, with its much smaller population, to field such an army required great sacrifice from the French people. While the Three Years Service Law supplied the French military with the manpower it needed to defy Germany, the law also gave the French High Command an intoxicating and unwarranted measure of confidence. The confrontations over Serbia and the Bosphorous left a mood a deep pessimism in their wake.
No one was more pessimistic than German Chief of Staff Helmuth von Moltke, or "sad Julius" as the kaiser called him. Such views resonated with the German public, judging from the popularity of the book Hour of Destiny (1914) by Colonel Frobenius.
Russia's military preparations had an even greater impact on Germany's sense of vulnerability than did those of France. Moltke, who had succeeded Schlieffen as chief of staff in 1906, took a worst case view of the threat his country faced and thus turned his fears into self-fulfilling prophesies.
In fact, the Three Years Service Law was highly unpopular in France and was therefore likely to be repealed at any time.
Although Wilhelm had waxed bombastic at the time of the Balkan Crisis, the mercurial monarch was soon in a more pacific mood. This Indian summer was cut short by the assassination of Austro-Hungarian Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914. The plot was amateurish in the extreme and succeeded only because the Franz Ferdinand, although heir apparent to the Habsburg throne, was traveling virtually without security. The archduke had few friends at court because of his venomous temper and because he had married a Czech countess in defiance of the emperor's wishes. The archduke's assassination was the first and only conspiracy that the seven plotters conducted together. Princip told investigators that the plot had been, "Born in our hearts." But the group did received arms and other assistance from the "Black Hand," a secret society of Serbian officers and a powerful faction in Serb politics. When arrested, Tankosic, a Black Hand member and Serbian army major, was asked why he provided Princip with weapons.
Over the next several weeks, the German government repeatedly prodded the Austro-Hungarians to take strong action quickly, before the outrage over Franz Ferdinand's murder subsided. The Russians began preliminary steps toward mobilization immediately after they learned of Vienna's ultimatum to Serbia.
The Serb reply, sent on July 25, took a conciliatory tone, but did not concede on the crucial point of allowing Habsburg security agents to enter Serbia.
When told of this latest turn of events, Franz Joseph's untranslatable response was, "Also doch" (literally "so indeed"). Berchtold withheld the Serb reply from Berlin for two days and did not even notify Germany when war was declared. Russia, convinced that its prestige could not withstand another Balkan climb down, publicly announced a partial mobilization on July 29 against Austria-Hungary alone. Russian military leaders had repeatedly promised the French that they would attack in East Prussia as quickly as possible if war ever broke out.


Later that afternoon, Tsar Nicholas received Foreign Minister Sazonov and General Tatistchev, his personal envoy to the German emperor. Nicholas vacillated for nearly an hour on the issue of whether to authorized a general mobilization. Upon learning of the Russian mobilization, Bethmann told the German ambassador in Vienna to withdraw his support for the British mediation proposal. Unaware of Bethmann's about face, Wilhelm continued to assure the British that their proposal had his support.
Following Schlieffen, the German military leaders took the "mobilization means war" credo literally.
Since Alsace-Lorraine was heavily fortified, the prospect of a French offensive should not have concerned the Germans unduly. Also on Aug 1, Germany declared war on Russia and demanded that France provide a guarantee of neutrality. In London, meanwhile, the British cabinet wrestled with the issue of how deeply their country should commit itself. As good Liberals, the cabinet ministers of 1914 looked for guidance to the behavior of the Gladstone government during Franco-Prussian War of 1870. Although Belgium had mobilized on July 31, the country was still confident that it could escape the clash of the great powers.
Although paper declarations of war had been issued earlier and a flotilla of Austro-Hungarian monitors had bombarded Belgrade on July 29, the crossing of the Belgian frontier marks the true beginning of World War I, the point of no return. Schlieffen emphasized the importance of a placing every available division on the right flank.
Whereas Schlieffen had proposed invading the Netherlands as well as Belgium, Moltke hoped to use Dutch neutrality as Germany's "windpipe" through Britain's anticipated naval blockade. But by steering clear of Dutch territory, the Germans denied themselves the use of the railways along the southern border of the Netherlands. At the beginning of the campaign the German and allied armies in the west were about equal in size.
Since the Belgians had destroyed their railway lines before retreating, the Germans were not able to keep their forces resupplied in the way the Schlieffen Plan anticipated. What saved the German army from being annihilated at the beginning of the war was that Joffre, the French commander, had a battle plan that was even less realistic than Schlieffen's.
Obsessed with recovering Alsace-Lorraine and convinced that the attacker always had the advantage, Joffre, following France's pre-war "Plan XVII," threw his forces into a suicidal offensive in Lorraine.
The irony is that if Plan XVII had been more successful, the Schlieffen Plan might actually have worked.
The German commanders in Lorraine were Crown Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria and Crown Prince Wilhelm of Germany. Rapid conquest on such a scale might have intoxicated another man, but it left Moltke as pessimistic as ever.
While Moltke teetered on the verge of a nervous breakdown, Joffre showed an admirable degree of calm in adversity. When Joffre finally decided make a stand on the Marne River, the Paris garrison was behind the German line.
If the original Schlieffen Plan had been followed there would have been a large German force west of Paris at the time of the Marne. Like the French, the Germans, too, imagined that retreat was the only logical response to a defeat. Entrenchment marked the end of the war of movement and the beginning of a long war of attrition. When the campaign was over, 90 percent of France's iron mines and 83 percent of its heavy industry was in German hands. It is never stated, but can be assumed, that Nirn's axial tilt is negligible, since days and nights remain more or less the same length throughout the year, even in the northern part of Skyrim. The planet has a notably large continent, Tamriel, which is where all of The Elder Scrolls activity take place, with another similarly large continent to the east, named Akavir.
The cold, barren land called Atmora is to the north of Tamriel, which is where the Nords of Tamriel hailed from. Also known as Dawn's Beauty in the language of the Altmer, Tamriel also has an archipelago of islands called the Summerset Isles, which became the home of the Altmer, or "High Elves", after they abandoned their original homeland of Aldmeris. Pyandonea is the island-continent located to the far south-west of Tamriel and home to the elusive Maormer. Thras, also known as the Coral Kingdom, has been a powerful, antagonizing power against the Summerset Isles since before recorded time. Atmora is (very) cold and dead, Yokuda is very hilly but apparently mostly under water now.
Please direct your feedback concerning the contents of this item to the author using the e-mail link below. Yet policies formulated by Bismarck in the 1870s ensured that Germany did face threats on both its eastern and western frontiers. But the treaty demonstrated that when push came to shove, Germany would choose Austria-Hungary over Russia. German nationalists would be outraged if the large ethnic German minority in this region was left outside the Reich.
The two dominant nationalities, the Germans (23 percent) and the Magyars (19 percent) were together only a minority of Austria-Hungary's population -- and even these two favored nationalities toyed with separatism. If an independent Poland was carved out of the Russian Empire, the ethnic Poles of eastern Germany would agitate to join such a state.
Although still overwhelmingly rural, Russia experienced a rapid industrialization starting around 1890. So Bismarck asked what Britain would do in the event of a conflict between Germany and Russia over the Balkans. Yet Britain was an ally of Italy at this time, and thus indirectly a German ally through the Triple Alliance. Frustrated by his inability to intervene effectively in the Anglo-Boer War (1897), Wilhelm threw his support behind the idea of a German naval buildup. Russia's defeat at the hands of the Japanese in 1905 eased British Russophobia and left Germany as Britain's primary rival. In this episode, it was revealed that Germany had secretly contracted to build two battleships ahead of the published schedule. A minor border dispute between Serbia and Albania provided the pretext for a Habsburg ultimatum to Serbia which was delivered in October 1913. It was projected that by 1917 French-financed improvements in the Russian railway system would allow Russia reduce the time required to mobilize its entire army from 30 days to 18 days. In March 1914, he told Franz Joseph, the Austrian emperor, that he no longer expected a general European war. French voters gave the new three-year conscription law a thumbs down by electing an anti-militarist, left-of-center majority to the Chamber of Deputies. When Franz Joseph had visited Sarajevo in 1910, hundreds of political suspects were imprisoned for the day and thousands of police were brought in. He was in Sarajevo to celebrate his fourteenth wedding anniversary as the emperor forbade him from appearing in public with his wife in Vienna. But Serbia was an ally of Russia and Austria-Hungary needed German support if it was to resist Russian pressure. This time, it wanted to make sure the terms of its ultimatum were harsh enough to ensure that Serbia would be forced to reject them.


When Franz Joseph read in the proposed declaration that the Serbs had already attacked Austro-Hungarian forces, he could not refuse to sign. So when Wilhelm in Berlin read the reply, he had no idea that war was already in progress, at least on paper. The Schlieffen Plan called for the German army to cross the border into Belgium within days after mobilization was declared. Grey, along with Prime Minister Asquith, regarded the entente with France as an alliance and wanted to back the French militarily as soon as German mobilization was announced.
They therefore resolved that, "A substantial violation of Belgian neutrality would compel us to take action" (Aug.
On August 2, Below, the German ambassador to Belgium, arrived at the office of Belgian Foreign Minister Davignon, pale and trembling. This portion of the army was assigned to capture the channel ports and to envelope Paris from the west and south. Of course, the Germans successfully used a similar plan in WWII, so perhaps the plan's unworkability is not immediately apparent. By the time the allies made a stand at the Marne, the Germans were nearly exhausted and running out of supplies.
Because French intelligence did not think that the Germans could use reserve divisions as combat formations, they underestimated German strength by a third.
If the Germans had retreated and ripped up the railway lines as they went, the main French force could have wound up stranded on the Rhine -- a WWI army that strayed more than 80 miles from the nearest railhead was a beached whale. Adolphe Messimy, the French war minister, understood that the French public would be outraged if Paris was abandoned without a fight.
Rather than leave themselves in this exposed position, the German commanders authorized a retreat.
However, all agree that the deity Lorkhan and the Eight Divines played pivotal roles in the creation of the waterlogged planet.[1][2][3] Two moons, Secunda and Masser, orbit Nirn. Certain areas in northern Tamriel, such as Skyrim and Solstheim, experience rare celestial weather called "Aurora". To the west of Tamriel lies Yokuda, which was the former homeland of the Redguards of Tamriel.
It is this extreme cold that caused the water of the Sea of Ghosts that borders Tamriel and Atmora to become icy. It is known that the continent is split into four warring kingdoms, each boasting its own race: Tang Mo, Kamal, Ka Po' Tun, and Tsaesci. The island consists of dense rain forests which provide shelter for the southern water spirits. Bismarck's annexation of Alsace-Lorraine after the Franco-Prussian War in 1871 created a France that seemed incorrigibly hostile, at least to German policymakers. If that occurred, the ethnic Germans of Austria-Hungary would asked to be annexed by Germany.
The British and French to began joint military planning in 1906, thus upgrading their entente into an informal alliance. The Germans claimed that the contracts were awarded early for economic reasons, but the British feared a stealth buildup.
Russia was outraged and Germany suddenly found itself in the midst of yet another diplomatic crisis, this time by accident. They began arguing for more explicit guarantees and shoring up potential allies in the Balkans. But while other European nations experienced dramatic population growth in the late 19th century, French growth for the period 1848-1914 was a paltry eleven percent. Such an improvement would undermine the basic assumption of Germany's secret war plan, known as the Schlieffen Plan. But the archduke's visit was organized by the military, so this time the civil authorities sulked. Foreign Minister Berchtold therefore send a note to Berlin stating that, Serbia "must be eliminated as a power factor in the Balkans." On July 5, Wilhelm responded by assuring Berchtold of his support. The purpose of this maneuver was to, "place the guilt of the outbreak of a European conflagration upon Russia's shoulders," as Bethmann wired to the German ambassador in Vienna.
French Premier Viviani instructed Paleacute;ologue on July 30 to ask that Russia to refrain from doing anything that might provoke Germany. Lichnowsky, the German ambassador to Britain, reported to Berlin on a conversation he had earlier that day with British Foreign Minister Sir Edward Grey. Speed of mobilization, the generals thought, was an advantage that Germany could not sacrifice.
France was in fact committed by secret treaty to come to Russia's defense in the event of an attack by Germany. But most of the British public, especially the portion which supported the ruling Liberal Party, wanted to stay out of a continental war if at all possible. Meanwhile, Messimy, who had saved Paris, had to resign as war minister and join up as an ordinary soldier.
This frozen land is also where the Nords of Skyrim are originally from, although not many trips back are made.
Due to its populace being Merrish, there is speculation that Pyandonea may in fact be part of Tamriel.
If you want to know that you have eternal life and be forgiven of all your sins please read this. In addition, his alliance with Austria-Hungary in 1879 ultimately led to a hostile Russia and thus to the Franco-Russian alliance. Bismarck certainly didn't want his Reich contaminated by any more of that, "putrid south German sentimentality," as he put it. The Anglo-Russian entente of 1907 created the "Triple Entente" consisting of Britain, France, and Russia.
The British were only too happy to sacrifice Serbian interests for the sake of European peace. If Viviani had given a guarantee of neutrality, the Germans would have demanded the forts of Toul and Verdun as security. Taylor put it, "The surprising thing in retrospect is that the Germans were allowed to succeed at all. Ferdinand Foch, author of the doctrine that the offensive always wins and a commander in the disastrous Lorraine offensive, would go on to become the overall allied commander.
These stars are holes or portals through Oblivion to Aetherius, and carry magical significance due to the beings which tore them open, the Magna Ge. It is unknown if these are the only continents, as there are very few maps or globes showing all of Nirn. The diversity of biomes is unique as the hot desert is bordered by cold mountains to the north. The Russians remained convinced that only by mobilizing quickly could they prove their worth as an ally. Below then read aloud an ultimatum demanding free passage for German troops through Belgium.
Since they both have very similar gravity, it must mean that only a very small part of Nirn has been mapped or that Nirn's composition is different from Earth's.



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